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Full text of "Sir Ferumbras"

VICTORIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 




This book is purchased from 

The Schofield Fund 

given in memory of 

William Henry Schofield 

Victoria College, B.A. 1889 

Harvard University, Ph. D. 1895 

Professor of Comparative Literature 

Harvard University, 1906-20. 

Harvard Exchange P rofessor at 

University of Berlin, 1907 

Lecturer at the Sorbonne and 

University of Copenhagen, 1910. 

Harvard Exchange Professor at 

Western Colleges, 1918. 



Sir Jftrumlrras. 



ies. No. xxxir. 
1879, 



BERLIN : ASHEE & CO., 13, UNTEE DEN LINDEN. 

NEW YOKE: C. SCRIBNER & CO.; LEYPOLDT & HOLT. 

PHILADELPHIA : J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO. 



THE 



ENGLISH CHARLEMAGNE ROMANCES. 



PART I. 




r 





EDITED FEOM THE UNIQUE PAPEE MS. ABOUT 1380 A.D., IN THE 
BODLEIAN LIBEAEY (ASHMOLE MS. 33) 



BY 



SIDNEY J. HERRTAGE, B.A., 

EDITOR OF THE " OESTA ROMANORUM," " STARJET'S LIFE AND LETTERS," ETC. 



LONDON : 

PUBLISHED FOE THE EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY 

BY KEGAN PAUL, TKENCH, TRUBNEE & CO., LIMITED, 

DRYDEN HOUSE, 43, GERRARD STREET, SOHO, W. 

MDCCCLXXIX. 



[Reprinted 1903.} 



19 

.5 
o. 



Z2-I-31 



es, No. xxxiv. 



B. CLAY & SONS, LIMITED, LONDON & BUNGAY. 



INTRODUCTION. 



1. Popularity of the romance, a.s shown 

by numerous editions, p. v. 
2. Cantoris "fyf of Charles the gretef 

p. viii. 
3. Ferumbras an enlarged, portion of a 

previous romance, p. xi. 
4. English MSS. of the Charlemagne 

Romances, p. xii. 



5. Description of the Ashmole MS. 33, 
p. xiv. 

6. Characters of the romance, p. xvii. 

7. Its versification, p. xviii. 

8. Its Dialectal and Grammatical peculi- 
arities, p. xviii. 

9. Conclusion, p. xxvii. 



1. IN the present Introduction I do not propose to enter into the general 
question of the Origin and History of the Charlemagne Romances, but to 
confine myself to the one with which we are immediately concerned. 

Of all these romances none attained to so high a pitch of popularity 
as that, the present version of which is now for the first time published. 
MM. Krceber and G. Servois, the editors of the old French version (from 
which the present is a translation), in their introduction say : " Des le xii me 
siecle probablement, et pour sur au siecle suivant, la chanson de Fierabras 
etait chantee en proveiigal et en fra^ais, au midi et au nord de la France. 
Elle a ete de bonne heure traduite ou imitee dans presque toutes les langues 
de 1'Europe, et n'a cesse chez nous d'etre rajeunie et reproduite dans les 
versions en prose qui en ont ete publiees depuis le xv e siecle jusqu'a 
nos jours." 1 

Of the Eomance of Fierabras two versions exist, the one Provengal, 2 
the other French, the former of which, in the opinion of MM. Kroeber and 
Servois, was a translation from a French original now lost. Of the French 

1 "Fierabras, Chanson de Geste," Paris, 1860, 8. p. ii. 

2 Published by Herr Bekker, with the title, " Der Roman von Ferabras provenzalisch, 
herausgeg. von Herr Bekker," Berlin, 1829, 4 e . It consists of 5084 lines. 



VI INTRODUCTION. 

version five M&S. are known to exist, two belonging to the XIV, and two to 
the XV century. 1 

Previous to 1860, the poetical version of Fierabras had never been 
printed, but there had been numerous editions of the prose romance. A 
full account of these will be found in Brunet's Manuel du Libraire, s.v.v. 
Conqueste and Fierabras, and I shall therefore confine myself to a notice of 
the most remarkable of these editions. 

The first prose version was published in 1478, at Geneva, with the title, 
"Le Koman de Fier a bras, le geant," and the colophon, " Imprime a 
Geneve Tan de grace mil cccc.lxxviij. le xxviij e iour de Nouembre." It is 
in folio, Gothic letters, and consists of 115 leaves, with no pagination. 

In the Grenville Library in the British Museum, Nos. 10,531, and 10,532 
are two copies. 

The first, entitled, "Fierabras, Roman par Henry Bolomier," which 
is the copy mentioned by Brunet, N. R. II. p. 231, as incorrectly described 
in the Catalogue of Vander Velde, commences with the prologue Saint Pol 
docteur de Verite, which, with Table of Chapters, occupies five leaves. The 
text begins on leaf 6, and finishes on 110 back, with the colophon 
"Explicit Fierabras, par Symon du Jardin a Geneve." It is in folio and 
undated. 

The work is divided into three Books, the second of which contains 

1 The editors of Fierabras only mention four, but one has since been discovered in 
the Municipal Library of Hanover. (See p. xiv. below.) Of these only one is in the 
British Museum, viz. MS. Eeg. 15. E. vi. This magnificent MS., which is in a state of 
perfect preservation, forms an enormous folio volume, on vellum, written in double 
columns in the 15th century. It contains 487 folios, besides 5 folios at the beginning, of 
which one is blank. The first has, on the back, a table of the contents of the volume. 
The second contains, on the back, a superb miniature, representing John Talbot, Earl of 
Shrewsbury, who died in 1458, on his knees, presenting this volume to Margaret of 
Anjou, queen of Henry VI, who is seated beside her husband on a kind of bed, in a 
chamber of which the tapestry bears everywhere the arms of England and France 
quartered. Behind the queen are two ladies, and behind the king a great number of 
men, Above is a dedication in verse. 

The third leaf contains a pedigree of Henry VI. This leaf, as well as the preceding, 
is ornamented with the armorial bearings of John Talbot, and of Henry VI. and his queen 
quartered. The back of the fifth folio is entirely occupied by a large miniature, repre- 
senting le Chastel du Chaire, la Cite de Bcbbiloine, Neetanebz seigneur ftEgipte, pere 
Alioeandre, lejardin du Baulme, and les moulins de Babiloine. 

The volume contains a large number of Romances in prose and verse. Fierabras begins 
on If. 66, and ends on If. 81, with the colophon, Cy fine le iUjme Ifare Charlcmaine, and is 
followed by Le livre de Oger Le Dannemarche, which begins on leaf 82, under a minia- 
ture representing Ogier breaking Chariot's head with a chess-board. The last piece but 
one is Le Here desfais d'armes et de chevalerie, translated and printed by Caxton in 1490. 



EDITIONS OF THE FRENCH PROSE ROMANCE. Vll 

the whole of the romance of Sir Ferumbras. This is subdivided into 3 parts, 
the first containing 16 chapters, and extending from the appearance of 
Ferumbras before Charles' camp to the capture of Oliver : the second 
extends to immediately before the starting of Eichard of Normandy on his 
message to Charles from the besieged knights ; and the third ends with the 
wedding of Guy and Floripas. The fight between Roland and Ferragus occurs 
in Book III. part i. chapt. 12. It agrees throughout with the French version 
as printed by MM. Kroeber and Servois. 

The heading to Book II. runs as follows : " La premiere partie du second 
liiire cowtient XVI chapitres, et parle de la bataille faicte par oliuier & 
fierabras ung merueilleux geant," and it is taken, we are told, from a "rommant 
fait a lancienne fa$on sans grand ordonnance dont iay este insite a le reduire 
en prose par chapitres ordonnez," and has been turned from " la rime anciewne 
en prose." 

The first and third parts are taken from Vincent de Beauvais, Speculum 
Historiale. (See quotation from Caxton's translation below.) 

The second copy in the Grenville Library, 10532, has the colophon : "Cy 
finist Fierabras imprime a lyon Ian de grace mil quattre cens quatre vingtz et 
seize, Le xx jour de novembre." It consists of 65 leaves, in folio. 

In the Royal Library, British Museum (press-mark c 6 b. 12), is a copy 
without title-page, with the colophon, "Cy finist Fierabras. Imprime a 
genesue Par maistre Loys Garbin bourgois de la dicte cite. Lan mil cccc.lxxxiij. 
et Le. xiij. iour de moys de Mars. Deo gracias. Amen." Folio, 115 leaves. 
On the back of Ai is a large woodcut representing Fierabras, and another 
large one on 05, representing Charlemagne. Smaller cuts are interspersed 
in the text. The preface is on A ij, the Index begins on A ij back, and the 
text on Avj. It corresponds throughout with the Grenville copy, No. 10,532. 

A prose edition in German is also in the British Museum (Press-mark 
837, 1. 21), printed by Iheronimus Rodler, at Siemern, 2 May, 1533. Folio : 
53 leaves without pagination. It is interspersed with large woodcuts. This 
edition was reprinted in 1809. 

In the same Library are also three editions of a work entitled " Historia 
del Emperador Carlo Magno, en la qual se trata de las grandes proezas y 
Nazanas de los doce Pares de Francia, y de como Fueron vendidos por el 
traydor Ganalon : y de la cruda batalla, que hubo Oliveros Con Fierabras, 
Rey de Alexandria. Traducido del Frances al Castellano" Por Nicolas de 



V.U1 INTRODUCTION. 

Piamonte. First edition, 1528. Reprinted, Cordova, 1649, 4.; 170Q, 8.; 
1777, 8. This work is in reality a literal translation of the second part of 
the French prose romance, and corresponds exactly with our version. 

Italy early adopted the Romance, and towards the close of the XV 
century was published a poetical version in that language, entitled, "El 
cantare di Fierdbraccia et Olivieri" 

2. In 1485 Caxton printed his "Lyf of the Noble and Crysten Prynce, 
Charles the Grete," which is simply a translation of the French Prose Romance 
of Fierabras already referred to. The following is his rendering of the 
Prologue of the French versions : 

1 " Ol Aynt P u l doctour of veryte sayth to vs that al thynges that ben reduced 
j^ by wrytyng / ben wryton to our doctryne / And Boece maketh mencion 
^-^ that the helthe of euery persone procedeth dyuercely / Thenne sythe it 
is soo that the cristen f eyth is affermed? and corrobered? by the doctours of holy 
chyrche / Neuertheles the thynges passed! dyuersley reduced! to remembraunce / 
engendre in vs correction of vnlauful lyf. For the werkes of the auncient 
and' olde peple ben for to gyue to vs ensauraple to lyue in good? & vertuous 
operacions digne & worthy of helth in folowyng the good? / and eschewyng 1 
the euyl. And? also in recountyng* of hye hy story es / the. cormme vnderstond- 
yng 1 is better content to the ymagnacion local than to syrnple auctoryte / to 
which it is submysed? / I saye this gladly / For oftymes I haue been excyted? 
of the venerable man messire henry bolomyer chanowne of lausa^ne for to 
reduce for his playsyr somme hystoryes as wel in latyn & in romau^ce as in 
other facion wryton / that is to say of the ryght puyssaunt / vertuous / and? 
noble charles the grete / kyng of frazmce and? emperour of Rome / Sone of the 
grete Pepyn / And of his prynces & barons / As Rolland* Olyuer / and? other / 
touchyng 12 somme werkes haultayne doon & coramysed by their grete strength 
& ryght ardaunt courage / to the exaltacyon of the crysten fayth and? to the 
confusyon of the hethen sarazyns and? rnyscreaunts whiche is a werk wel 
contemplatyf to to lyue wel / And bycause the sayd? henry Bolomyer hath 
seen of thys mater / and the hystoryes dysioyned? wythoute ordre / therfore 
at his request after the capacyte of my lytel entendement / And after thy- 
storyes and* mater that I haue founden I haue ordeyned* this book folowyng 1 / 
And it myght soo haue ben that yf I had' ben more largely enformed' and 
al playn I had' letter made it / For .1 haue not sayd ony matere / but I haue 
therof ben enformed? / Fyrst by an autentyke book named myrrour hystoryal / 
as by the canorcnes am$ somme other bookes whiche make mencyon of the 
werke folowyng 1 / And by cause I may haue a lytel parte of honourable 
fouwdemeftt I shal touche of the first cristen kyng of fraimce. For the 
moste parte of this book is made to thonour of the frewssh men / and* for 
proufFyte of euery man / and after the desyre of the redar and? herer / there 
shalle be founden in the table all playne the mater of whyche the persone 

1 sign. A ij. 2 col. 2. 



CAXTON'S LTF OF CHARLES THE CRETE. ix 

shal haue desyre to here or rede / wythoute grete ate[n]dacyon / by 1 the playsyr 
of god? to whome I submytte al myn entente to write no thyng 1 that ought to 
be blamed 1 / ne but that it be to the helthe & sauacion of euery persone /" 

This is followed immediately by .Caxton's own prologue, as follows : 

" rjlHenne for as moche I late had? fynysshed? in enprynte the book of the 
JL noble & vyctoryous kyng 1 Arthur fyrst of the thre moost noble & worthy 
of crysten kynges / and? also tofore had reduced into englisshe the noble 
hystorye & lyf of Godefroy of boloyn kyng 1 of Iherusalem / last of the said 2 
iij worthy Somme persones of noble estate an (5- degree haue desyred? me to 
reduce thy story e and 4 lyf of the noble and' crysten prynce Charles the grcte 
kyng of fraunce 2 & emperour of Rome / the second 1 of the thre worthy / to 
thende that thystoryes / actes / & lyues may be had* in our maternal tongue 
lyke as they be in latyn or in frensshe / For the moost quantyte of the 
people vnderstonde not latyn ne frensshe here in this noble royame of 
englond / And for to satysfye the desyre & requeste of my good? synguler 
lordes & specyal maysters and* frendes I haue enprysed? and? concluded in my 
self to reduce this sayd? book in to our englysshe / as all alonge and* playnely 
ye may rede / here / and? see in thys book 3 here folowyng / besechyng al them 
that shal fynde faute in the same to correcte and? amende it / And also to 
pardone me of the rude & symple reducyng 1 / and 1 though so be there be no 
gaye termes / ne subtyl ne newe eloquence / .yet I hope that it shal be 
vnderstonden & to tnat entente I haue specyally reduced* it / after the 
symple connyng 1 that god hath lente to me / wherof I humbly & wyth al 
my herte thanke hym / & also am bounden to praye for my fader and? 
moders soules / that in my youthe sette me to scole / by whyche by the 
sufferance of god I gete my lyuyng 1 I hope truly And? that I may so do & 
contynue I byseche hym to grauwte me of his grace / and* so to laboure and? 
occupye my self vertuously that I may come out of dette & dedely synne / 
that after this lyf I may come to hys blysse in heuen. AMEK" 

The text concludes with the following epilogue 4 : 

" IT And* by cause I Wylliam Caxton was desyred & requyred by a good? 
and synguler frend of myn / Maister wylliam dau 5 beney one of the tresorers of 
the lewellys of the noble & moost crysten kyng 1 / our naturel and? souerayn 
lord* late of noble memorye kyng Edward the fourth on whos soule Ihesu haue 
mercy To reduce al these sayd* hystoryes in to our Englysshe tongue I haue 
put me in deuoyr to translate thys sayd? book as ye heretofore may se al a 
longe and* pl[a]yn / prayeng 1 alle them that shal rede / see or here it / to pardon 
me of thys symple & rude trans[l]acyon and* reducyng 1 / bysechyng 1 theym that 
shal fynde faute to correcte it / & in so doyng they shal deserue thankynges / 
& I shal praye god* for them / who brynge them and me after this short and 
transytorye lyf to euerlastyng 1 blysse. Amen / the whyche werke was 
fynysshed' in the reducyng of hit in to Englysshe the xviij day of luyn the 

1 sign. A ij, back. 2 Ed. frauuce. 3 col. 2. 

4 sign. M vij, back, col. 1. 3 col. 2, 



X INTRODUCTION. 

second? yere of kyng 1 Ey chard! the thyrd? / And? the yere of our lore? 
MCCCClxxxv / And 4 enprynted* the fyrst day of decembre the same of our 
lord? & the fyrst yere of kyng Harry the seuenth / 

IT Explicit per William Caxton." 

On Sign. M. vij we read " it is so that at the requeste of the sayd* venerable 
man tofore named? Maister henry bolonnyer chanoune of lausanne I haue been 
Incyted? to translate & reduce into Frensshe the mater tofore reduced', as 
moche as toucheth the fyrst & the thyrd 1 book / I haue taken & drawen oute 
of a book named? myrrour hystoryal for the moost parte / & the second? book I 
haue onely reduced it out of an olde romauwce in frensshe " In the " Table " 
we are told that " The fyrst book spekyth of the begynnyng of fraunce / and 
of the fyrst crysten kyng of fraunce / whyche was named Cloys." ..." The 
second book spekith of the batayle that Olyuer dyd ayenst Fyerabras the mer- 
uayllous geaunte." . . . " The iij book speketh how by reuelacyon of saynt 
lames Charles went and conquerd Spayne and Galyce . . . and fynally of the 
trayson of Ganellon by the whyche the deth of Eolland was pyetous / the deth 
of Oliuer dolorouse and fynably the deth of Charles themperour." 

The only existing copy at present known is in the King's Library, British 
Museum (Press-mark C. lOb. 9). It is perfect, and consists of 96 folio leaves 
in double columns, 39 lines to a column. There is no title-page. 

The present romance was particularly popular in Spain. The Historia del 
Emperador Carlomagno contains, in addition to the events related in 'Fierabras,' 
also the combat between Ferragus and Eoland, and an account of the fatal day 
of Eoncesvalles.' 2 Piamonte's work has been several times reprinted, and two 
editions in Portuguese were published in the last and present centuries. 3 To 
it doubtless Cervantes was indebted for many of his allusions, and it was it 
which he represents as having been in the library of Don Quixote, and burnt 
by order of the priest and the barber. 4 In 1635 Calderon wrote his drama 
'La Puente de Mantible,' 5 which is founded on a portion of our romance. 

The Welsh version of the 'Gests of Charlemagne,' 6 lately published, does 
not contain our romance, but is a translation of Turpin's life of Charlemagne, 
as is also the Irish version in the " Book of Lismore," the property of the 
Duke of Devonshire. 7 

1 sign. M. vij, back. 

2 See Ticknor, History of Spanish Literature, 1849, I. 222. 

* ' Fierabras,' ed. MM. Kroeber and G. Servois, introd. p. xvi. 

4 See Skelton's ed. of ' Don Quixote,' 1652, Bk. I. Pt. 4, chapt. xxii. p. 130. 

5 In this spelling he follows the practice of Piamonte in his Historia. 

6 'Campeu Charlymaen,' being the Gests of Charlemagne, fcc., ed. from the Hengwrt 
MSS. by the Kev. K. Williams, 1878 (privately printed). 

7 See the Academy, May 22nd, 1875. 



FIERABRAS A PORTION OF AN EARLIER ROMANCE. XI 

The earliest known mention of any romance on the subject is in a deed of 
the xiv century, by which Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, bequeathed 
his library to the Abbey of Bordesley, in the county of Warwick, in the 
catalogue of which we find a Volum del romance des marescliaus et de Fierabras 
de Alisaundre, and probably is the same which is referred to in the catalogue 
of the library of the Castle of Montauban, in France, taken in 1507 : 

" Item, vng libre en romans dit Mellusina. 
Item, ung autre libre en romans dit Fierbras." 1 

3. M. Gaston Paris in 1865 pointed out that 'Fierabras' was in reality 
but a portion of an earlier Romance, considerably amplified and re-handled. 
Of this earlier poem, only known from the short analysis of it by Philippe 
Mousket (v. 4666 et seq.), the following summary is given by M. Paris: 2 
" Puis Rome fut prise par force, et toute la population mise a mort, le pape 
tue, Chateau-Miroir pris, et toute la ville brulee. Le due Garin et les siens 
entrerent en Chateau-Croissant ; car les Sarrasins, Turcs et Persans, avaient 
amen trop de monde et de Syrie et d'Espagne. Les chretiens desesperes en- 
voyerent demander secours au bon roi Charlemagne, qui tenait sa cour en- 
France. Le roi leur envoya Gui de Bourgogne . . ., et Richard de Normandie. 
Us reprirent le Miroir ; le due Garin, qui tenait Pavie et avait conserve" 
Chateau-Croissant, prit aussi part a la bataille. Charles arriva lui-meme, 

amenant ses troupes rassemble"es de maint pays il se dirigea vers Rome 

et fit grand mal aux paiens. C'est alors qu' Olivier combattit 1'orgueilleux 
Fierabras ; il le vainquit et reconquit les deux barils que celui-ci avait pris a 
Rome; il les jeta dans le Tibre, afin que personne ne put plus boire du 
baume qu'ils contenaient ; c'etait celui-la meme dont Jesus-Christ fut embaume". 
Enfin tous les paiens furent tue"s et les chretiens reprirent Rome ; on fit un autre 
pape, et Charles revint en France, louant Dieu et saint Pierre." 

There are numerous passages in ' Fierabras' pointing to a preceding romance : 
thus at the very start we are introduced at once in mediae res in a manner 
which seems to show that the author takes it as granted that his readers are 
well acquainted with the events which he so rapidly describes 3 the opening 
lines being in point of fact a brief resume of the poem summarized as above by 
M. Gaston Paris under the name of ' Balan.' Again, 11. 2241 2246 4 are also 
palpable references to events previously described. 

1 ' Fierabras,' ed. MM. Kroeber and Servois, introd. p. xxii. 

2 Histoire Poetique de Charlemagne, pp. 251-2. 3 Histoire Poetique, p. 251. 
4 Corresponding with 11. 14121420, and 20762084 of ' Sir Ferumbras.' 



Xll INTRODUCTION. 

The author of ' Fierabras ' has, however, considerably modified his original 
to suit the altered taste of the time, has transported the scene of action to 
Spain, 1 and has substituted for the simple and matter-of-fact ending of the 
earlier poem one much more romantic. From these facts, and the absence of 
any reference to it by any author earlier than the xiv century, as well as 
from the frequent allusions to other works found in it, M. Gaston Paris has 
come to the conclusion that 'Fierabras' is a comparatively modem pro- 
duction, and he thinks it probable that it was composed in the interest of the 
monks, in order to draw attention to the relics preserved at the Abbey of Saint 
Denis. 

These allusions to a pre-existing Romance are not, of course, so evident in 
' Sir Ferumbras.' The first leaf of the Ashmole MS. being lost, we cannot say 
how the English translator rendered the introductory lines, and his words at 
1. 65 in reference to the sacred relics " of wham y tolde ^ow of eer," may only 
refer to his mention of them in his (now lost) introduction. Lines 1412 
1420, and 2076 2084, however, as already stated, clearly refer to a story 
already told, as do also 11. 3193-4. 

But since the publication of M. Paris' exhaustive work, there has been 
found in the Municipal Library of Hanover a unique copy of a Romance 
with the title of ' La Destruction de Rome,' which represents the first part 
of the Romance of < Balan ' alluded to above. This poem, which consists of 
1507 lines, contains the account of the capture of Rome by Balan, the slaughter 
of the Christians, and the seizure by Ferumbras of the holy relics. 2 

4. I now come to the consideration of the English MSS. of the 
Romances. 

It is not a little remarkable, considering the great popularity of the 
subject, a popularity clearly proved by the frequent allusions in other 
works, 3 that so few English versions of the Charlemagne Romances should 

1 M. Gaston Paris points out a curious instance of forgetfulness on the part of the 
author of 'Fierabras,' which, in itself, is a strong proof of the source of the poem. 
Mousket in his analysis of ' Balau ' says that Oliver threw the two larils containing the 
sacred ointment into the Tiber, and so in ' Fierabras ' the author, forgetting that he had 
shifted the scene to Spain, says (1. 104'J) " Pres f u du far de Home ses a dedans jetes." 
Histoire Poctique, p. 252. 

2 Published by M. G. Grceber, in Romania, Reciieil Trimestre, consacrt a Tetudc 
des langues et des litteratures Hitmane*, odd. MM. Paul Meyer and Gaston Paris, 
January 1873, pp. 148. It was composed in England towards the end of the 14th 
century. 

3 For references to the Charlemagne Romances generally, see the Gw*or Mundl, cd. 



THE ENGLISH CHARLEMAGNE ROMANCE. xiii 

exist, and that those which do survive are each unique. 1 This last word perhaps 
calls for a few words of explanation. Mr J. Shelly, in his analysis of the 
English MSS. of the Charlemagne Eomances, 2 writes as follows : " Ferumbras. 
We have two versions of this romance : one of them the Farmer MS. analyzed 
by Ellis, and now in the library of Sir Thomas Phillipps \ the other a fragment 
of great length [Ashm. 33], which will shortly be printed by the Early English 
Text Society. They both belong probably to the end of the fourteenth 
century. The original of the romance is the French ' Fierabras.' " 

Now this I believe to be likely to mislead. The two poems appear to me 
to be essentially different works : the ' Sowdone ' being a translation of a MS. 
of the poem, analyzed by M. Gaston Paris, and already referred to, under the 
name of ' Balan :' while ' Sir Ferumbras ' is, as has before been stated, a transla- 
tion of the French ' Fierabras,' itself an enlarged and greatly modified version 
of the second part only of that poem. What Mr Shelly refers to as the " long 
introductory account " is, in point of fact, only a condensed reproduction of 
the ' Destruction of Eome,' which, as I have said, represents the first portion 
of 'Balan.' 

To point out all the differences between ' Sowdone ' and the present poem 
would take up too much space, besides being unnecessary, as the former will 

Morris, 11. 15, 16 ; Richard, Cceur de Lion, prologue ; and others mentioned by Warton, 
Hist. Eng. Poetry, ed. Hazlitt, II. 122, 125. And for direct references in other authors 
to Sir Ferumbras, see notes to 11. 511, 1109 below; Ellis, Metrical Romances, II. 369; 
Pinkerton, Ancient Scotish, Poetry, I. 195, ed. 1792. 

1 The following are all which are at present known to exist : 

1. 'Eoland and Vernagu.' 

2. ' Sir Otuel.' 

(These two are in the Auchinlech MS., the date of which is 1330, and have been 
analyzed by Ellis, Met. Romances, II. 283, the first under the title of 'Roland and 
Ferragus,' and the second from a more complete version in a MS. belonging to W. 
Fillingham, Esq. They were both published by the Abbotsford Club in 1836.) 

3. The Song of Roland.' 

(A fragment of about 1000 lines preserved in Lansdowne .MS. 388, leaf 384. Extracts 
and an analysis of this fragment from the pen of the late Mr T. Wright will be found hi 
the Chanson de Roland, ed. M. Fran. Michel, Paris, 1837.) 

4. ' The Sowdoue of Babyloyne.' 

(Edited for the Roxburghe Club in 1854 from the MS. now in the Library of Sir T. 
Phillipps, at Middlehill, and analyzed by Ellis, II. 369, under the title of the Farmer MS.) 

5. ' Sir Ferumbras.' 

(The romance here printed. As all these romances will shortly be published Iby the 
E. E. T. S., it is unnecessary to describe them more in detail. I don't know whether I 
ought not to add that most amusing poem of " Rauf Coibear," now being edited for the 
E. E. T. S., by Dr J. A. H. Murray.) 

2 Warton, Hist, of English Poetry, II. 197-8. 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

shortly be edited by Dr Hausknecht for the Early English Text Society, but I 
may mention a couple of important instances. 

In the ' Sowdone ; Roland is captured by the Saracens at the same time 
as Oliver, and both on being conducted before Lavan (Balan) at once avow 
their identity. It will be at once seen how greatly this alters a portion of the 
story as told in our poem. 

Again, the names of the "dou^eperes" do not agree. In fact, in the 
' Sowdone ' no less than 1 6 names are first given, and to these 1 1 more are 
subsequently added. (See note to 1. 259 of the present volume.) 

Moreover, in the ' Sowdone ' the narration of the same events which in the 
Ashmole MS. occupy nearly 6000 lines, is compressed into 2224 lines (excluding 
the 1050 lines of the account of the taking of Rome), and as the lines in the 
' Sowdone ' are but half the length of those in Sir Ferumbras, as here printed, 
we see that the proportion between the two poems is over 5 to 1. 

It is impossible to believe that two authors could have so treated the same 
MS. in so essentially different a manner. But the difficulty vanishes if we 
assume, as I think is clear, that the ' Sowdone ' represents the original poem 
of ' Balan,' while Sir Ferumbras represents only a portion of it. 1 

The version here printed is clearly a translation of a MS. of the same type 
as the Fierabras, edited by MM. Kroeber and Servois. The author has 
followed his original closely, so far as relates to the course of events, but at 
the same time he has translated it freely, introducing several slight incidents 
and modifications, which help to enliven and improve the poem. That he 
has not translated his original literally is shown by the fact that the French 
version consists of only 6219 lines, or, allowing for the missing portion of the 
Ashmole MS., not much more than one-half the number of lines in the latter, 
and that too, although he has cut down the account of the duel between 
Oliver and Ferumbras from 1500 to 800 lines, by leaving out Oliver's attempts 
at converting the Saracen, Charlemagne's prayers, &c. 

5. I will now proceed to give an account of the MS. from which this 

1 In the Hanover MS., which contains the * Destruction of Kome/ that romance is 
followed directly by a version of Fierabras, with the colophon " Ici est li finemant de 
1'estoire de Fierenbras d'Alisandre et del bone roy Charles." Of this poem M. Groeber 
does not give any account, and I was in hopes that on examination it would be found to 
be of the same type as the MS. from which the ' Sowdone ' was translated, but M. Gaston 
Paris informs me that it is the same as the printed text, differing only in Blight varia- 
tions of readings. He agrees, however, that the " Sowdone " is founded on a MS. similar 
to the Hanover one. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ASHMOLE MS. OF SIR FERUMBRAS. XV 

Eomance has been printed. It is unfortunately imperfect, but, judging from 
the proportion between the French ' Fierabras ' and it, I do not believe that 
more than one leaf has been lost from the beginning and perhaps three from 
the end. The missing lines have been supplied from the French version. 

The Ashmole MS. 33, preserved in the Bodleian Library, is an octavo 
volume, consisting of 77 leaves of coarse, thick paper. The ink used by the 
writer was very bad, and in many places so completely has it faded that it is 
only in a strong sun-light that it is at all possible to decipher the words. 
The MS. has been fully described by Mr Black in his Catalogue of the 
Ashmolean MSS. col. 14, and I cannot do better than quote his account, 
which has been verified by Mr Henry Sweet, of Balliol Coll., Oxford. Mr 
Black says : 

"The book is not more curious than its antient covers, which are now 
preserved in a case with it. They are a triple invelope of parchment napping 
over the right hand cover, and consist of 2 sheets. The outer one is a letter 
executory of a bull of pope Innocent VI for the presentation of Thomas de 
Silton to the vicarage of Columpton, in the diocese of Exeter, then vacant by 
the death of Peter Moleyns ; which bull, being addressed to the Abbots of 
Schirbourne and Cerne, and to John de Silvis, dean of S. Agricola at Avignon, 
was executed (by the last named) in the present letter addressed to the Bishop 
of Exeter. The foot, containing the date, is cut off; but the bull is dated at 
Villa-nova, 3 id Maij, anno 5, which is 1357. 

" The inner cover is a very long and imperfect [latin] instrument, stating 
that before mass on the 7th Sunday after Trinity, in 1377, in the chapel of 
Holne, in the diocese of Exeter, Eoger Langeman, rector Lydelynche (dioc. 
Schirb.), publicly read and expounded an instrument which cites the proceedings 
and final sentence in the Court of Kome in consequence of the consecration of a 
burial-ground adjoining the said chapel, which was prejudicial to the rights 
of John Brygge, the Vicar of Buckfastleghe, to whose parish church the right 
of burial belonged, the said chapel being a member thereof. [But] these 
covers are most remarkable for having preserved a curiosity not equalled in any 
collection of MSS., and that for antiquity is unique of its kind, namely, a part 
of the author's original corrected draught of this poem [of ' Ferumbras '] written 
on the back of the documents already described. Thus the lines [in tho 
draught] 

" ' As Charles stod by chance at conseil with his feris 
Whiche J>at wern of f ranee his o}ene do^epers.' 

are read at the foot of fol. 3 [11. 258-9 of the corrected copy] 

" ' As Charlys was in his greuance stondyng among his feren 
And cowisailede with J?e grete of fraunce and with ys do^eperen. ' 

" The inner cover is folded double ; and the draught, being written on the 
inner side, has been kept free from dust, though it is much worn at the edges 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

and folds. The sheet contains four large columns of text, each equal to 2 
pages of the MS. ; half of the breadth of the fourth column was cut off to 
reduce the flap to a convenient width." 

I may add to what Black says that the draft and the MS. are in the same 
handwriting, and that the handwriting is evidently, in the opinion of Mr Sweet, 
of the same character and period as that of the second document described 
as forming part of the cover, which is of the end of the fourteenth century. 
The draft is only of the earlier part of the poem, and contains numerous 
corrections. 1 The latter part of the poem itself is much corrected in the same 
handwriting, and was possibly written off at once, and not copied from a 
previous draft. Black concludes from the facts he mentions, that " the author 
[of the poem] was a clergyman, lived in the diocese of Exeter (probably in that 
city), and composed his work shortly after 1377, or early in the reign of 
Eichard II. Mr Furnivall suggests to me, however, that the facts lead to a 
very different conclusion, viz., " that the author was not a man who cared 
much for bulls or Exeter diocese, and had no hesitation in using up for his 
poem documents that a Devonshire man would have valued and kept 
unharmed." I am inclined, however, to believe that Black is probably right. 
It is not likely that these documents would have wandered out of the diocese 
of Exeter, where their most likely place of deposit was the cathedral city, so 
soon after their date as the time when this draft of the poem was apparently 
written upon them. The documents are not such as were likely to be very 
carefully preserved, and we must remember that at that time there was no 
antiquarian interest attaching to them. From internal evidence I should be 
inclined to suppose that the author of the poem was a clergyman, and for the 
reasons I have given I think it is most likely that he lived at Exeter. 

The date of the action of the poem is fixed by 11. 304-5, where we learn 
that the events related occurred three years before the battle of Koncesvalles, 
and the treachery and consequent death of Gwenelon, which took place in 
A.D. 778, and are narrated in the ' Song of Eoland : ' 

" tray tours wern hee. 

As ^e schul huren after ]?ys i or passede ^eres three, 
\}&,y be-traiede j?e kyng & his." 2 

1 The corrections' throughout are given in the footnotes, the square brackets showing 
the words erased, and the text showing the corrected form of each line. 

2 The author of ' Sir Ferumbras ' has gone out of his way to give the date of the poem 
wrongly, for 11. 48694871, in which he says 



THE CHARACTERS OF THE POEM. XV11 

6. The character of Eoland is throughout most admirably and consistently 
drawn. Everywhere we find him the same reckless headstrong fellow, whether 
it be in the battle-field or in delivering his message to Balan. He is far the 
most important personage in the poem, and it certainly seems a misnomer to 
call it after Ferumbras, whose actions fill only about one-fifth of the whole 
poem. The title having, however, been already given to the romance, it has 
not been considered expedient now to alter it. 

Oliver is the next most important character. As he himself says, he " ys 
no$t so good " as Roland, but he " ys a man he^ of mod Sarasyn$ to yule 
arraye." He has not the daring nor the high spirit of Roland, and when he 
finds himself in captivity, with no probable hope of relief, his courage 
gives way. 

Ferumbras nimself after his duel with Oliver disappears from the scene, 
and does not appear again till close to the end of the poem. At his first 
appearance he conducts himself like a conceited bully, and his abject appeals 
for mercy when defeated do not tend to raise our estimation of him. 

Of the remaining characters of the poem it is unnecessary to speak, with 
one important exception, Floripas, the handsome but certainly undutiful 
daughter of the Emir. From first to last she is consistently exhibited to us as 
an exceedingly strong-minded young lady, determined to have her own way, 
whatever the cost may be : her murders of Britomart and her governess are 
equalled only by her conduct towards her father in the closing scene of the 
poem. But yet at times the naturally soft disposition of the woman shows 
itself; as, for instance, when the French knights return to the castle after 
their sally against the Saracens, with the tidings of her lover's capture, and we 
cannot help admiring the daring of the woman who is never at a loss for an 
expedient, and who always effects her purpose, though without the slightest 
consideration as to the means adopted. 

The origin of the name Ferumbras, which is only a corruption of the 
French Fierabras, is fully discussed in MM. Krceber and Servois' edition, 
pp. xi, xii, where they point out that the name was not invented by the 
author of the poem, since William II., Count of Poitiers (963 990), was 
surnamed Fierabras (Fera brachia or Ferox brachium) on account of his 

" After ]p& $er pat our lord was bore 
Nyyn hondred kfour score ..... . 

\}& toun of mantrible conquerid was," 
are not in the original French. 

FERUMBRAS. & 



-XV111 INTRODUCTION-. 

extraordinary strength, in the same way as Baldwin, Count of Flanders, was 
surnamed Bras de Per (the Iron-armed). Pierre de Maillezais 1 calls "William 
III., the son of William II., Fierabras or Fierebrace : Natus est willelmus 
cognomento Fera-brachia. To these instances I may add that Warton, Hist, 
of Eng. Poetry, ed. Hazlitt, II. 184, mentions that "about the year 1230, 
William Ferrabras, and his brethren, sons of Tancred the Norman, and well- 
known in the history of the Paladins, acquired the signories of Apulia and 
Calabria." In a footnote to this passage he explains the name as being simply 
Bras de fer, but the French Editors incline to the opinion that it is derived 
from the Latin ferox brachium, or /era brachia, a view which seems strongly 
supported by the quotation given above from Pierre de Maillezais. As to the 
name Floripas the same editors consider that it is equivalent to passe-fleur (the 
Wood Anemone). 2 

7. Of the versification of the poem it is not necessary to say much. It 
is for the most part written in short alternately ryming lines, and, though not 
an alliterative poem, yet has a large amount of alliteration. In parts it is very 
rough, possibly from never having been finally revised by the author, while at 
times it runs along very smoothly. As a rule the final e is pronounced (see 11. 
354-5, 1904-5., 1982-3, &c.). The rymes are full and true, to effect which, 
however, the author frequently has had recourse to some very curious spelling 
(see for instance 11. 260-1). Occasionally we have instances of half-rymes, as 
in 11. 76-7, 86-7 (first-half), 370-1, 1545-6, &c. 

The change in form and metre at 1. 3411 is remarkable, more especially as 
there is nothing to correspond with it in the original French version. It is 
noticeable that the concluding portion of the poem has been revised by the 
author more than any other, and is in consequence more smooth and finished, 
and " goes " better. 

8. The poem is written in a Southern (probably Devonshire) dialect, but 
has an unusually large admixture of Midland and Northern forms. Whoever 
the author may have been,, it is abundantly evident that he had travelled, and 
most probably resided, for some considerable time in counties north of his 
own. In this way only can we account for the combination of Northern 
and Southern forms which so frequently occur. It is nothing unusual to 

1 De Antiqwtt. Uccles. Malleac., Bk. I., heading of cap. II. 

2 It is worthy of notice that in the description of Floripas given in the ' Destruction 
of Rome,' 1. 259, her lips are compared to the peach -blossom, flour-de-peskier. 



THE DIALECT AND GRAMMAR OF THE POEM. XIX 

find varying forms even in the same line : thus, for instance, in 11. 1975-6 we 

read : 

" And er scfie cam strau^t in-to halle f neuere Jieo ne stente, 
And for)? sche f>raste among hem alle t & to hur fader ry^t lieo wente." 

So again in 1. 2380 : 

"y not how \>ay schul ascape J?en I j?at liy ne go}> to dede." 

A and he are also frequently met with in the same line, e. g. 11. 740, 2403, 
3004, &c.; and so bulp and beo in 1. 2940. 

To the same circumstance, doubtless, are also due the small number of 
instances in which v occurs for / y 1 the use of the Northern -ande in the 
present participle as well as the Southern -ing, -yng, and of such a distinctively 
Northern preposition as til (to) ; and the absence at times of inflexion in the 
past indicative. 

We frequently find c substituted for s ; especially in the words ivace (was) ; 
nace (was not) 2 ; horce? pacye: and in a few instances we find t for d ; hant, 
swert. 

Fry for/ra? occurs at 1. 3441. This form is found also in the Ayeribite of 
Inwyt, and Shoreham's Poems. 

Late examples of several forms which occur in Lazamon appear in the 
present poem. Thus we have 1. 311 : tweyre (A.S. twegra), genitive of twejen; 
beyne (both), 1. 661 : If an (dat : of the article) ; y-Jtend (begotten); spelie (spare). 

-chs and -sch or -sche would appear to be equivalent, for we find frechs, 
flechs, frenchs, used indiscriminately v?ithfresch,flesch, and frensche. 

To give a complete list of all the curious forms which occur in the poem 
would exceed the limits of this introduction, and is moreover unnecessary, 
since very many of them are, so to speak, a7ra Aeyo/ieva, invented for the 
occasion, by the author, solely in order to make his rymes as perfect as 
possible. 4 They can therefore only be looked upon as curiosities of ortho- 
graphy, except in so far as they bear on the question of pronunciation. 

Perhaps the most curious form of all is dotyeper for do-ftoper, which with 
one exception is found consistently throughout the poem, although in the 
original draft the correct form appears. 5 

1 The following are all that occur: by-vare, vaste (verb) ; vaste (adv.) ; vewe, vetres, 
vifty, vyve, vynde, vores (furrows) ; vacche, y-vere, vet, verde (fared) ; wide, auonge, 
vmile, vuste. In some cases the author has actually corrected the v as first written into 

/: see for instance, 1. 5829. 

2 See 11. 186190. 3 See 11. 4203-4. * See for instance, 1. 260. 5 See note to 1, 259. 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

Premising this much, I now proceed to give the principal dialectal and 
grammatical peculiarities of the poem. 

NOUNS. 

1. NUMBER. 

Plurals as a rule end in -s, -es, or -3, but we find numerous examples of 
plural forms in -n and -en, and very frequently the same word occurs in both 
forms : thus we have fon, fone, foes, foos, fos ; feres, feren; otes, oten; browes, 
browen; tres, tren; mylen; lippen; Jcnen; tren, and others peculiar to the 
Southern dialects, as well as eyene, eyne ; schon ; hcsen, which are found also 
in Northern writers. 

A few instances occur of plurals in -e (representing an earlier -en) ; as 
longe, lunge (lungs) ; fetyeme (fathoms) kande, haunde, Jwnd (=: honde, 
hands) ; sythe (times) ; Jiyne (servants) ; gome (men) ; fere (companions) ; 
tange (tongs). 

2. GENDER. 

Inanimate objects are generally considered as neuter, but not unfrequently 
as masculine or feminine, the pronouns in these cases following the gender 
of the nouns in Anglo-Saxon. Thus 1. 1551 : 

"J?ay toke J?e way as Tie lay ful euene." "the day Tiym sprunge;" "the sunne hure 
sette," &c. 

3. CASE. 

The genitive singular ends in -s, -es 9 or -is, and in the case of proper names 
is or ys written as distinct words : thus we find godes gras ; the Ameral ys 
pauylloun ; Terry is sone, &c. 

When a proper noun ends in a sibilant, as Gharris, Naymes, the sign of 
the genitive is altogether omitted ; as Charlis Knyghts, &c. 

Fader, moder, suster, dorter do not alter their forms in the genitive 
singular : thus we find suster sone (sister's son) ; dorter dede (daughter's 
deed) ; moder half (mother's side) ; fader loue. 

Of a genitive singular in -e there are a few instances, viz. : h euene, which 
occurs frequently in the phrase heuene king, Jieuene blisse ; Tielle pyne ; and 
gode loue ; and of the genitive plural in -ene (A.S. -ena) we also find one 
example (1. 3222), he^enene route. (See also 1. 4646.) 

The genitive is occasionally used adverbially, as lyues, willes. 



GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE POEM. XXI 

ADJECTIVES. 

The rule as to the use or omission of the final -e, as a distinctive mark of 
singular and plural and definite and indefinitive forms, has not been always 
followed by our author, a result probably due to Northern influence. 

We find an instance of the genitive singular ending -es in ofrys syde, and 
a few instances also occur of the genitive plural in -re ; as alre (alter, aldre) ; 
tweyre (A.S. twegra). 

Bofen is the only instance of the dative plural ; and anoferne, ace. mas. 
occurs once in 1. 995. 

Adjectives and Adverbs in -Hche form their comparatives in -loker, -Inker ; 
as lodliche, lodluker ; sykerliche, sikurlukere, surlokere. 1 

DEFINITE ARTICLE. 

In this poem we find late examples of the inflexions of the definite article. 
The following forms occur : 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Masc. ty Fern. Neut. 

N. fe, fa. fat. N. Ace. fo, fay, fey. 

G. [|w*] 
D. fan, fen. 
Ace. fan, fan. fat. 

fo and fat are also found as demonstratives as in the Northern dialects. 

THIS. 

Many of the older inflexions of this occur in the present poem : thus we 
find : 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 

N. J>es, Jus, tyjs. }is, JJT/S. Jn's, toys. bes, \eese, bis, J>ws, bys. 

G. 

D. \>is, \>ys. tys. l>es, ]>is, Jms. 

Ace. fees, J)es, f, \>ys. fes, Jjy. Jjw, }>ys, \>es, }>ese, tyis, }ys, }ns, fuse. 

like, filke, a distinctively Southern form, occur frequently : twice in com- 
bination with fat, as fat filke. 

1 Sykerer occurs once. 
2 Only in the phrase sone \>as ; but see under Adverbs, p. xxvii below. 

6 2 



XX11 INTRODUCTION. 

NUMERALS. 

Amongst these we find the Southern forms in the ; elleuefye, twelve. No 
Northern forms occur. 

We have only one instance of the dropping of the final -n ; viz. seue 
(seven). 

PRONOUNS . 

1. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

The following table will show the numerous forms which occur : 

SINGULAR. 
1st Pers. 2nd Pers. 3rd Pers, 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 

N. I, y, ic, ich, yell. \>ou. a, he, hee. heo, she, sche, it, yt, hit, hyt. 

sheo. 
GK my, myn, myne. fry, \>yn, \>yne. his, hys, is, ys. her, hir, hire, his. 

hur, hure, hyr. 

D. me. \>e. him, hym. hir, hire, hure. him, hit. 

Ace. me. \>e, \ee. hem, him, hym, her, hur, hure. it, yt, hit, hyt. 

hymme, em. 

PLURAL. 
1st Pen. 2nd Pers. 3rd Pers. 

N. we, ous. 3<9. hee, hi, hy, hymen, \>ai, \>ay, \>aye, fyei, \>ey. 

G. our, oure. jour, ^oure. her, hir, hire, hure, hyre, \>air. 

D. mis, us. ^ou. hymen, hem, hymyn, \>aym. 

Ace. ous. y>u, yow. hymen, hyme,, hem, hemen, em, \>eym. 

Ich, which is still retained in the Southern dialects of the present day as 
uch, utchy, occurs once in 1. 389 of the original draft of the poem in com- 
bination with wille as ich chille, where the ich is unnecessary and the corrected 
copy reads i wille. 

Ic y which is the Northern form, only appears once, 1. 2799. The two 
forms, ich and 7, y, are used without any distinction, except that if the 
pronoun follows the verb, the latter form is generally used. 

The distinction between the singular and plural pronouns of the second person 
is regularly observed ; J>0w, fe, being used in sentences expressing contempt, in- 
feriority, and affection, while 35, jou, imply inferiority or respect on the part of 
the speaker. This Balan addresses Floripas as \ou, while she uses the plural 
30. (But see 1. 1998.) 

A he, which does not occur in any Northern writer, still survives in 



GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE TOEM. XX111 

modern dialects in the South of England, and is the usual form in the present 
poem. 

Heo is the Southern pronoun corresponding with the Midland sche, she 
(Northern sco, sho). 

My self, him selue, fyc., occur as well as me selue, \e self, ous self. 

In the pronouns of the third person plural, \ai, ]>air, ]>eym, are Northern 
forms : \ei Midland, and the remainder Southern. Em is only used in 
coalescence with a verb, as eastern, affuldem. 

Me, ma, is used as an indefinite pronoun of any person. 1 

Hit, it, is usually referred to masculine nouns even in the plural number 
thus(l. 1981) we read: 

"Hit be)?)? kni3tes y-sent to me." 

See also 1L 3114, 3183, &c. 

We also find such forms as hure frozen ; $our summe ; \at summe ; hur 
aylper ; hur everech ; our on. 

The pronoun frequently coalesces with the verb ; thus we find such forms 
as leuet (leave it) ; shaket (shake it) ; taket (take it) ; affuldem (felled them) ; 
profryem (offer them). 

A very noticeable peculiarity of the poem is the reflexive use of the 
pronoun in conjunction with the noun before an intransitive verb. We 
commonly find such sentences as the following : " be ny^t hure ne^hede fastc " 
(1. 1494); "endelonges is side bat blod him ran;" "bat blod him rennep;" 
" bat gret host hym come ; " " on be wal J>at fur him hent ; " " be day 
hym sprunge ; " " be day him is a-go ;" " forth hem wendith bes nolle 
knyytes," 2 &c. 

\)at is commonly used as a relative, and hwych, wich, not infrequently is 
used indefinitely : see, for instance, 11. 514, 3101, &c. 

The interrogative pronoun is Ho, wat, what ; gen. was ; dat. and ace. wham. 

VEEBS. 

1. INDICATIVE MOOD. PRESENT TENSE. 
The following are the personal endings : 

1 It is frequently understood after the verbs let, make, d#, in such phrases as " to don 
him sle " (= cause men to slay him, cause him to be slain) ; " let hewen hem flesch 
& bon." 

8 As to this last instance see Prof, Skeat's note to ' P. Plowman,' B. Prol. 7. 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 

SINGULAR. 

1. -a, -e, -y, -n; as granty, thonky, ha (I have). 

2. -st f as ledest ; very frequently contracted as gest (gettest) ; a lust 
(=. abeodest, tellest) l ; hurst (nearest). 

3. -th, -t, -es, -en, -n. 

The ending -y of the first person which is purely Southern is common in 
this poem. The ending in the third person -t is used where the original 
ending -th has been contracted, as stent, stont (stendeth) 2 ; calt (calleth); by- 
gynt (beginneth) ; telt (telleth) ; lest (loseth) ; sit, syt (sitteth). Such forms 
as ri^dt (he rides) and tylpd (betides) are noticeable. 

Of the ending -es, -s (a West-Midland and Northern form) we have but 
very few examples ; all that I am aware of are 1 wendes, ourilekes, strekes (11. 
1364-5); #as(goes) 3 ; cryes (1. 3079). 

The ending -en, -n (Midland) only occurs in a few instances, 1. 2195, gon 
(goes) ; 1. 2782, sen (I see). 

The e is very frequently omitted before the -th in the third person singular ; 
thus we find com]), ber]>, scher}, &c. In many cases this peculiarity, which 
still exists in Devonshire, serves to distinguish between the singular and 

plural. 

PLURAL. 

1. -n. } 

2. -es, -n. > e, -th. 

3. -en, -n, -es. / 

The Midland ending -en, -n, occurs but seldom in comparison with the 
other endings; but yet is not uncommon. We find 30 sen; we han; J?ay 
comen, &c. 

Of the Northern ending -es there is only one instance, viz. goes, which 
occurs in the second and third persons. 4 

There are several instances in which the plural ending -th is preceded by 
an a f as \ay prikeath ; $e loueath, &c. 

1 Explained by Halliwell wrongly "arranges? " 

2 According to Dr Morris (Specimens of Early English, 1867, Introd. p. xxxv) the 
rule is that " -t is used for -teth or -deth, only in verbs having t or d for the last syllable 
of the root," but from the examples given above it is clear there are numerous exceptions 
to this rule. 

3 See 11. 1975, 2145, &c. 

4 On 1. 5S21, Mr Parker says : I think this s ia added, though by the same hand." 



GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE POEM. XXV 

PAST TENSE. 

The past tense of weak verbs ends in -ede, -de, or -te. 

"We find instances of inflected verbs as \ou slowe, &c., as well as of non- 
inflected ; the final -e being as often as not omitted. 

The third person singular and plural occasionally ends in -n, as hoten (he 
bade) ; Tcemen (they came) ; beren (they bore). 

2. IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

With one exception there is no instance of any but the Southern forms : 
singular, -e, plural, -eth: -ath occurs in prykecfy (1. 979) ; confortia} (1. 1154) ; 
and harneyschecfy (1. 2929) ; schewycfy ; herknyafy (1. 2072). 

The Northern imperative ending -es occurs only in 1. 2347, where we 
have lete^. 

3. INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Here we find a large variety of forms mainly Southern. Thus we have 
verbs ending in -a, -y, -ye, -ie, -n, -ne, -o (on). Very frequently the same verb 
appears in two or more forms ; e. g. sle, slee, slen, slo, slone ; flee, flen, flene, 
fleo ; be, bee, ben, bene, beo. Ha and prikea (1. 3641) are the only instances 
of infinitives in -a. 

The endings -y, -ye, -ie (representing older forms in -ian) are very common 
in this poem, but are never used by any Northumbrian writers. 

The gerundial form of the infinitive occurs in three instances ; to tristyng 
(= tristenne, 1. 199) ; to done (1. 811) ; and to donde (1. 681). 

The verb to Have appears under the following forms : ha, liab, han, liane, 
hauen : while dan occurs twice as the infinitive of do. 

4. PARTICIPLES. 

In the present participle instances of the Northern ending -ande are not 
uncommon, the same verb sometimes using it as well as the Southern -ing, 
-yng : thus we find such double forms as fleoyng and fleand ; prikyng and 
prikande; liggynge and liggande, &c., as well as the single forms, lyuand, 
flyngande, &C. 1 

5. PAST PARTICIPLE. 

The past participles of weak verbs end in -ed, -t, or -te, and of strong verbs 
in -en. In the latter the final -n is frequently omitted. 

The prefix i- or y- (peculiar to the Southern dialects, and never used by 
Northern writers,) abounds throughout the poem. 2 

1 Query Is gonde (1. 1890) a present participle ? 

a This prefix i-, y-, is not confined to the past part., but is used also in (a) other parts 



XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

Instead of the prefix i- or y- we sometimes find a-, as a-slawe (twice com- 
bined with be into the form ba-sclawe), a-go, a-broke. 

Verbs in -che and -ge make their past participles in -nt, or -nte, a form 
peculiar to Southern dialects. Thus we have i-spreynt (springe, to sprinkle) ; 
i-dreynt (drenche, to drown), &c. 

To Be has the forms i-be, i-beo, y-ben, be, ben, bene, beo ; and to Do ; do, 
don, done, dow. 

Negative Verbs, which occur but very seldom in Northern writers, are here 
common, e. g., nas, nel, nabbe, nyste, nam, nad, na}, &c. 

The curious form mixt (mightest) occurs in 1. 474, and sysst (seest) in 
1. 5809. 

The following are examples of the pt. tenses of verbs : Han, bute, carf, 
to-chon, clef, dradde, flo$e, ful, gan, gun, glod, huld, keem, lowe, nam, nome, 
preynte, ro^t, schad, schar, schet, shette (to shoot), shitte (to shut), shutte 
(to shoot), se$, skryjte, slowe, swarf, swer, sworn, swatte, }raste, wep, yif, 



Hob occurs in the 2nd person plural of have. 

The verb to Be in the present indicative has the following variety of 
forms : 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. am. are, beeth, bene, beo, buth, byth. 

2. art, ert. are, buth. 

3. is, ys, ysse. are, aren, arn, beeth, ben, buth. 

Of these aren and arn are Northern forms. 1 

It is not at all an unusual thing to find two different forms in the same 
line ; thus (1. 2940) " we ne bify bote ten her now, & mo ne beo we no3t ; " 
and (1. 1070) "my felawes J>at her bee}, kny^tes Jjay bu} fol sure." 

In the past tense we find the following forms : 

SINGULAR, PLURAL. 

1. was. were, wore, ivern. 

2. wer. were. 

3. was, wes. war, ware, wer, were, wern, weore, ivoren, worne. 

In the imperative beo is the singular, and bee}, be}, the plural form. 

of verbs, as y-laste (inf.); y-knowe (pres.) ; y-lif (imperat.) ; y-saw (pt.) : (&) with 
adjectives, as i-liche ; (c) with adverbs, as y-fere, y-mone, y-same. 
1 Aren occurs in ' P. Plowman,' C. xi. 155. 



GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE POEM. XXV11 

We also find numerous examples of the verbal prefixes peculiar to the 
Southern dialect. Thus we have : 

1. An- (a-); as angrise (agrise), to frighten: ariiionge, to hang; a-lacche 
(catch). 

2. Of (for, to) ; as of-seche (seek for) ; of-sende (send for) ; of-take (over- 
take). 

ADVERBS. 

With the exception of algate and umtil, which are purely Northern forms, 
the adverbs are mainly Southern. Thus we have : 

1. Adverbs in -e, as longe, swy\e, hanne, henne (= hennene) ; whenne 
(= whanene) ; thenne (= thanene), &c. 

2. Adverbs in -en; as sutyen, we^en (Northern). 

3. Adverbs in -es : as endelonges, willes, hannes, lyues, Cannes, ones, wannys. 

4. Ac (but) ; eke, eek, yke (also) ; so so, as so (as as). 

The phrase sone Ipas (= soon thereafter, directly), which occurs several 
times in the poem, is noticeable. Dr Murray inclines to consider fyas as the 
genitive of the article (compare " wel was him j?as," in Early Eng. Poems, &c., 
ed. Furnivall, xii. 122) ; while Dr Morris thinks it is a corruption of sutyes 
afterwards. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

Til (to), a purely Northern preposition occurs frequently. Of peculiarly 
Southern forms we have : 

1. An, a (on, in); as an-he$, an-honde, a jjys side. The corresponding 
Northern form on- occurs only in on-lyue, on J?e lift (aloft), on sonder. 

2. Fram (from). 

3. Mid (with). 

9. To Mr George Parker, of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, who has 
always taken a very lively interest in this romance, is due the sole credit of 
deciphering the MS. Written as it is on bad paper, with bad ink, and with 
numerous interlineations and corrections, it is difficult for any one who has 
not seen the MS. to appreciate the difficulties under which he has had to 
labour difficulties increased as they have been by his having to compare the 
proofs with the original in the dull, sunless days of winter, when, as I have 



XXV111 INTRODUCTION. 

already said, in some passages nothing but a strong sun-light is sufficient to 
render the writing legible. 

To him my best thanks are due, as also to the Eev. Professor Skeat and 
F. J. Furnivall, Esq., who have rendered me assistance as to the meanings of 
some obscure words* 

S. J. HERRTAGE. 



XXIX 



SKETCH OF THE STORY OF 'SIR FERUMBRAS." 



CHARLES, at the head of his army, had encamped close to Morimond, when 
Ferumbras, a gigantic Saracen knight, appears and challenges any six of the 
French knights to single combat (p. 2). Charles requests Eoland to accept the 
challenge, but he refuses (p. 5). Oliver, who is suffering from a serious wound, 
with difficulty obtains Charles's permission to accept the challenge (p. 10). 
Ferumbras, despising Oliver's youthful appearance, tries to frighten him (p. 1 2) ; 
asks him to describe Charles and the douzeperes (p. 15) ; and enquires his 
name (p. 16). Oliver declaring himself to be a poor knight, Ferumbras derides 
him, and bids him return and send Eoland, or another of the douzeperes 
(p. 18). Stung at last by Oliver's language, Ferumbras prepares to fight 
(p. 22). The struggle lasts with varying success, till Ferumbras, in striking at 
Oliver's head, exposes his side, which Oliver pierces (p. 31). Ferumbras begs 
for mercy, promising to become a Christian (p. 32), and warns Oliver of an 
ambush of Saracens close by (p. 34). Oliver, finding himself obliged to 
abandon Ferumbras, tries to escape by flight, but is surrounded and taken 
prisoner (p. 36), as are also four others of the Douzeperes, who had come to his 
assistance (p. 38), and the five are bound, blindfolded, and led away to Balan, 
at Aigremont (p. 42). Ferumbras, being discovered by Charles, lying wounded, 
is taken to the French camp and baptised (p. 42). Oliver and the other 
French captives are brought before Balan (p. 43), who at first orders them to 
death, but afterwards throws them into a deep dungeon, without food or light 
(p. 45). Floripas, Balan's daughter, hearing their cries, comes to them, and 
offers to release them, if they will help her in gaining Guy to her husband 
(p. 47). They agree, and Floripas conducts them to her own chamber (p. 48). 
Charles determines on sending a messenger to Balan to demand the restoration 



XXX SKETCH OF THE STORY OF "SIR FERUMBRAS. 

of the prisoners (p. 51), and the seven remaining Douzeperes start (p. 53). On 
their way they meet seven kings coming from Balan on a similar errand, whom, 
with one exception, they slay (p. 57). By a trick they pass the bridge of 
Mantrible (p. 61) and arrive at Aigremont. They deliver their message in 
turn, and Balan in a rage orders them to prison (p. 66), from which they are 
saved by Floripas, who leads them to their comrades (p. 68). She then pre- 
sents to them the Sacred Relics of the Thorns, Cross, Nails, &c., which 
Ferumbras had carried off from Jerusalem, and sent to his father Balan, the 
Emir of the Saracens (p. 71) ; and advises them to kill all the Saracens while 
unprepared (p. 75). They follow her advice, but Balan escapes (p. 76), and 
gathering his army, lays siege to the tower (p. 77). Provisions failing, the 
French sally out (p. 85), and capture a convoy, but are forced to abandon it. 
Guy is captured (p. 88), and is about to be hanged by Balan, when he is res- 
cued by Roland (p. 96). The French capture a convoy of provisions (p. 99). 
Balan attacks the tower with a battering ram (p. 103). The tower is set on 
fire, but the flames are extinguished by Floripas (p. 104). The French 
Ivnights in default of stones throw Balan's gold at their Besiegers (p. 105). 
In a sally by night Roland captures Aspayllard (p. 107). Provisions running 
short, the French determine to send Richard of Normandy to the Emperor 
Charles the Great for aid (p. 110). Balan, however, besets the bridge so that 
none can leave the tower (p. Ill ). After eight weeks he escapes, pursued by 
King Clarion, whom he slays (p. 116), and crossing the river Flagot by a 
miracle (p. 123), reaches Morimond, just as the French are starting for France, 
Charles having given up all hope of his knights (p. 131). By a stratagem the 
bridge and town of Mantrible are taken (p. 150), and Charles presses on to 
Aigremont (p. 152). Balan, instigated by the devil, ventures on battle 
(p. 170) : he himself is defeated by Charles, and captured (p. 175), and the 
Saracens utterly routed (p. 176). Balan, in spite of the entreaties of Ferumbras, 
refuses to be baptized, and is slain by Ogier (p. 182). Floripas is baptized, 
and wedded to Guy (p. 183), between whom and Ferumbras Spain is divided ; 
and Charles returns to Paris, where he distributes the Sacred Relics (p. 188). 



ERRATA. 

Page 209, note 1o 1. 2034, for gayme read gayne ; and for amuse read profit. 



XXXI 



ADDITIONS. 



Introd. p. xxii, to forms of 3rd pers. pron., ace. pi., add jam (1. 2650 ; cf. 
La3amon, 1. 763). 

Introd. p. xxvii, 1. 15, "sone fas :" compare Lajamon, 1. 1787 : " wel was 
Brutus ^as .-" and the Peterborough Chronicle, sub ann. : " fta com se arcebiscop 
and sona \>ces to J>am cyng gewsende." 

p. 38, 1. 971. I have since found an instance of this use of acre : see Morte 
Arthurs, 1. 3849 : 

' Ane akere lenglie one a launde, fulle lothely wondide." 

So also Allan Eamsay in his poems, ed. 1844, p. 73, says : 
" By ane akerbraid it came nae neer him." 

To Glossary add ABYE, 176/5657, vb. bend, bow. A.S. abegan, the trans, 
form corresponding to the intrans. abugan. The two forms appear to be con- 
fused by Stratmann under abe^en, where the first two examples should be 
referred to abuyen. See the Saxon Chronicles, ed. Earle, sub ann. 1073 (p. 
212): " swifte )>et land amyrdon. and hit eall abegdon. Willelme to handa" 
(completely devastated that land, and subdued it all under the power of 
William), and ibid. p. 223: "mycel abegdan to heora anwelde" (subdued 
much of it under their power). 

DONE MAN, 109/3445, $p. For the explanation of this phrase I am in- 
debted to Prof. Skeat, who refers to P. Plowman, B xviii, 298 : " to warne 
pilates wyf what dones man was ihesus." The phrase is very rare and singular. 
Prof. Skeat, in his notes to P. Plowman, shows that " dones is the pp. don, 
made, used as a substantive, and even taking a genitive suffix, such as we see 
in the phrase what Jcynnes man" He refers to three other instances of the 
phrase, two being from the B. fragment of the Alexander Alliterative Romances, 
11. 222, 999 (MS. Bodley 264). 

Since the footnote (*) to p. xiii of the Introduction was written, a paper 
MS. of the early part of the 15th century has been purchased by the author- 
ities of the British Museum. This MS., amongst many other poems, contains 
two Charlemagne Romances, the first, which is entitled " The Siege of Milan," 
being unique, while the second is a version of " Sir Otuel " (No. 2), but vary- 
ing so much as to be practically an entirely different poem. Both these 
romances are now in the press for the E. E. T. S. 



The cost of the Gesta and Sir Ferumbras being over the income of the 
Extra Series for 1879, the Committee give notice that Sir Ferumbras must be 
lookt on as partly an 1880 book, tho included in the 1879 issue. F. 



XXX11 



Charlemagne's douzeperes. 



CHARACTERS OF THE ROMANCE. 

Charlemagne, Emperor of France, &c. 
Balan (Laban), Emir of the Saracens. 
Ferumbras, Balan's son ; defeated in single combat by Oliver, and 

converted to Christianity. 
Floripas, daughter to Balan ; in love with Sir Guy, to whom she 

is finally married. 

Reyner, a French Knight, father of Oliver. 
Roland. 
Oliver. 

Terry (Thierry). 
Geoffrey. 
Ogier. 
Basyn. 
Naymes. 

Richard of Normandy. 
Berard. 
Aubrey. 
Gwylmer. 
Guy of Burgundy. 
Raoul. 
Howel. 
Alorys. 
Gerard. 
Hugo. 

Gwenylon (Ganelon) 
Hautefulle. 
Malkare. 
Hardree. 
Turpin, the Bishop. 

Alagolofure, a Saracen giant ; warden of the Bridge of Mantrible. 
Brytamon : Balan's gaoler at Aigremont. 
Turgys. 
Kargys. 

Lucifer of Bandas. 
Lampatrys. 
Moradas. 
Clarion. 
Sortybran. 
Bruyllant. 
Aspayllard. 
Tenebre. 

Bruyllant, King of Persia, brother to Balan. 
Maubyn, a Saracen thief. 
Enfachoun, a Saracen giant. 

Amyote, a giantess, wife to Enfachoun, slain by Charles. 
Malyngras, Balan's messenger. 
Maumecet : chamberlain to Floripas. 
Maragounde : governess to Floripas. 



French Knights. 



Saracen Kings. 



Sir Jfmmtkas, 

[Ashmole MS. 33, Bodleian Library.] 



(As the first leaf of the Ashmole MS. is lost, the missing introductory 
lines are here given from the edition of " Fierabras," published 
in the Series of " Les Anciens Poetes de la France," from the 
MS. in the French National Library, No. 180.) 

f CJ eignour, or faites pais, s'il vous plaist, eseoutez 

Lk5 Canchon fiere et orible, jamais meilleur n'orrez, 

Ce n'est mie menchoigne, niais fine verite"s. 

A Saint Denis en France fu li raules trouve*s : 

Plus de cent cinquante ans a yl este celez. 

Or en ores le voir, s'entendre me voles, 

Si com Karles de Franche, ki tant fu re.doute"s, 

Reconquist la coronne dont Dix fu couronn^s, 

Et les saintisines claus, et le signe honnere, 

Et les autres reliques dont ill i ot asses. 

A Saint Denis en France f u li tresors ported ; 

Au perron, au lendi, fu partis et donnes. 

Pour les saintes reliques dont vous apres or^e, 

Por chou est il encore li lendis apel^s. 

Ja n'i doit estre treus ne nus tresors donn.es ; 

Mais puis par convoitisse fu cis bans trespasses ; 

Moult par est puis li siecles empirics et mue's ; 

Se li peres est maus, li fix vaut pis asses, 

Et du tout en tout est li siecles redoutes, 

Ke il n'i a un seul, tant soit espoente"s, 

Ki tiegne vraiement ne foi ne loiaut^s. 

N'en dirai ore plus, s'arai avant ale". 

FERUMBRAS. R 



Listen to me, 



and I will 
tell you a 
4 wonderful 
and true 
Btory of 
Charles, 



the doughty 
king 

ft who recover- 
ed the crown 
of thorns, 
the nails, 
and the other 
sacred relics, 

and brought 
them to 



12 StDenys. 



16 



20 



2 FERUMBRAS APPEARS BEFORE CHARLES' CAMP. 

Charles had Karles ot ses barons semons et demandes 

collected all 

his barons, j) Q p ar toute sa tere ou est sa poestes ; 24 

Moult fu grans li barnages quant il fu assanles. 
and advanced Tant les a 1'enpereres et conduis et menes, 

on Mori mon d. 

K'es vaus sur Morimonde a fait tendre ses tres. 
Oliver, who Oliviers li ientieus, ki tant fu aloses, 28 

commanded J 

cil fist 1'avangarde a .v c . fersarmes ; 



is suddenly Le val Eaier garda tout contreval les pro's. 

attacked by 

S e the ar v a a c ney -^t P a i en l r saliient a Tissue des gu6s ; 

.L. mile furent, les gonfanous fremes, 32 



is wounded, _^ . . , . 

and the .Pour calanger les teres et les grans yretes. 

French are 

on the point Olivier li gentius i fu le jour navre"s. 

of being put 

whelf Chariea Desconfit fuissent Franc, c'est fine verites, 

knights 8 ' Quant les seeourut Karles o les viellars barbe"s, 36 

their aid. Et paien s'en tournerent les frains abandon^s.] 

. . . Charlis doghti [kny^tes] . . ta . le as fay a waywarde spedde 
Mo J?an a pausend vrith out .... slowe ]?ai as J>ay fledde 
& drow hym .... wij? on . . are f with his host fat was fere. 40 
Ac Olyuer was a-woundede sare f at fat tyme wif a spere. 
^ ^ ^3* was Charl[es proude] y wet 5 & auaunted his kni3tes olde. 
& sayde fat fay had [boren] hem bet f fan ys 30iige barouws bolde. 

better tharf & [Kolan]d iherd hit euery del '. & his auazmttyngge hem greuede sore, 

the young 

barons. Ac boj him self had born him wel ' ba?me spak lie no more. 45 

Roland heard, * 



on f e morrwenyng f e kyng aras f & al his chiluelarie, 
& hurd is masse wan hit was f & so to f e mete gan hye, 
& al on mur^f e was he y-sete f wif a fair baronye ; 48 



Ac or he hadde fane half y-^ete f on herte him gan to nuye, 
Wan cam f er a Sarsyn [werreour] fere f by-fore is host al-one : 

knight. of g^h ano jj er herde ^e nere f nowar far 30 han gone, 

Of Strengf e, of schap, of hugenys f of dedes of armes bolde. 52 

Alexandria J?e kyngdom of Alysandre was al his f & fro babyloyne, bat holde, 

was his, and 

llab' k>n to ^3* ^ * f 6 re ^ G S6e ' ^ r( ^ WaS ^ 6 anC * S y re ' 

the Red sea. rp o ma [ r ]trye cristen men & slee f fat was his desyre. 

Apulia, Poille, palerne, and russye f he putte to seruage, 56 

Palermo and 



maystrye f & to do til hym homage. 
But for fay of Koine in such a~cas f wolde no^t granite ys [wille] 



AND CHALLENGES ANY SIX OP THE FRENCH KNIGHTS TO SINGLE COMBAT. 



He slow f e Pope fat f o was f and alle fat he my^t tille : 

Cardynals, Abbotes & Pry ours f monekys & frerys eke, 60 

& alle clerkes of honours f bof e pore & reke, 

Saue nu?znes i slo^ he sykerly f f e relygyous fat far war. 

Wymen he tok, & lay hem by f & afterward duden hem [slee] 

pat Cite a struyede, & f awne beer f f e relyqes fayre & free, 64 

Of wham y tolde $ow of eer f f e croune & f e nayles three. 

Of ierwsalem & of al fat lond f lord he was aboute, 

J)er-for f er duden vmtil his hond f many a sarsyn loute ; 

Of turkys, persans & arrabyen f gret puple had he wyfholde. 68 

He ne doutede f er-for non c?*isten men f so riche was he of golde. 

He was departid fram ys host f fat was ful gret of nombre, 

& so^te fat contree & al fat cost i cristenmen to encombre. 

Wan he with non ne may ymete '. on herte him greuef sare ; 72 

To Charlisward rod he wif herte grete l . & fyndef hym loged f [are] 

In pauylons riche & wel abuld f a fair host him aboute. 

. . fe 1 feldes wern al y-fuld f wif hym & wif his route. 

H Wan he was war of f e frenschemen f on h[ert] him likid ille 76 

He stynte & f 03te no3t remuye hem f fere til he ha fo3t is fille. 

By f e egle of gold fat bri3te schon f vppon charlis pauylou 

knew he f er-by f e kyng, was on f fat was of gret renouw : 

& ful wel saw hym whar he sat ' & knew him by his araie. 80 

for angre fat he toke of fat f he wax so pal so clay 

By Mahonet ys of f arcn a swer f as he was far al-one 

fat he ne wolde for no fer ' out of fat felde gone, 

Er Charlis wif f e hore berde f wer take ouf er a-sla3e, 84 

& discou?ttfit were al his ferde f fat lyuede on f e cristenG lawe, 

him self schelde fer ben is bane f he swor fan by his dri3te. 

now wil ych to $ov telle ys name f & sigge jow wat he hy3te 

H Syre Fyrumbras of Alysandre i me calde fat Sarsyn. 

His body wold he putte in auntre f for f eye Ti^t f o^te he lyn 

& Ii3t hym douw an vndre a tree f a bo3e-schot fram fat host : 

f ar-to ys stede fan tyef he 5 & gan to blowe bost. 

He 863 Charlys sitte & etc f fan f O3te he as a stod, 92 

If he may let him of his^mete f ys herte hit wold do gode. 

1 Originally [Al] fe. the Al having Taeen erased. 

B2 



lie had slain 
the Pope, 



and destroyed 
the city of 
Borne. 

He was lord 
of Jerusalem. 



He had 
fought with 
Turks, 
Persians ano 
Arabians, 



and had come 
to that coun- 
try to harass 
Christians. 



[leaf 1, backj 



By the 
standard he 
knows the 
king is there. 



He grows 

pale wjth 

anger, 

and swears to 

take or slay 

Charles. 



Fyrnebras 
[Ferumbras] 
of Alexandria 
was his name. 

He alights 
under a tree. 



CHARLES HAYING ENQUIRED HIS NAME, WISHES ROLAND 

^ a?me cr y ede ne " Charlis, with f e berde f herkne what y speke : 
[SJend m e f e beste kny$t of f y f urde f myn anger for to wreke, 
Duk Eoland, of er Olyuer i orf er any of fy route, 96 

to fight with & fi^te y wile wij) hem her f beo pay no^t so stoute : 

& if fat on of hem ne dar him self f wif me fi^te al one 
Send hem bof e on f yn helf f to fijte wif me ymone ; 

if two are [&] if fay two ne buf no}t bolde f a^en me to fi^te on stoure, 100 



three; ["Qf] such fre y ne ^yue auelde f & fo$ fer come foure, 

thou h there [^ f3 $ eT come twelue f f e beste of f y f ered, 

come twelve s j ee h ein sone h e i ue f ne kep y neuere ete bred. 



i will pound [I] wil kuf e on hem my mist f & dyngen hem al to douste. 104 

them to dust. 

Whef er fay wille on fote n^t f ouf er on horse iouste, 
Send hem hider to me anan f for ich hymen her diffye, 
Ouf er by Mahourc fat made man f f ou schalt we'l sore a-bye. 
i have slain Y haue wyf myn handes two f y-slawe kynges tene, 108 

and so shall i g gchal y f e now or f ov go f fat al men schal it sene." 
He takes his he dude his helm ban of is hed f & set him douw bat tyde ; 

helmet off to y 

answer* an ^ fy n S ne hauef fer y-sed 5 an answer he f o^te a byde. Ill 

[leaf 2] ~f7~ yng Charlys f e Sarsyns speche y-hurde 1 f & so dude al his host, 
angry, i\ & how foule fat f e freke him furde f blowyng such a bost ; 

He was atened of his envy i he tok of hym so li^te, 
and asks And asked of Eychard of normandy i if he knew fat knyite 115 

Richard of J 



s & auawntid him f o so 
that knight, it He ne tel j e ^ ^ ote lyte of oug c be hig worc i es s terne ; 

Proutelich he auawnttef hem f \vif xij. for to fijte. 118 

Wif f e beste fat buf of al my men i & to dulfulle def e hem di^te." 

'Yes,' says f '^ea," quaf Ei[chard], " with outen of f y knowe him wel to wisse ; 

is the great- Hit is on fe grettest kyng for sof '. fat dwedlef in hefenisse. 121 

heathenesse. 1 j n a j paynye nys prync^ ne kyng f fat beif so gret a name : 
f or$ out f e werld of is beryng i spryngef los & fame. 
Ne doutef he kyng ne Emperour f fe value of a ryssche, 124 

far for he?ra folwyf al fat flour f fat in paynye ysse." 

Then the <Jf fawne fe kyng gan waxe wrof f & aboute him gan be-holde, 

king swears 

he win eat & \)j seynt dynys a swer is of f fat after fat tyme a nolde 
more tui one Ete ne d r y n k e no more fat day i for none kynnes fynge, 128 

1 Charlys [sat &] hurde. 



TO ACCEPT THE CHALLENGE I BUT HE REFUSES. 



'And the 
man's name?' 
' Sir Ferum- 
bras,' says he, 
'the King of 
Alexandria.' 



None would 
fight with 
him. 



Or on of hys 1 in god aray f had foat vrith fat kynge. of his has 

fought with 

IF f e Emperour, sir Charlemayn f a wondrede of fat man : that kin &- 

More wolde he wyte fayn i & of Richard askef fan 

What ys ri3te name was f fat made such a slaundre. 132 

" Sire," said he, " sir Fyrumbras f f e kyng of Alysaundre : 

f ys ys he fat be-lay f Rome f y gode Citee, 

& fyn relyqes bar away f f e croune & f e nailles three, 

|)at f ou & f yne with strengf e of hond f in hef nisse sum tyme wonne. 

To cristenmen in many a lond f gret sorwe he haf by-gonne." The French 

IF Wan f e frensche i-hurde f ys f sore fay wern af ri3te, 1 38 

Was non of hymen fat wolde y-wys f profryem with him to fi^te ; 

Euereche behuld on of er tho f bot ech man held hym stille. 

Charlis bot is lippen tho f for he nad no3t is wille, 

IT He clipede is neuewe duk Roland f fat was aman of my3te, 1 42 Charles prays 

& prayede him faire to take an hond f a3en hym to take f e fy3te. 2 

Roland answerede wyf egre mod f & sayde so most he f e, 

Leuere him were he were wod f of er hanged on f e tre, 

Or he wolde euere after fan f for hys pray ere fi^te 146 

Wyf Sarasyn ne vfith cristen man f nof er in wrong ne ri3te. 

" For 3ester neite wan we had fi^t f 3onder out on f e playne, 

A f ousent f er we putte to fli3t 5 & x f ousent f er wern sleyne, 

& My 3 felawe Erld Olyuer f was far y-wouwded sare ; 150 

Alle 30 hadden be a-slawe ther f with sarsyns fat \er ware, 

Ne had fyn do[33Jepers f e bet i-swonke f ich & my felawes : 

& to-ni3t wan fat f ov were dronke f fan f ou laidest f y lawes, 

& saydest fat fyn kny3tes hore f hadden wel betere ify3t 4 154 

fan we fat 3onge kny3tes wore f fat disconfitedem alle with my$t. 

fyn angre 5 ous greuede sore f wan fou toke of ous so Iy3t ; 

At al mew know* fat far weore f fat f ov saidest ouwri3t, 

fou madest fat auawnt, sof to saye f for to preyse fe selue. 158 

Ac 6 Be-hold aboute now y praye f ouer and on euery helue. 

Hwych of him wil take f e fi^t f a3en fat Sarsyn strong ; 



Roland 
refuses, 



[leaf 2, back | 



because 
Charles had 
insulted him. 



' Look about 
who will take 
the fight, 



1 hys [pers] in. 2 A$e [J?e sarsyn to] fy^te. 

3 My [owe]. 4 MS. altered (?) to ifo^t 5 J?yn [speche] 

6 The MS. has a line drawn from Ac to At above ; the Ac being added 

before Behold. TJie line originally, ran : Be-hold aboute y e praye f her by 

euery helue. 



6 THE KING STRIKES HIM : ROLAND THREATENS HIM, BUT THEY ARE SEPARATED. 



for I will not. 1 



Charles, with 
his gloves, 



Roland in the 
face. 

Roland draws 
his sword, 
but the others 
separate 
them. 



Charles 
orders him 
to be put to 
death, 

but Roland 
swears whoso 
comes near 
him shall 
be slain. 



Ogier 
interposes. 



[leaf 3] 
Charles is 
sorry. 



For y ne wil nc>3t by god almy^t f & wyt fat f yn owew wrong, 

& ho so take]) hit on fy part f y swere by cryst in trone, 162 

Of me neuere after- wart f loue ne get he none." 

IT " A f glotoim," saide fe Emperer f " entempre f ou beter fy tonge 1 , 

If fow nere my cosyn fe neer f wel he3e scholdestou be honge." 165 

Wif gloues 2 fat he fan had an hond f fat witfi gold ibotened were, 

In f e face smot he duke Eolond i fat f e blod sprong out fere. 

fe duk a syde f anne gan to sterte f & drow ys swerd anon, 168 

& wolde ys vncle f ar-wif herte f nad of re betwen hem gon. 

f " Alas " f quaf Charlis far a stod f " wel sory now may y be, 3 

Wan he fat ys my flesche & blod '. wiih Wepne assayllef me : 

& he fat scholde me socoury f to $en myn enymys 172 

Despysef me her dispytously f & telt of me no prys. 

Now y pray to god of heuene f fat al f yng knof & seef , 

Ne lyiie he no^t f ys day til euene f wyf oute schentful deef ." 

for wraffe fare him crief fe kyng i & het to taken him sone, 176 

& swer he nolde ete ne drynk f til he to def e wer done. 

11 Eoland huld ys swexd a-drawe f & swer bi god al one 

Ho so ne3ed him schold ba-sclawe f & cloue doura to f e stone. 

Wan fe frensche men ihurde fys f fay douted him for to fonde, 180 

fan was non sa hardy y-wys f on hym to leyn no honde. 

IT Oger spak for duk Eoland f & praide f e kyng to cesse, 

& saide " sire, je dof hym wrong f to smyten him on f is presse. 

Wel ofte he hauef socourd :jow f & of 3our fon 3ov venged, 184 

Wer for y rede cessyef now f til eft hit may be amended." 

CHarlis be-huld fan how ys blod f ran douw of ys face 4 
f e lasse him wondrede f 03 ys mod f til anger guwne him ehace, 
fo3 he for him fan sory were f no wonder for sof hit nace 188 

Amonges f e lordes alle fere f ofte he saide " alace ! 
Fader, & sone, & holy gost '. wat schal y don," he 5 sede, 
" Suf f e f e man y trist an most f for-sakef me at my nede, 
& dra3f ys swerd bi-fore my fas f to sle me }if he mi3te 1 192 

fat y so longe scholde lyue alas f to sen hit vfiili my si3te ! " 

1 [mesure] }>ou beter J?y [speche]. 

2 Wi{? [}>e] gloues. 3 [Now] sory may y be. 

4 These words, face, chace, nace, alace, are altered from a final e, in a hand 
of the scunie date. 5 MS. he [he.] 



OLIVER, WHO IS IN HIS TENT, WOUNDED, HEARS OF THE SARACEN'S CHALLENGE. 7 

f Duk Neymes fan him spak anon : & sayde wordes wyse 5e k mes then 

" At jjis tyme, sir, now let him gon f he wil him betre auyse ; hjm'go^ et 

^e habbef kny3tes among ous her i fe beste fat mo^e be fowide, 196 
Sendef anof er dof f eper f to %te wi)> fat hounde." another^ 

1T ;< By god," qua]? f e kyng, "now it is so-f fat Rolond hit haf for sake, 
v knowe non obre to tristyng to f batail with hi??z to take, 1 i know none 

J J ' but Oliver,' 

Out-take hys felawe Olyuere 2 f & he were hoi & souwde ; 200 says the king. 

ac he Ivb hert now with a spere ' & bere-b a gryslich wounde." 'and he is 

sorely 

IT As he fawne 3 stod & fojte '. to wham he speke may, wounded/ 

f e tydyngge was to Olyuer bn^te f f er he on bedde lay 

Of fe sarsyn fat was y come f & of f e kyng al so, 204 

& how Roland ha]) Charlys vndernome f & wold no3t fat batail do. 

IT Wan ]?e Erld hit vnderstod f fat Eolond hit nolde take 

To fi^te a^en f e Sarsyn wod f & al for wraf f es sake, 

& non ofer ne prof rede him no^t f fat batail to vnde[r]fonge, 208 

Him was ful wo fan on is f o^t f & of te sekede amonge ; with him - 

Sone he arerd hi?7i after ban f & lokede oppon is syde, soon he lifts 

* himself up, 

& saw is blod how fdounl it ran f out of is wonde wyde : and seeing 

how his blood 

Hys wouwde was fo in yuel aray f & for Angwys gan to chyne. 212 {J" W JJJJJ 
Olyuer tok his mantel of say f gold peynt hit was wel fyne, tears his 

mantle to 

& rent hit al to peces smal f & f er wif is wonde he di^te, p iec es, 

& stoppede is wounde ber wyb al i & bond hure as he nrnte. and stops his 

wound with 

fan he clepede ys scjuyer i Garyn, & til hym he sayde : 216 u - 

" Do bat myn armes sone be heer f & help me y were a-rayde : Then calls 

for his arms. 

I wil 63 te wyf fat hef ene kyng f as crist me helpe & rede. 

ne langede me neuere more do fyng fat toched mannes dede." 

If Garyn farme ansuerede a$en f " sire, wat hast fow fo3t? 220 His squire, 

Wilt f u silf willes lete f e slen f f y pwrpos ne preyse y no^t. 



By-f enk f e how f y blod ys- schad f & hast a grislich woirnde ; 

How scholdest fou fi3te fat art so mad f wyf fat hef ene hounde 1 " 

1T " Let of f y speche," f e Erld hym saide f " for no fyng wil y spare, [leaf 3, bac 

Bot y made til hym abrayde f of blisse y were al bare. 225 

To helpe my liege lord Charlouw '. to batail mot y fare, but Oliver 

y wil hold vp his renouw f wyf al my my3t & mare. 

; [J?at battail] with hiw to take. 2 Out-take [J?e gode erld] Olyuere. 

3 As he [byjjojte him] J?awne. 



8 OLIVER ARMS, MOUNTS HIS STEED, AND RIDES TO THE KING'S TENT, 



His arms 
are brought, 
and he puts 
them on, 



mounts his 
steed, 



takes his 
shield and 
spear, 



and rides to 
Charles' tent. 



[leaf 4] 
Roland is 
sorry that 



If y him faillede on pys nede f wan Roland- hit hap for-sake 228 

per is non oper, so god me spede f pat wil hit vndertake : 

ne schal no man bet proue is frende f bot a-say hem on his nede, 

y praye p e , Garyn, as pou ert hende f go bryng pou forp my wede." 

" Sir," said he wel delfolly f " po$ hit beo nojt my wille 232 

y wol pe armye sykerly f py pwrpos to fulfille." 

his armes he bryngj) him pawne anon f & Olyuer gan him schride, 

wij) is hosen of mayle he by-gon f nolde he no leng a-byde : 

& suppe an haberke al of steel f on is body he caste, 236 

Garyn hur laeede faire & weel f & mad hur sitte faste. 

His helm he settep on is heuede f & fastnede pe auentaille. 

Hautecler is swerd was no^t be-leued f he gurd him vtiih saurc faille. 

Garyn his gode stede hym fette f pat was in spaygne ibo^t ; 240 

pe erld lep vp wyp oute lette f his styrop trepede he no$t, 

And smot pe stede him to saye f wip is spores of golde. 

pe stede was god & lup a waye f wel fifty fet i-tolde ; 

pat gode hors blessede he po f & louely strek ys mane, 244 

He mi3te sikerly hym triste to f hym semede wel by pane. 

" Garyn," quap Olyuer, " wel pe be f pov hast wel kept my stede, 

If y may lyue & come a$e f ^elde y wil py mede." 247 

1F Garyn him pankede & tok hym als f his scheld with hym to bere, 

& Olyuer hit heng a-boute is hals f & til hira tok a spere. 

wan he was armed on horses bak f a fair knyqft a was to see, 

a iolif on wyp oute lak f bope strong & fers was hee. 

God him spede for his mi^t f now he takp ys waye, 252 

wip pe werste Sarsyn wil he fi^t f pat he dude euere a-saye. 

IT fforp pan rod he stoutely f wel i-armed oppon his stede, 

ys herte was god & sykerly f serued him to do pat dede : 255 

he lifte vp ys hond & blessed him pan f & recoma/zdedem to god alim^te, 

To Charlis pauylloura pe way he nam f til hym rod ful ri3te. 

AS Charlys was in his greuarcce f stondyng among his feren, 258 
& couwsailede with pe grete of f raunce f & wiiJi ys doppeperen, 
Roland drow him a-side pare f among he?7i he ne keem, 
& pan he by-gan repentye sare : pat he hap greued his Eem. 261 
Wel sore him greuede pat pe kyng f was angred for ys sake, 
pan had he leuere pan eny pyng f had he pat batail take : 



AND ASKS LEAVE TO ACCEPT FERUMBRAS* CHALLENGE. 



265 



f er to wolde he f awne be fayne f for schame 3if he n^te 
ffor fat batail to dereyne f profry hym forf to n3te. 
IT Olyuer ridef wyf sper & scheld f in-to f e pauyllouw, 
Many was f e kny3t fat him beheld f wan he spak ys resouw 
To f e kyng said he among f e pres f " y haue f e serued }ore 
In werre & eke in lond of pes f wel seuen 3er ) & more, 
& euere suf f e y haue me raid f redely to f y seruyse, 
& 3ut i holde me wel apaid f to don f e same gyse, 
for y haue me preued on fy werre f to fi^te a3en fy foes. 
In many a lond bof ner & ferre f y gete me prys & loes ; 
y f ank f e fat in many a lond f my name ys kud aboute. 
& namliche be cause of duk Eolond f f e more me dof me doute, 
for siffen to gaddre we furstly knewe f neuere ous two to sterte. 276 
We habbef be felawes gode & trewe f in body & eke on herte ; 
he haf me holpen in many plas f syn we to-gadre come. 
y f onky fat 3ow & godes gras f fat he tok frendschip to me. 
for al my seruyse y haue f e don f y pray fe now a bone, 
Of er sond ne kep y non f so f ow hit grante sone." 
H f e kyng ansuerede him a-$Q '. " dure frend, say f y wille, 
be it castel, burgh, outher Cite f & ich hit wol ful-fille. 
And wan we comef to fraunce f more mi3t f ou craue, 
As god 3yue f e gode chaunce f ask on & f ou schalt haue." 
f f e Erld hym f onkef lome f & til him gan to sayne ; 
" Grauwte, sire, f e batayl to me f f e sarasyn to fi^te agayne, 
for al fe seruyse y haue f e do f y aske non of er fyng." 
Alle fat herd him wondrede f o f of is bold askyng ; 
& for he was wonded so sore f fat is colour was ne$ a-go, 
hymen wondrede wel f e more f fat he therste hym profry to. 
H fan saide Charlis kyng f " Olyuer, what hast f ou f o}t 1 
By-f enk f ou art y-wound3yng f & ne} f e def e ybro3t, 
& art now al pal of hewe f for f e blod f ou hast schad, 
& f y wounde ys 3ut al newe f & no medecyn nauef ihad, 
how Detest f ou now fi3te f anne f f y mi3te ys f e be reued, 
wyf fat my}ty hef ene manne '. y rede f e fat fou leuet." 
H " Nay," quaf Ofliver], " be god of heuene f for no fyng wil y spare, 
for grete Citees seuene f in what lond fat fay ware. 



he offended 
Charles. 



268 Oliver 
reminds 
Charles of his 
long services, 



272 



280 



284 



and asks to 
be allowed 
to accept 
Ferumbras* 

288 challen s e - 



292 Charles 

remonstrates 
with him. 



296 



10 CHARLES DEMONSTRATES ON ACCOUNT OF OLIVER'S WOUND, BUT CONSENTS. 

& if $e been a trewe kyng f fat batail wil y haue." 300 

Deaf 4, back] ^[ " Nojt by my wil for nof yng " i said he so god him sane. 



Then fa/me f er come bi fore Charlourc f Gweneloiw & hardree. 

Gwenelonand 



Cristes cors come on hure croiw f for traytowrs wern hee! 
Theywere As 3 e schul huren after fys ' or passede ^eres three 304 

ere three fay be-traiede f e kyng & his f war-for f ai had hure fee, 
betrayed the an honged bai weren & to-drawe f \>er after bobe two, 

king and 

were hanged. AS f or traytours 3af fe lawe '. for traysoiw fay had ido 1 . 

f arcne wolde fay wel fa^e '. ^li f ei mi^t helpe to 308 

They say to bat sir Olyuer hadde be sla^e f & to be kyng bay saide bo : 

the king, 

the uwo? to ^ " ^y re ' k^ y s or{ ieynt be parlyment f among ous to ben yholde, 
parliament, j^ t wat be rewar d ed be tweyre assent f Y fridde assenty sholde : 311 
detenntaed ^^ ^ s rewar( ^ et OW5 two ^ e twyne f fat Olyuer schal wende & take 
that oilier J 76 bata y! wi f j 36 3 ond Sarsyne f & do hit for f y sake." 

IT f e kyng answerede f is traytours f " Gweneylouw & hardree, 



ans\yer8, For 3our iuggimcnt out of cours f haue 36 muche maugree ! 315 



y o u to fhe sha11 -^ OW sc ^ a ^ ^ e to f at ^ ata ^ ^ are on n ^ m 3 e ^* habbef ypilt 
wSoyou & ^ f e sarsyn oue?*compf him fare f certis 36 beref f e gilt. 

Body & saule mot y forfare f 3if hit be fallef so, 

Bot if 36 bofe for-fynk hit sare f 3our lyues schul 36 for-go." 319 
Christ shield " So crist," quaf fay, "scheld ous fram care f fat batayl mot be do, 

us,' they say. 

& alf 03 he ben a-slawe fare f what mowe we do f er-to 1 " 
'May he By twene hem ban bay sede stille i " ne come he neuere aaen ! " 

never return." J 

For fat was al hure herte wille f fat f e sarsyn schold him slen. 
Charles 1} Charlis to Oliuer saide f o f " god help f e, dere herte, 324 

wishes him 



Godspeed, j^ j, ou mo fa ouercome our*fo 2 f & come a3eyn in querte. 
y hope f e scholde spede wel f nere f y greuous wouwde, 
^ut trist y to god fat so f e schal f for f yn herte is hoi & sounde." 
U Wif fat com forf Duk Eeyner f fat of Genyue duk was f o, 328 

Oliver's Olyuers fader, a knyat ful feer '. for him his herte was wo : 

father, J 

says, 'My son " Mercy, quaf he to kyng Charlourc f my sone ys wonded sore, 
how can he Fram hym ys falle ys blod adouw f how im^te he fi3te more. 

He ys bofe paal & feynt f & 3iit me greues more, 332 

1 [god] for traysoura, &c. 2 ouercome [J?y] fo. 



OLIVER RIDES OUT TO MEET FERUMBRAS, AND BIDS HIM PREPARE TO FIGHT. 11 



fat if he beo f er in batail atteynt f f ou lest f y los f erfore." 
U fan him answerede Gweneylloiw f & Hardre in hure scorn : 
" f ov hast y dremed of venesoim f f ov mostest drynke a torn. 
He schal do now fat he be-sojte f for we assentief to : 
ho so wil or wil hit no}t '. fat batail he mot do." 
11 " $if hym f y blessyng, swete Reyner f saide Charlis kyng, 
For fi^te he mot wyf fat sarsyn feer i me semef bi hure tellyng.' 
f e duk hef vp an he3 his hond '. & blessede his sone fare, 
& Opiuer] fat was wel fre to fond f tok is leue to fare, 
for him praiede many a wy$t f fat god him scholde spede, 
bof e kyng, duk, erld & knyt f scholde help him in fat nede. 

DVc Oliuer him ridef out of fat plas f in a softe amblere, 
ne made he non ofer pas f til fey wern met y-fere 1 : 
And wan he cam f er as he was f f yderward he caste ys chere, 
& fyndef f er sir Fyrumbras f liggyng on f e erf e there. 
U Wan he saw erld Olyuer f a tornf him fat ofer side ; 
A3eyn him for to arise f er f dedeyngnede he f o for pride, 
f e kny^t him ne^ede f arane neer f & spak til him fat tide : 
" Arys vp, Sarsyn, fat ert so feer f no lenger ne n^tou bide ; 
1 til J?ey [come], &c. 



Gwenelon 
and Hardree 
insist. 



336 



'Give him thy 
blessing,' 
says the king. 

340 deaf 5] 
The duke 
blesses his 
son; 

many pray 
God speed 
him. 



344 Oliver rides 
away, 



and finds 
Ferumbras 

348 lying down< 



Oliver calls 
to him/ Arise, 



[fan him answerede Gweneyllouw] & Hardre in hnr scorn : 
f ou [ha]st y met of venysoura [f ou mostest] drynke a torn 
[He moste] ytake fat he bi-so^t [for] we assentief to 
Ho so wil or wil hit no^t . he [mot fat batail do] 
. . . . saide charlis f ou }if hym f y blessynge . . . 

Siker he 

f e duke hef vp an-he} his hond! & blessid is sone fare ; 
& Olyuer was fre to fond & forf he gan to fare. 
For him prayede many wi^t fat god him scholde spede, 
Bof e of barourc & eke knyt f & holp him in fat nede. 
Qliuer tornejj him f araie wif an hardi chere, 
Toward fat hef ene manne he ridef a softe amblere ; 
Til he cam f er fat he was him f o^te ech stap was fre, 
At f e laste he fyndef Fyrumbras liggyng vnder a tre. 
Whan he of saw 1 Sir Oflyuer] he twrnef fat of re side, 
Him dedeygnede to him arise f er, so ful he was of pride, 
fe kny^t him ne^ef ner & ner, & spake to him as he lay r 
& askude of him what he were fat made such affray, 
1 of saw added above the line. 



334 Original 
draft. 

336 



340 

344 

34$ 



12 FERUMBRAS DESPISES OLIVER'S CHALLENGE, AND 

& pat auantyngge pat pou hast mad f & pou hit meyteyne wolle 352 
and defend Loke fat pou be armed sad i & hele py bare scolle : 
i am come to y am come her .0. semple knyst f y-redy with be to fhte. 354 

fight with 

thee.' yf p ou pyn auawnt perforny my3t f a-rys vp anon & di$t pe." 

Ferumbras II Fy^u??^b^as on him glente ys ey?e f scornfullich & low : 

says scorn- 

JJiwei f me u " ^^t" sa ^ e ^ e ' " J^ S rete foleye ( . j rede pe for py prow, 
not U offeTto 8t For if pou yknewe me ari^t f my doynge & my creaunce, 358 

me ' pou noldest profry me no %t f for al pat gold of fraunce. 
aitho' i am Al po$ y ben her my self al one f a gret lord am y holde, 

A kyng ycrotmede on my trone f pe richeste man on molde. 
i am Ferum- Fyrumbras is my name 5 of Alysandre kyng, y-tolde, 362 

brae of 

Alexandria^ In tal J>e worlde sp[r]yngej) fame f of myne dedes bolde. 
dom. iri8t * n " ^ "Wyt m y werres y haue a-nyed muche of cristendome, 

& spayne & poyle y haue distryed f J>e Citee eke of Rome ; 365 
i slew the ]?er slow ich j?afi [])e] pope prout ' & al his Cardynales J?at yfond, 
his cardinals, & a u e fat wern of )>e rout f y slow hem with myn hond. 
and took the U ba?zne tok ich be croune of thorn f & be nayles three. 

Crown of 

S!eNaiis nd f a ' P a y ne( l e cr ^ wan ne was horn f on fe rode Tree, 

and sent & send hem to J?e Amerel Balaan f my fader to- present. 370 

Emir Baian, Muche del of ciistendam f y haue y-slawe & brent : 

Original & jjat aucrant J>at he gan make }if he metenye wolde 352 

draft. A preydem army him for J)at sake for with him fi^te he scholde. 
Fynmbras on him glent his eye scornfuly & low : 
" Lef Jjou," seid he, " )?y foleye, y rede pe for )>i prow ; 
If ]?ou yknewe me ari^t & wat is my creance, 358 

Jjou woldest profrie me no fi^t for al pat gold of fraunce. 
\>o$ y be her now al-one a gret lord ic/ am iholde, 
A kyng [y-]crouned on my trone, pe richest man of molde. 
Fyru??ibras ys niy name, of Alisandre ich am kynge, 362 

In tal J>e world sprynge]) fame of my wel berynge. 
ich am pilke pat hap destruied 1 muche of cristercte : 
Al Spaygne an[d] poile y haue anuyed, & Rome jour 030 Cite, 
par y slow pe pope of Rome & alle his cardinals, 36 G 

& alle pat wolde no^t loute to me parcne slow ic^ als : 
par tok ich pe croune of porn & pe nailes pre, 
pat peyne crist wan he was born on pe rode tre, 
& sende hem my fader Balahen & ^if hem to present. 370 

Miche puple of cristen men me self 1 y haue i-schent. 
1 destruied [Rome], 






ENQUIRES WHO HE IS, AND WHO HAS SENT HIM. 



13 



babylony fat ys my owe tour f in to [f e] rede see 
Al f e lordes of honour f hure londes holdef of me. 
leiusalem, naym, & ierieo i ich wan wyf my prowesse, 374 

& alle fe tounes aboute al so f bofe more & lesse. 1 
f e croys fat ihesus deyd an f & f e sepulcre al so, 
With dede of armes ich he?7i wan f & relyqes many mo." 
U f awne saide Olyuer " by my croura f y hure wel by f y sawe 378 
f ow hast y-do distruccion f myche to cristen lawe ; 
& hast al so y-mad envy f wif christene men to fi^te, 
of alle oure Bonder company f wif .xij e . f e moste of mi^te. 
& y am her bote a demeyne kni^t f of f e realme of frauwce, 382 
& am y-come wyf fe to fi^t f for al f y grete bobbauwce. 
Arys vp raply & f yn helm do on f & aray f e on f y stede, 
& grayf e f e to fi$te wif me anon f or elles y make f e blede." 
U fe Sar^yn gan to lawe smere f & to 0[lyuer] sayde fan : 386 

" Wat wendest f ou now so me a-fere f f ov art an hastif man, 

1 At the bottom these lines (the 3rd and 4th in a different hand) : 
Duk O[ly.uer] priked in-to J?e feld \>er J?e Sar^yn lay, 
Wel y-armed with sper & sheld his harneys was so gay. 
\Tliese are crossed through and were probably a substitute for lines 344, 
345, between which a line is erased, tJiough written in the margin.'] 
Do on }?yn helm oppon tyyn hed . & lep oppow, J>y stede 
If \>OVL mi^te pyvme [>at ]>OM hast sed . let se hit now in [dede] 
which seem to be a substitute for lines 384-5. 



From Baby- 
lon to the 
Red Sea all is 
mine. 

I won Jeru- 
salem and all 
the towns 
about, 

[leaf 5, back] 
the cross and 
sepulchre and 
many more 
reliques.' 
Then says 
Oliver, 'Thou 
hast done 
much harm 
to Christians. 



I am here but 

a lowly 

knight to 

fight with 

thee. 

Arise, and 

prepare to 

fight with 

me.' 

The Saracen 

says, 



Fro Babalony f e h^e tour in-to f e rede se 
Al f e lordes of honour alle fay holdef of me ; 
lerwscdem & ierieo ie& wan with my prouesse 
& al aboute tounes mo bof e more & lesse. 
fe croy$ ft ^our god dayd an 1 & fe sepulcre also 
Wyf dede of armes ich am wan, & reliqes many mo." 
0[lyuer] saide, " by my crouw y haue y-herd f y sawe : 
f ou hast do muche distrucciou/i to oure christens lawe 
& hast mad 2 fy avy wyf xij men for to fi^te 
Of al oure Bonder -company f e alre beste kny^te. 
Y am her a meyne kny$t y-comen out of 3 fraunce, 
Al-redy now with fe to fi^t for al f y gret bobauwce. 
Arys vp & anew do on f yn helm & lep oppon f y stede, 
& rap ... redy ray f e wel & elles y make f e blede." 
f e Sara^yn law . . . smere & to Oliuer sayde fan : 
" Wenist f ou so me a-fere ? f ou ert an hastif e man. 
1 $our god [was] an [ido]. 2 & [now] hast mad. 



Original 
draft. 



374 



378 



382 



386 



3 MS. of of. 



14 OLIVER HAVING TOLD HIM, THE SARACEN ASKS 

Er y remuvie me of pys place f pat sope pou schalt me telle, 388 
'Who art Of wat kunne comen bov wace f & by name wyten i wille. 

thou.andwho 

here thee ^ ^ V$ com y n g whar for it ys f & ho pe hiderward sente. 
and what is y wol wyten l pat sope of pys f & wat is pyn entente : 

& wan fat y know it wyterly f pe sope pat pou saye, 392 

pan schai y sykerly f arise vp and me arraye." 
Oliver an- H paft him ansuerede Olyuer f wyp sterne contynaunce : 

s \v6rs, * I 

Charles by " "? am v ~ sen ^ ^ f e neer ^7 Charlis kyng of fraunce. 

to say, Turn Charlis be sente be me to say f bov torndest to crestendome, 396 

to Christen- J r 

dom, or else & for-soke py false lay f & to follo^t sone ]>ov come : 

belyue pou scholdest on god almi^t f pat for ous gan blede, 

fight, or flee.' & elles y chalenge wif pe to fi$t f outlier y sehal haue py stede, 

& fleo Jiov schalt of pis lond f as a ladde dop on J?y fote. 400 

Charlis sent to pee pis sond f p<?u ne ge[te]st non opre bote." 
1 " ChrisfaiLQ knyst," quap Fyrumbras f " pou art a wonder gome : 

says 

ras, fc e r is non haste in bys cas f to fht 2ut mowe we .eome. 

' tliere is no ' 

haste. ^ c f or jj OU tellest so litel of me f ne were it for repreue, 404 

By Mahouw, pat ys my vowee f of pyn heued y wolde pee reue. 
Ten me one Ac tel me o pyng nopeles ' er we to-gadre fhte, 

thing, before 
e gl ' l MS. wynten, marked for correction. 

Original Or ich remuwy of pys plas pat sope pon schalt me telle 388 

draft, of wat kyn y-come pou was, & py name wyte ich chille, 
& war-for py comyng is, & ho pe hider sente. 
Y wil wite pat sope of pis & what is pyn entente. 
& wan y knowe hit wyterly pat hit is sop pat pow saye, 392 

pan schal y sykerly arys vp & me a-raye." 
IT pan him ansiierede olyuer wyp sterne continance : 
" Y am y-sent to p e her by Charlis kyng of fraunce ; 
Charlis pe sente by me to say pou torne to cristendome, 396 

& reneye py false lay & to follo^t sone pou come ; 
by-lyue pou scholdest on god almy^t, pat for ous gan blede, 
& ellis ich chaulange vriik p e to fi^t, oper y wil haue pi stede. 
Fleo pou a-way out of p/s lond as an harlot al afote. 400 

C[harlis] sent pe such a sond, pou getest non ope?* bote." 
f " Crestene kny^t," qua]? Ffyrumbras], " pou ert a wonder gome. 
Ne haste no^t me myche in pi's cas to fi^te pou nry^t wel come. 
Ac for pou letest so lite of me, nere hit for repreue, 404 

By Mahout pat ys my vowe of pyw heuede wold y pe reue ! 
Ac tel me o pynge nopeles or we to-gadre fi^te, 



HIM TO DESCRIBE CHARLES AND THE DOU^EPERES. 



15 



& say me sof & no lees f as help fee fy god alim^te. 
of C[harlis] fat ys ^our Emperer f of whame men stondef aye, 
& of duk Eoland fat ys so fier f f e sof e f ou me saye, 
& ek of is felawe, Erld Olyuer f tel me y f e praye, 
And of duk Berard of mourcdisdier f what manere men buf f aye, 
11 " Sarsyn," saide f e gode kny$t f " fat sof e schaltou here. 
Charlis ys so strong in fi^t ( . he fyndef nowar is pere : 
& Eolond ys so muche of rny^t 1 f so coraious & so fere, 
fat nowar nys founde non so wy$t f wan he ys on ys gere. 
Olyuer f e erld ys no^t so god f f e sof e for to saye, 
Ac he ys a man he^ of mod f Sarasyn} to yule arraye. 
Onys y wiste oppon a day f fat he slow kynges three 
fat lyued on 3 our false lay i & tweyne mad he flee : 
Ac he slow Sarazyns on fat place f [so do^tilich fat t]yde 
fat al f e feld y-strawed wace f of hymen on euery syde. 
Terry is sone duk Berard f ys a noble kny$t. 
f e?- ys no dof f eper fat nys hard f & strong iholde & wy^t. 
Now haue y told f e f yn askyng i for f y fer arys vp sone 
1 & Kolond ys so [noble a kni], 

& say me sof & no les, so helpe f& f y dri^te ! 

Of f i lord kyng Charlourc, of warn men stondej) aye, 

& of Eoland fat kny^t of gret renourc f e sof e f ou me saye ; 

& of his f elawe oliuer tel me, y f e praye, 

& eke of Berard of mourcdisder, wat maner men buf faye." 

" Sara^yn," saide f e gode kny3t, " fat sof e y telle f e here. 

Charlis ys so stronge in fi^t he fyndef no-war is pere, 

& Efoland] is an hardi man, so st?*ong man & so wi^t, 

fat in no batail fer he cam . ne fond he neuere kny^t, 

fat onys a strok hyra astod fat he on him leide, 

fat he ne afFuldem were wod, ouf er slowe at a braide. 

Olyuer his felawe is no^t so god, to sof e i f e telle, 

Ac nof eles he is a man of mod hef ene men to quelle. 

Y wiste onis on a day war he slow kynges f re, 

fat bi-leuede on f e false lay & tweye he made fle ; 

He laide on Sarazyns on fat plas so do^tilich with wille 

fat al f e feld y-strawid was of Sarsyns fat weren ille. 

Terry is sone, sire Berard, is a noble kny^t, 

& alle f e ofre do^epers buf do$ty men & wi}t. 

Now y haue f e al itold ne tarie f ou me no mere ; 



of Charles 
and Roland, 
410 and of Oliver, 
" and Berard.' 



[leaf 6] 
Oliver says, 

414 'Charles is so 
strong he has 
no equal, 
and nowhere 
is such a 
knight as 
Roland.' 
Oliver is not 
so good, but 

41ft once he slew 
three kings, 
and made 
two to flee. 



422 Berard is a 
noble knight. 



Now I have 
told thee, 
arise and put 
on thy gear. 



Original 
draft. 



410 



414 



418 
420 

424 



16 OLIVER TELLS FERUMBRAS HI9 NAME IS QARYN, A POOR KNIGHT. 

And. do on byn helm bou hebene kyng f & let se wat bou canst done, 
& bot bou be rabere gyrciie to spring f y swere by crist on trone 426 
Sone getest bou euyl endyng f with my swerd y wil bee slone." 
T^e Saracen f ban be sarsyn huld vp ys hed i after bes wordes felle, 
art a fool. & sa yde, " kny^t bou art a qued f to make me such a spelle, 
Little Litel prowesse for me it were f wib a vauasowr for to melle, 430 

prowess 



swer( l J> at y s nere e ^ s 7 wolde be quelle." 
" Sarsyn," quab Olyuer, " let now ben f by prude & fy manace ; 
says Oliver, Or be soTine hure sette bou sehalt sen f of by blod ful bis place. 

' ere the sun 

S ho h ^ ow Sc ^ a ^ f e 3 e lde recreent f ouber her rijt schaltou dye." 434 

yield/ j, e gara^yn saide " verament f y hope bov sehalt lye." 

His scheld tok he bo til hym ner f & laide vnder ys hed an hye : 

The Saracen Hym dredeb nobyng of Olyuer f no more ban of a flye ; 

Oliver no For he was strong & coraious f & hej man of parage, 438 

a fly. Him semede it nas no^t worb a lous f batayl wib hiwa to Avage. 

Christian/ IT " Ghrist&tLQ knht," quab Firumbras f "y haue of be god game, 

says Ferum- 

name 



name and & Q f wat kyn j, ou ert y 

' say8 " ^ ar y n " q^P Opyuer], " Gwylmynes sone f y tel be wybouten obe : 
^ P er igt ich was y-bore f a borgeys dude me gete. 
y haue t?*auayld her be-fore f wel herde for my mete, 
At court Til ich me dro$ to eourte-ward f & an seruise di^te me bare ; 446 



Original If bou ert to fijfce bold, arys ; & do on by gere, 
draft. & f)ote bou be raber haue y-do y make myn be-heste, 
' With my swerd y sehel be slo 3if bat hit wil leste." 
ban be Sara^yn held vp ys hed . wa?ane he had herd him telle 
& saide, " kny^t, bou ert a qued to make such a spelle. 
Litel prouesse for me hit were, with a uauysour for to melle, 430 
~\Vith my swerd bat is here ellys y wold be quelle." 
" Sara^yn, quab 0[lyuer], let Jn's ben, by prude & by manace ; 
Or so?me . . . sette bou schal y sen of by blod ful tys place. 

J?ou sehalt be 3elde 434 

[(?) 10 lines missing.] 

[top of col. 2] saie wttft-outen [obe] 443 

[At Perigot ich] was [y-bore, a borgeys dude] me gete 

y haue trauayled her bifore many many for my mete 

At ... y drow to eourtward an seruise icJi ber me di^te, 446 






FERUMBRAS ASKS WHY ROLAND OR OLIVER HAVE NOT COME TO MEET HIM. 17 



fan serued ich fe kynges 1 sty ward f [seuene 2 ] }er & mare : 
He bar my los to Charlis kyng f for my gode seruyse, nfbore my 

fat he $af me lond & of er f yng 5 & halp me in f is wyse : ciSs, 

f e kyng suf f e mad me kny}te '. to senile him in is werre, 450 me knight. 



answers 



& he me sente wij> f e to fi^te f com on }if f ov derre." 
IT Wan Oflyuer] hym hauef al itold f Fyrumbras gan to smyle : dare! i>fth u 
" Garyn," quaf he, " fou art ful bold f bot lust to me a wyle : Sd. bras 

Why ne sendef he duk Rolond f with me for to fi^te, 454 'Whysend- 

Ouf er olyuer with f e harde hond f fat is so god a kni^te ; ? r ouver, 

Ofer duk bera[r]d of montdisdier f oufer Ogerouw fe wi^te?" oro e eroun?' 

"Parfay " ansuerede erld Olyuer f " bay han of be dispute 'Faith 

far-for y am to J>e y-sent f to spelie J>ai do3ty men : 458 

for ))03 y ben in batail schent ' it ys no lest for hem. 
Arys vp now & don fyn helm f fy scheld & [eke] J?y gere, 
& kep fe silue vfiih oute herm f & be-fenk fe self to were. 
Oufer be fe dej? fat y schel deye f y $eue fe such a stroke, 462 

fat fou him neuere schalt clowe a-weye f .wile fou f y lyf mi^t broke." 
f " By my fayf ," quaf Firumbras f " haue f is wel in mynde, 
Neuere ne f a}t y ^ut in plas " w^t/i man of lowe kynde, 
1 \JQ [he^] styward. 2 MS. sone. 

& serued .... styward & memdera wiih al my mi^te : 

He [bar my los to Charlis kyng] fat he me gan au<mnce, draft. 

& jaf me beste lond [& thyng] fat be in f e realme of frnunce, 

Charlis [su)?fe mad me] kny^t to seruie hi?^ on his werre, 450 

He se[nte] me hider with [fe] to fi^t, asay now [if] fou derre." 

Wan Oflyuer hym] hauef [al i-]told Ffymmbras] gan to smyle : 

he [said] " Garyn, fou ert ful bold, but lust to me a while : 

Wy [ne] sendef he hider sir Roland with me for to fi$t, 454 

EOufer] Oflyuer] with fe herde hand, fat ys so noble a kni^t, 
Ouf er Bejrard of mourcdisder, of er sir Oger f e wi^t ? " 
" Parfay," fan said Olyuer, " for fay han of f e dispijt, 
f arfor y am to f e y-sent to spelie f ai do^ty men, 458 

f o^ y ben in batail schent : it is ne lest for hem. 
Aris vp now & do on f yn helm f y scheld & f y gere, 
& lep vppon f y stede ari^t & by-f enk f e for-to were ; 
Oufer by fe fayf fat y echal to kyng Charlemeyn 462 

On fyn heued y ^eue f e a knal & cleue fe in-to fe brayn." 
" By my . faif ," quaf Ffyrumbras], " haue f is wel in mynde, 
Neuere ne fau^te y $ut in plas with no man of so lowe kynde 

FERUMBRAS. 



18 FERUMBRAS PROPOSES A MOCK JOUST, BUT OLIVER REFUSES. 

Bote wyp duk ouper Erld of my^t f ouper kyng y-crouned free. 466 
if i slay ho? y slowe be her in fht f what prys were bat for me? 

thee,' says 



w lde sayn y were to blame f wyp such on for to fi^te, 
? Bote pou haddest a betere name f pan Garyn a pore kni^te. 
gowever,_one Ac o Jjyng y schal now for J>e do '. i dude it neuere to wi^te. 470 
3yf pov wilt assenty to f in armes y wil me di^te, 
& lepe y wol now on my stede f & bere to pe a spere, 
with anoper ryd pou to me i wyp a cors of werre, 
Als so harde as pou mixt flynge on ' a-rede me on pe schelde ; 474 
y schal pe harmles lete gon i & falle y wil on pe felde ; 
i win yield Tak pou pa/me my gode stede f & py beste per- wyp pou do, 
Lead'him & ^ Charlis Jjou him lede f & eke my scheld al-so. 

rles> Say him panne as J>y god J?e saue f ]>at ]jov hem y-wonne heer, 478 
and ten him & ^if ne Jjenkejj more to craue f 1 to me send he 1 Olyuer, 

Ou}>er Roland, fat is so strong in fi^t f oper Jje scot Gwylmer, 

f Berard, ouper Ogier. 



or Guy7 ' & if it fbel so bat on al-one f ne dar noat bat batail take. 482 

or Berard, 



2f ier ' ^ e ^^ ^ a ^ come e ^^rechone f nel ich hem no^t for-sake." 
i 8 g h e aii e Sot ^ " t ov spekest folie," saide Olyuer f " & makest muche delaye, 

1 l [J?a7rae] send he. 

Original Bote it wer duke or erld ful wi^t, ouper kyng y-crouned fre. 466 
draft. jj ^ y si e jj e j n suc h a fi^t, what pris wer pat for me *? 

Men wolde sayn y were to blame wyp such on) for to fi^te, 

Bote pou haddest a better name paw Garyn a pore kny^te. 

11 Ac o pynge y schal for pe do, y dude hit neuere to wi^te : 470 

If pou wolt assenty to, in armes i wil me di^te, 

& take y wol my stede & bere to pe a sperre, 

Wip an oper rid pou to me -with a gret cors of werre 

As harde as pou mi^t flyng 1 [on a-]rede me on my scheld. 474 

y shal pe harrnles lete gon, & falle y wil on feld, 

& take pou pawne my gode stede py best p*r with to da ; 

& To C[harlis] pou him lede & eke my scheld al-so ; 

Say him as py god pe saue how pou hit getest her, 478 

Bot ^yf he penkep more to craue sende hider Oliuer, 

Ouper Roland pat ys so strong in fi^t, oper pe scot Gwilmer, 

Terry, ouper Gy pe hardi kni^t, berard, ouper Ogier. 

& if hit ys so pat on al-one wil no3t pe batail take, 482 

pey$ pay come euerechone nel ich no^t hem for-sake." 

" pou spekest as fol," qua[p] 0[liuer], " & makest moche delaye ; 



FERT7MBRAS SEES BLOOD RUNNING FROM OLIVER'S SIDE, 19 



Thou 



Olive 



like 
says 



Wif fyn auazmt fou makest heer f fou ne mi3t no3t me amaye. "/ wa y 

fy stede ys myn, y haue y-fo3t f wather fou wile or no, 486 

f er-of schalt fou me lette no3t f fat hit ne schal be so. 

byn auazmt worb dere abost f byn heued bou schalt for-go. ' thy boast- 

ing will cost 

To do fat batail fou hast i-so3t f al redy am y farto. thee thy life.- 

1F Arys vp fer-for hastely f & aray fe wel to fi^te, 490 [leaf 7] 

Ouf er y swere be fat Mary f fat bar fat child of mi3te, 

no lenger wil y spary f e f for al f y grete bostyngge : 

bote liggyng her y wol fe sle f wit/i-oute more drecchynge." |in spite of 



1f Fi[rumbras] gan to waxe wrof f & yp bi-gan to sitte : 494 

Were Opyuer] lef, oper wer him loj? f Jjannes nolde he flitte : 

Egrelich he be-huld aboute f & lokede on J>e kni^te, 

& saw be red blod russchen out f borw is armwre brwte : He sees the 

blood on 

endelonges is side J>at blod him ran f & fill doim to }>e grounds 498 liv er, 

J?e sarsyn knew it wel by fan f he hadde a greuows wou?zde. 

& ban he askede of Olyuere f bat houede ber him tabide ; and asks if he 

is wounded. 

If fat he any 1 wonde bere f in ys body fat tyde. 

"Me fynkf fou hast a wonde fere " f said he, "in fy syde." 502 

"fer-of," quaf . Opyuer], "ne haue fou no fere," i & twrnd him fat 'Trouble 

sor to hyde. sa y 8 Oliver ' : 

' he [a]. 

With f yn auaunt fou makest her fou schalt no^t me amaye, Original 

f y stede ys myn y haue if o^t, wafer f e wil or no, 486 draft. 

f ow ne schalt me lette no^t fat hit ne sehal be so. 

f yn aucmnt worf ful dere a bo^t f yn hed fou schalt for-go. 

To do f a batail fat fou hast so$t me self am redi f er-to. 

Go now & raye anon to %t 490 

Ouf er .... by my god of [mi3t] 

fy gret bostyaage 

. . . schal . . f e sle as fou ert liggynge." 
Ferumbras made him fane wrof & vp he gan to sitte, 494 

Were 0[liuer] hem lef or lof f araies nolde he flitte ; 
Egerlich he be-huld aboute & lokede on Olyuer, 
& saw fat red blod rusched oute out of his body f er ; 
forw-out his armwre f e blod out ran ri^t dowi to fe gronde, 498 
f e Sarzyn knew it wel by fan he hauede a grisly wonde : 
He askede f anne of Olyuer, fat houede f er him to byde : 
" Me f enkf fou ert y-hert ful sere & berest a wonde wyde 
By fat blod fat rennef douw by fyn ofer side." 502 

0[lyuer] saide, " [fat] is no3t so," & turnde him hit to hide ; 

c 2 



20 AND OFFERS HIM SOME OF THE HOLY BALM. 

; the blood " fat "blod," qua]) he, " fov 8630 fo '. it come]) out of my stede, 

steed.' ]? or he scholde 3erne go f his side y made blede : 

Of ])e hors it come]) fat y sit on f fat blod 1 fat fou y-se^e " 506 

Thou canst " fat ys lees," saide he anon f " f on blerest no$t so myn e^e, 

Syfthe" 16 '' ^- C ^ * can f a * r *3* are( le f at blod hi^ compf of f e, 
Saracen. vaste be-side f y nauel-stede ' as it semef me. 



'But at my Ac by myddel fer hongef her f a costrel as fou mht se, 510 

saddle hangs 

faUofthe nw y cn 7 s ^ f f a ^ bame cler f fat precio?w ys & fre, 



J> at 3ure god was wif anoynt f wan he was ded & graued, 
anointed. y wan hym wyf my swerdes poynt f many man haf he saued. 

For hwych man fat hauef any wounde f & beo fer-wif enoynt, 514 
it win heal it wil don him be hoi & sounde f & maky him in god poynt : 

any wound. 

& if he fer of drynke may f beo f e def him no3t so neere, 



Sone he schel be on god aray f & beo al hoi & feere. 
Drink aiittie, Go tak him now fer he hongef f & dr[i]nk of him a stou?*de, 518 

fan schaltou no3t a-bide longe f til fou be hoi & sounde ; 
then thou & wan bou felest by body feer f be better ban nmt bou fhte." 

wilt fight all 



r answerede Olyuer f " y wil no3t by f is 

needit not/ & or we departye henne f al hool fou schalt me vynde." 522 

1 )?at [rede] blod. 

Original fat blod fat fou y-se3e f o hit comef out of my stede, 
draft. ;p or he schold faste hider go his sides y makede blede : 

Hit is fe hors fat y sit on fat blod him re??nef fro." 506 

" fou lyest," he saide, " by Makeron ! hit mi3te neuer be so, 

Ac If y can f e ri3t arede fat blod him rennef of f e. 

Fro Faste by-sydes f y nauel stede, so ymote y f e ! 

But ^uraler at my sadel bo3e hongef o botel, 510 

Ful of baume oun y 1036 ys he euery del, 

fat 3our god was anoynt f er-with wan he byried was : 

Ich hem wan with swerdes poynt at rome 3our O3ene plas. 

fe man fat hauef wtfnde & is fer-wit/i anoynt 514 

He schel be hoi & sonde & waxe on god poynt. 

Ac If he f er-of drynke, beo f e def no3t so neer, 

Anon ri3t he may swynke & beo hoi & fer. 

Take him fer he honge and drynke f er-of a stonde, 518 

fou schalt [no3t] abide longe or fou be hoi & sounde, 

& wa?me f [y] hert [ys] hoi & fer f e surlokere fou nu^t fi^te." 

fan him ansuerde Olyuer, " y wil non bi f is Ii3te ; 

Or we departe a-twynne al hoi fou schal[t] me fynde." 522 



OLIVER REFUSES AND THREATENS HIM. FERUMBRAS RISES FROM THE GROUND. 21 



fe Sarasyn sayd til him. fa?me f "fyn hej herte wil fee schynde." 

IT Fyru??ibras of Alysandre f to Olyuer spak & low^ : 

" Of what schap ys duk Eolandre f tel me y pray f e now}, 

& ek of Olyuer fat is so wi^t 1 f of what schap ys hee y praye, 

As fou art a iantail kny^t 2 f fat sofe fat fou me saye." 

IF Olyuer him answerede fan i " be-hold me fat am heer ! 

for In al fyng fat fou auyse can f such schap ys Olyuer. 

Roland ys no^t so long as hee 5 ac more is he of my^te, 

& do^tyere man on to see i & sternere man in fi^te : 

ne fa^t he neuere $et in felde f wyf kyng ne Ameraurct, 

fat he ne aslo3 ouf er madem 3elde '. ys body to him creaunt." 

IT Fyrumbras ansuerde him agayn f prouteliche & sayde : 

" f 03 fay wern her bof e twayn ' fay scholde me no^t dure abraide, 

& fo3 suche foure were here f be Mahouw & ternagaunt, 

Ich hem wolde wel conquere f wif my swerd trenchaunt." 

IT " Sarsyn," saide Erld Olyuere f " al day f ou makest bost ; 

"Wer al fyng sof fat f ou saist here f f ou were a grymly gost. 

Arys vp anon & arme f e f y ne wil no lenger duelle, 

Of er be f e lord fat schep lef and tree f heuene & eke helle, 

Bote f ou arys vp on f y fet f & schippe f e a-now to r^te, 

A tweyne i wol forcleue f yn hed f with my swerd her ri^te." 



524 



528 



532 



Then Ferum- 
bras asks 
Oliver to 
describe 
Roland, 



and Oliver 
answers, 
[leaf 7, back] 
' Look at me ; 
such is Oliver. 
Roland is not 
so tall, but 
stronger and 
mightier.' 



536 



540 



' Though 
they,' says 
Ferumbras, 
' or four such 
were here I 
should not 
fear them.' 
'Thou art 
ever 

boasting,' 
says Oliver; 
' arise, or else 



I will cleave 
thy head.' 



And ek of [J>e Erld] Olyuer. 

As J>ou art iantail kny^t [& feer]. 



fe Sara^yne saide fanne, " fy prude wol fe schynde." Original 

IT Ferumbras of Alisandre to 0[liuer] spak & low, 524 draft. 

11 Of what shap ys Eoland, tel me y praie f e now, 

& of fe Erld Olyuer, of what faciou?& is he : 

As fou ert iantail kni^fres peer anorc ri^t tel fou me." 

Oliuer Inm ansuered faw, " be-hold me fer & ner, 528 

In alle fyng fat fou can, ri}t such ys Oliuer. 

Ro[land] is no^t so long as h[ee] [Ac] more he is of mi^t, 

& do3tyere man y w[iste to see] & sternere man in 113 1. 

Ne fau^t he neuere in fylde with kynge ne Amerant, 532 

fat he [ne] made him ^elde [ys] body to him creaunt ; 

& if he him ^elde nolde, & putte him to ys grace, 

Sle him [jjanne] he wolde [for] he went out of place." 

F[yrumbras] ansuerde h[im agayn, prout]fulich & saide, 534 

" f 03 f ei were her bof e tweyn, fey scholde me no3t dure abraide, 

& f 03 suche iiij wer her, by Mahon & ternagant, 



FERUMBRAS IS VERY T.ALL AND OF GREAT STRENGTH, BUT OLIVER 

Ferumbras is U Wip pat pe Sarsyn pat was por f wax wrop on his herte 544 

and starts up. & bente hym brymly as a bor f & vp hym gan to sterte ; 
& wan lie stod appon pe ground f huge l was he of lengpe, 
He is is feet Fifteuene fet hoi & sound f & wonderliche muche of strengpe. 547 
rfuUy Had he ben in crvst be - leued & y-vollid on pe haly font, 



A bettre kny^t ]>an he was preued f po was per non lyuand : 

Fyrumbras of Alysaundre '. was a man of gret stature, 550 
& ful brod in pe scholdres was f & long man in forchure. 
Oppon i& arm-wre was he clad '. wyp a cote-armure clene, 
Of clob of gold it was mad f & enbrouded wit/* perlis schene. 

cloth-of-gold. 

He be-holdep oppon Olyuer f egrelich f as lyoun, 554 

And by-gan to gon him ner f & siggejj J>ys resoun ; 

He says, 'i " Garyn, me mcruayllef myche'of Jie f pat art so meyne a kny^t, 
d . a t ril ^ e a e nd How pou darst entremetrie of me 1 a-^en me to take fi^t. 

A ful gret pite me penkp it were f for pou art so bold 558 

To sle pe in fijte here 1 f oper to take pe, if y woM. 
i win fight Hit nys noit on my porpos her f wiih no man to 2 fijte 

with none ' 



nob C ie t aid be -^* e ^ e ^ en a ^yngi^ peer f & strong man eke of 

mighty.' Wend a-wey pou vauasour f & say so Charlis kyng, 562 

1 [ful] huge. 2 [for] to. 

Original Ich hem wolde alle sone wip my swerd trenchant 
draft. .............. makest host 

[Bottom of sheet. ? 8 lines (long) wanting.] 
. . . hoi & sond ... he .... 

Had he beo in crist be-leued, & fulled in hoi fanston, 
A betere kny3t pan he was p>reuid liuande nas per non. 

(yrumbras of Alisandre was a man of gret statu-re, 550 

Wei brode were his sholdres & long was his f orehure 
Vppon his armes he was clad wyp a mantel . . . 
Of a clop of gold [it was] ymad ..... erne 

He beholdep O[liuer] egrelieh as lyoun, 554 

& by-gan to gon him ner, & siggep pis resouw, 

" Garyn, me meruail-lep muche of pe pat ert so comune a kny3t, 

pat pou perst pe sette to me a-^en me for to fi^te ; 

Gret pite me penkp it were for pou ert so [meyne a knd^te] 558 

^o sle pe her wyp' my gere, ouper take pe to . . . . 

Hit is no^t to fi^te myn entente ....... * 

Bote he beo of londe & rente, gret & eke of mi^t. 

Wend a-wey, pou vauasour, & tel so [Charlis kyng} 562 



XI. IfOH* 

F 



DOES NOT FEAR HIM. THEY BEGIN TO FIGHT. 23 

' f ys day he fallef in d'eshonour f for is fol sendyng.' " 

IF " What ! vs." quab Oflyuerl " by prechyng '. icome to such an ende 1 Oliver 

J '^ answers, 

I ne schal neuere, by heuene kyng f a fot ferther wende 



Or y haue of be f e he3ere hand f ou.f er sley^ fee on fis felde, 566 

Outher f ov schalt be recreant f & rnaugre f y tef f e 3elde. 

Tak f yn armys if f ou wilt i no lenger nel y f e spare ; 

On yuel dej) mot y be spild f if ich fe byde mare." [leaf sj 

A lefte ys sper & drow ys swerd '. & smytef til hym-ward sare, 570 Redraws im 

sword and 

& boate cleue him vn-to be berd i & til his hed hit bare. strikes at 

* ' * erumbras, 

be Sarsyn anon bar of be stroke '. wz'tA ys scheld bat a held an honde who wards 

off the blow 

& a 1 quarter ber-of a smot f bat it fel douw on be sonde. ^H] 11 . 

u ' ' shield, which 

^ " Arme J?e, Sarsyn," saide Olyuer fan '. "hit wil be for ]>jn prow." "broken. 
" fou saist so])," qua]) he, "by ternagarc f JJGU haddest ney^ slawe me now. 
Hadd y J>at stronge strok y-take f Jjou haddest to me 2 ymynt, 576 'Had that 
For euere my bred had be bake- f myn lyf dawes had be tynt ; SumSas 

Ac for )?ou mentest me J)ilke stroke f or ich ful armed were, haYbeen* 

J?ov schalt abigge it al so hot f or fat y take my gere." ever!' 

IF Jje Sarsyn fanne a drow ys brond f fat was so gret of strengfe, 580 ^ ^ ew his 
1 [nojjeles] a. 2 MS. mo. 

To day he fallef in de[s]honow for his fol sendyng." Original 

" Wat ! is," quaf Oflyuer], " fy prechyng icome to such an ende? draft. 

I ne schal neue?*e be heuene kyng, [a fot ferther] wende, 

Or ich haue fe oner hand y-slawe fe in ]>is felde, 566 

Oufer jjou schalt to me creant 1 maugre fy tej) f e ^elde. 

Take fyn armis ^if fou wilt no lenger y nel fe spare, 

In yuel def worf y spilt if y fe bide mare." 

He lefte ys sper & drow is swerd, & smot til him ward sare, 570 

& haued y-fo3t to cleue ys hed in-to fe bar[de fajre. 

J>e Sarsyn fan bar of f e stroke wyf his scheld [fat a] bar an honde, 

Nof eles a quarter f er-offe he smot ful doura [oppon f e so]nde. 

"Arme fe, Sarsyn ! " saide 0[lyuer], u hit wil be for fi prow." 

" f ou. sayst sof , by lubiter, f ou haddest ney^ . . . e now. 

Hadde y fat ilke stroke y-take fou haddest [to me y-ment] 576 

For euere my bred hadde ben bake, my lif dawes hadde ben spent. 

Ac for f ou mentest me fylke stroke or ich all armed were, 

f ou schalt a bie hit al so hot or fat y take my gere," 

fe Sara3yn fan a drow his brand fat was so gret of strengfe, 580 

1 MS. to [re]creant. 



24 FERUMBRAS ACCIDENTALLY KILLS OLIVER'S STEED, BUT OLIVER IS UNHURT. 

7 feet long, & wan it was nakede on his bond f vij, fet it had of lengbe, 
Him self was eke strong & feer f & is herte gan vp sprynge, 
and showers So bikke he smot to Olyuer '. as- he mute flynge. 

blows on 

defends^hn- $ Q 61 ^ was war > ^ ^ e P^ e n ^ m we ^ & laide til hi?n with indite, 584 
self well. ^ c p e g ara ^y n was fusj f e j ( fa kepte is heued ari^te. 

His heued he kepeb with is schelde f bat oimhelid was & bare ; 
Bytere he bo^te is whyle 3elde f bat hadde a-greued him fare. 
Ferumbras To Olyuer bawne smot he a stroke f mt on be helm an he* : 588 

then smites 

f3 f a * swerd wer god it no^t ne bot i bot dou^ by is chyn it se^, 
& before ys seheld a-doiw it glod f & oppon is-sadel it ran, 



and kills his borw sadel & hors bat swerd him wod f ban f ul dourc hors & man. 

horse. 



be Sar^yn drow him bawne a-part f & to 0[lyuer] saide saTz^faille 592 
" bou ne schalt me fynde no cowart f a liggeng man to saille." 
A sterte to his helm, & pult hi?ft aan f & to 0[lyuer] ba?me a sede, 
" If bou with me wilt fi^te a^an i by Mahouw bou gost to dede." 
Oliver starts ^[ Olyuere stert vp hoi & sound f & spekeb til hi?ft wyb grame, 596 
d^fie^Ferum- " ^ diffye be nov, bou hebene hound i crist ^yue be muche schame 1 
abuses htm. Why hast bou my stede a-slawe f wat hadde bat hors mysdo ? 
by stede for hym now wil y craue f & haue him er bou go." 



Original Wan hit was naked on his haund vij fet hit had of 
draft. & him-self was strong & fer, his herte gan vp sprynge, 
So bylke he smot to Olyuer as bat he mi^t flynge. 
be duk was war & kepte hi?ft wel & laide to hi?ft with mi^t, 584 
Bot be Sarasyn was ful fel & kepede his heuede ari^t. 
He kepeb his heued al with his seheld ou^keuered it was & bare ; 
Bytere he bo^te his wile $eld bat hadde agreued him bare. 
To Oliuer pan ment he a stroke, on his helm he dud bi-gywne ; 588 
bo^ bat swerd wer god lu't no^t ne bot, bote ran doura be his chyne. 
A-fore his seheld a-douw hit glod, vppon his sadel hit gan rewne, 
borw hors & sadel bat swerd forb wod, & 0[lyuer] fel douft benne. 
be Sarasyn drow him bawne apart & to Oflyuer] said, " san$ faille, 
NQ schalt bou fynde me no coward, A liggynge man to saile." 593 
A sterte to ys helm & putte him an, & saide, " ic^ rede bou fle, 
for If bou 1 fittest with me a3an, by Mahout, y wil be sle ! " 
0[lyuer] sterteb vp hoi & soud. [& spekeb] to him with [grame] 

" y dyffie be hebene hond '..... 597 

(2 lines illegible) 
1 MS. J3ou J^ou. 






THEY FIGHT ON FOOT EVEN MORE FIERCELY THAN BEFORE. 25 

A leyde to f e Sarsyn strokes smerte f ri^t als til his dedly f o ; 600 
& grete dyntes faraie fay gerte '. hir eyf er til of er f o. 

OW by-gynt a strong batayl i be-twene fis knyjtes twayne; NOW begins a 
Ayf er gan of er harde assayl f bof e wyf rny3t & mayne 
jjey hewe to-gadre wyf swerdes dent f faste with bof en hondes, 604 
Of helmes & sheldes bat fyr out went '. so sparkes dob of brondes ; fire flies out 

' of their 

So sterne strokes fay arau^te f eyther til of er with strenghf e JhlSS? and 

fat al f e erthe f er-of qua^te f a myle & more on lenghf e. areThfir ty 

fey weren so eger bof e of mod f & eke so fers to fi^te, 608 



N 



bat eyber of he??z ban boite god f to sle ober if he mhte. shakes for a 

mile round 

Hit ne mi3t no^t longe endure f )>e batail betwene hem two, TheTTi 

for neyj)er ne knew of o])er mesure f bot euere fay fo3te so. iast. hott 

IF Olyuer hym by-j?o^te pan f his los was lost in londe 612 Oliver exerts 
Bot yf he sle^e Jjat hejjene man f & fer-for he gan him fonde, 
& smot him on be helm an he? f & a gobet away a bar ; smites 

Ferumbras 

Ys chyke fat swerd J>o cam so ne} f fat sum of is berd yt schar ; helmet 
fe strok a doun him glente anon i ac he wif is scheld him hente, 616 KmeonS? 
& elles had he his schuldre bon f for-coruyn wyf fat dente. 
Fyru7^bras saide til hym fan f " maugre mote f ou haue ! 'A curse on 

............. on him strokes smerte Original 

. . . wel," quaf he, " wilt foil so haue at f e wyf herte." draft. 

U Now by-gynnef strong batail by-twyne f e knytes tweyne, 

Eyfer ofer ga?i to assayl wyf mi^te & with mayne. 603 

fey hywe to-gydre witft swerdes dynt, with mi^t of bof e hir horade, 

of helm & scheld fat fur out went So sparke dof of f e bronde. 

50 Sturne strokes fay a-ra:jte eyf er til of er f e whyle 
fat al f e erf e aboute qua^te men im^t hure a myle. 

fey wer so fers on hure mod, & eger on hure fi^te, 608 

fat eyf er of hem fojte god to slen of er if he mi^t. 
Hit mi^t no^t lange dure such fi^t by-twene he7?^ two, 
for Neyf er ne couf e no mesure bote euere fo3te so. 

51 0[liuer] by-fo3te him fo is los wer lost in londe 612 
Bote he mi^te fat Sarsyn slo anon a gan him fonde, 

He smot him on f e helm an he3, a gobet away he bar ; 

His cheche fat swerd cam ful ney3, sum of is berd he schar. 

fe stroke adourc him glent anorc, & he with is scheld hi/ hente, 616 

& elles had he 1 is scholder bon for coruyn at fat dente. 

Fyrumbras saide to 0[liuer] faw, " maugre mote pou haue ; 

1 MS. he had he. 



26 PERUMBRAS IS ANGRY, AND ASKS OLIVER HIS TRUE NAME. 

Subben y was furst i-bore to man ( . my berd nas no3t so schaue." 
IT be Sarsyn by-gan to waxe wrob '. egre, & eke fere, 620 

& hef vp ys swerd, & til him a gob '. & smot to Olyuere ; 

wte^restoT ^ anoneward be helm an he3 '. ys crest a bar adoun, 

Set! & f 6 cercle of g ol(i fat sat ber-bey f be perles wer worj? a touw, 

& of ys auantaile wyb bat stroke f a carf wel many a maylle. 624 
Jian olyuer profrede til him a st[r]oke f & gan him for to saylle, 
& ban by-gan be stronge fi3t f betwene bes knifes tweye ; 

They fight As twey lyons bay furde ri3t f bat wolde slen his preye. 

lions. j, e Sarasyn sayde to be kny3t f "by Mahouro powr schalt deye ! ' 628 

ban said 0[lyuer] " by god almy3t f y hope bou schalt leye ! " 
IT A3eyn bey wente to-gydre thare f & hur armwre hewe a-sonder ; 

Their strokes Hure strokes fulle so styb & sare f bay schulde so dob be bonder. 

resound like 

thunder. Helmes & hauberkes bay kutte a two ' wi{ hure strokes rounde, 632 

& eyber enpaynede him other to slo f ac 3ut nad bay no wounde. 
Fenimbras is IT Fyrumbras was aggreued sare i bat 0[lyu<er] hym stod so longe, 
wonders who & Jan him wondrede wat a ware i for he was so stronge. 

He drew him bawne apart & sayde f " y pray be, iantaile kni3t, 636 

As bov louest bat ilke mayde f bat baar by god almy3t, 

Wel y wot bou art ful gret of fame f a bettere kni3t wot y non, 

Original Syb y was i-bore to man my berd was n3t so y-schaue." 
draft. <ft j e Sara3yn by-gan to wax 1 wrob, egre & eke fere, 620 

& hef vp ys swerd & to him agob, & smot to Olyuere, 
Ei3t oppon is helm an hey3 be crest he bereb [adou?i], 
& be cercle of gold bat sat per-by, be pe?les were worb [a touw] ; 
of his auentaille with fyest, stroke he carf wel [many] a maile. 624 
ban 0[liuer] profrede him a st[r]oke & gan him. for to assaile, 
& bo by-gan ynewe fi3t be-twen' bis kny3tes tweye ; 
As lyons bey furde bobe ri3t bat folhode on ys preye. 
be Sara3yn saide to be kny3t, "by Mahouw, bou schalt dye !" 628 
ban saide Ofliuer], " by god Almy3t, y hope bou schalt [lye].' 
bara bay fo3te to-gydre mare, hur armure bay k[utte ason]der ; 
Hure strokes wer so dedly sare bay schulde so dob be bonder. 
Helm & haberke bay kutte a two wM hure strokes rouwde, 632 
& eyber enpeyned him ober to slo. Ac 3ut nad [bay no wound el 
Yerumbras was an angred sore bat Ofliuer] hym stod [so longe] : 
Him wondrede myche what he were for he was [so stronge]. 
Adrow him apart baraie arcd saide, " y praye be [iantail] kni3t, 636 
As bow louest bat ilke maide bar bar by god 
Tel me by ri3te name for bettre kny3t w[as] non. 



OLIVER TELLS HIM; FERUMBRAS IS PLEASED. THE FIGHT CONTINUES. 27 



Tel me per-for py ri3te name f Wat callep me pe at horn. 

Wyp many a man y haue y-fau^t f fond y neuere py peer ; 

pe grete strokes pov hauest me rau3t '. sittej) my bones neer. 

pou toldest me to day or pys f py ri3te name was Garyn ; 

Hit is no^t so, y wot to wys f by Mahoura & Appolyn ; 

If fat Garyn were py name f y knewe it wel apli3t 

In tal pe world scholde sprynge fame i of such a noble kni3t. 

Tel me now Jjer-for pat sope f as pou art gent & free, 

& suppe schul we to-gadre bope f falle to fi^t a^e" 

1T J)e iantail kny3t wit/i-drow him jjan i & spak wit^-oute duelle, 

" Herkne now, pou hepene man f & pat sope i wol pe telle. 

Olyuer ys my name ri3t f a doppeper y am of fraunce, 

& am an erld & a kny3t f as haue ich gode chaunce. 

Y am Charlis Emys sone i y-come of men of gode, 

& in my moder half i am y-come f al-so of kynges blode. 

nov haue y to pe her itold f my name w^-oote lye, 

If Jjov art to fi3te bold f com on y Jte diffye ! " 

5T pan ansuerede fyruwbras f & saitie to Olyuer, 

" Y am now gladdere pan y was f for now y haue my per.' r 

pan a3en pai toke pe fijt '. vfiih swerdes sherpe & kene, 

Eyper til other wip mayn & mi3t f pe strokes were wel sene > 

Harde pay fo3te to-gadre po f pus nn^ty men of mayne, 

per was no reste betwene hem to f bot laide on 3erne beyne; 



He asks him 
his name, and 
640 Praises Mm. 



644 



652 



[leaf 9] 
' Tell me the 
truth, and 
then we will 
fight again.' 

Oliver tells 
him that he 
is one of the 
peers of 
France, and 
of royal 
descent, 



and chal- 
lenges him tt 
6-56 renew the 
fight. 



They begin 
again 



660 and fight 
even more 
fiercely tliau 
before. 



for pou ert a kny3t gret of fame wan pou ert at horn. Original 

Wyp many a man y haue i-fau^ fond! y nere [such] an oper r 640 draft. 

Euery strok pat pou me raujt fallep dourc as a foper. 

pou toldest to me to day or pys py name was Garyn : 

Hit is no3t sop, so 3yue me blys, Mahouw & Apolyn ! 

If pat Garyn were py name y know it wel ari3t 644 

In tal pe world schold springe a fame of such a noble kn%t, 

Tel pou me, kni3t, al pe sope as pow aTt gent & free, 

& suppe schalle we to-gadre hope falle to . fi^te a3e." 

pe iantayl kny3t wM-drow .... 648 

[7 long lines cut off.] 
" Ich am gladder pan y was now ...... f r 657 

pan a3en pay toke pe fi^t wyp . . . r 
Eype?* til oper wip al hure nu^t . . . . 

Wel hard was pat batail pe . . . . 6-60- 

per nas no reste be twene ... 



OLIVER KNOCKS THE SARACEN'S SWORD OUT OF HIS HAND,. 

Wan eyf er knew what of er was f f e hardere fay guwne to fi^te, 
Each tries MS & to slen eyf er of er in fat plas f eyther dude ys- mi^te. 

1T Firu?ftbras f e hef ene kyng f was a man of gret fertee, 664 

& anpeynedem f anne for} al f yng I erld 0[lyur] f er to slee : 
Ferumbras Sib be be tyme bat he was bore ' on batail ne corn, he non, 

had never ff ' 

been beaten. I n _to f e day fat he com fore f fat he ne ouercom his f on ; 

ne a-3en no man ne tok querel f by-for fat in no lond 668 

fat he ne hadde f e betere deel f & eke f e he^ere hond. 

ac now haj) he so longe y-so^t f ys peer he haf i-founde, 

& fat til hym worf hard ibo^t f wif-inne a litel stonde. 671 

The fight fey f ojten to-gadres f anne ^erne f f ys wytherwyns wilde & wrobe, 

continues. 

& smyte strokes smerte & sterne f in ha>brkes & helmes bof e. 
Wif f e strokes fat f is frekes slente f flyngande to-gader in fi^te, 
Helmets, Hnr helmes & haberions bay to-rente '. fat arst wer fair & brnte, 

hauberks and 

BhStemT ^ hure scheldes stronge & grete i fey were al to-hewe ; 676 

Vnder hure bof en fete i fan mi3te me f e peces schewe. 
IF Olyuer laid on f ikke y-now i so dude Fyrumbras, 
Bot with enterlas fat a f row f to f e Sarasyn bi-tid a cas : 

Oliver knocks Olvuer smot is s-werd away i fer out fram ys honde : 680 

Ferumbras' 

j, an was jj e Sarsyn in gret affray f & niste wat was to donde. 



Original Wan eyf er yknew wat of er was .... 

draft. & TO slen ys felaw in fat plas .... 663 

Of Alysandre ser F[erumbras] was . ful . . . . 
In no batail neuere he nas fat .... 

NQ a^e no wi^t ne tok qz^erel .... 668 

fat he nadde fat betere del & e .... 
Ac now he hauef so longe ys[o^t] .... 
& fat worf ful hard ibojt wif .... 

fay f 03 ten to-gaddre ^erne fy 672 

& smyten strokes harde sterne in he .... 

Wif strokes fat fay to-gadre slent w . . . . 

Hure hauberions weren alto -rent fat erst .... 

& hure scheldes strong & gr[et] .... 676 

f e peces ley dour* at hire fet . . . . 

Olyuer laid on f ikke y now .... 

Bot vfitJi entrelas fat he f row .... 

Olyuer smot his swerd aw ..... 680 

fan was f e Sarasyn in gret a .... 



BUT ALLOWS HIM TO REGAIN IT. FERUMBRAS IS VERY WROTH. 



29 



Ac 0[lyuer] was a corteys kni^t f & a-syde by-gan to stonde. 

"Tak vp," said he, "py swerd arijt f & to kep it beter pou fonde." 

f Fyru[mbras] was glad, & toke vp pat brondf quiklich at a brayde, 684 

& wan it was on is hond f to 0[lyuer] lie spak & sayde, 

" pou hast y-lyued py lif to longe f to do me such a spyte, 

y wil wip pat selue bronde f py whyle wel a-quyte : 

pyn outrage schal be dure a-bo3t f by Mahouw, my god al-one ; 688 

py god ne may pe helpe no^t f pyn heued pou schalt for-gone. 

A-fore pis day ne toke y nere f of no man such a sehame." 

" ne make it no3t so," quap Olyuere f " for oper weys pee schal grame. 

Or we departe pis ilke day f such tyme schalt pou sene 692 

pat pow schalt sayn a weleway f pat y cam in pis grene ! 

ne schaltou by pat tyme nopyng ^ilpe '. of py doynge here ; 

py Mahouw ne schal pe nopyng helpe f pat pov ne a-biest dere." 

IT & pan pey waxe wonder wrope f pys kny^tes styp on stoure, 696 

& eyper of pis frekes bope f til oper 3af many a schoure. 

pey fou^te to-gadre par so longe f & 3yue strokes sore, 

pat pe fom of hure moup out spronge f so dop out of pe bore. 

pe Sarsyn pat was nopyng feynt f smot Olyuer in pe side, 700 

por3 is scheld wyp gold ypeynt f pe sterne strok gan glyde ; 




' Never before 
have I 

suffered such 
a disgrace, 

but before we 
part thou 
si uilt repent 
it.' 



They both 
wax wroth, 



and 

foam like 
wild boars. 
Ferumbras 
smites Oliver 
in the side. 



Olyuer was wel corteys kny$t .... 

" Tak 1 vp," quap he, " py swerd ar 

F[erumbras] tok vp ys longe brond .... 684 

& wan it was on hys honde to .... 

" pou hauest y lyued wel to longe .... 

Y schal per-for wyp pi's bronde p . . . . 

pyn out-ra3e schal beo dur .... 688 

py god ne may pe helpe no3t .... 

Y ne tok 3\ite neuer er of no . . . . 

" Ne make no3t so," quap Oliuer, " for oper .... 

Er we depa?*te pys ilke da3e So tyme .... 692 

pou schalt sayn a weleway pat y cam. 

Ne schelt pou nopyng 3ilpe of .... 

py Mahourc ne may pe helpe pat pou ne abi . . . 

pan pey waxe wonder wrope .... 696 

Eyper of hem panne bope to oper .3 

pei fo3te to-gadre so longe w^ . .... 

pe fom of hure moup out spronge 

pe Sara3yn pat was nopyng 700 

porw his scheld pat with golde y-pe 



Original 
draft. 



30 THEIE BLOWS PALL LIKE FLASHES OF LIGHTNING, BUT NEITHER PREVAILS. 

of scheld & haberk a-wey a schar f al fat he arau^te, 
& al fat side he made baar i -with f e selue drau^te, 
nad lie stert fan a side f wt^-o\ite wordes mo, 704 

Wif fat stronge stroke vnride f is lifdawes had be do. 
The Saracen 5F be Sarsyn ban him vnderstod f he had ihert him sore, 

thinks he has * 

wounded him, & sa i(j e? jj ou lesest fyn herte blod f f ou twrnest agayn no more ! 

Charlis wif f e hore berde f dof f e lite Auaylle, 708 

Suf f en fat y schal wyf my swerde f sle f e in bataille." 

but Oliver Oliuer ansuerede & swor ys of f " bi god, f on spekst folie ; 

says no, 

n defiea Arst y wol fe make wrof f $ut her y f e diffie. 

for $ut am y sond & heyl f & ne fele no maner sare ; 712 

y schal acquite f y trauayl i hennes or f ov fare, 
i will make bow schalt julde be creaimt f to me in bys f elde : 

thee yield to r ' 

S&SVwiu ^ Charlis suffen y wil fe grauwt f & to hy?ra y wil fe 3elde." 

hand thee ^ j, an i,y.g an a f er ]y fi^t f be-twene fis two barouw, 716 






Eyf er enpeynede him with al ys mi3t f to dyngen ofer adouw. 
fay smyte to gadre f o so feste f with grisly dentes grete, 
the sweat fat be soot fram hem gan breste f & made hure chekes wete. 

runs down * * 

their fcces; ^ Kyng Firumbras fe stronge f Oflyuer] ascriede fo, 7-20 

" f ov endurest me to longe f f y lif f on schalt f or-go," 

Original Scheld & haberke a-doiw he sch ......... 

draft, fc a i ^ s i& G fa ma kede bar .......... 

Nadde he stert fan a-syde y .......... 704 

Wyf fat strong stroke [vnjride he h ........ 

f e Saresyn f awne him vnder ........... 

& sayde, " f ou lesest fyn herte blod ......... 

Charles with hore berd ............ 708 

Suf .................. . 

0[liuer] ansuerden ............. 

" Arst f on schalt f e make \vrof ......... 

^ut am y bofe quert & heil ........... 712 

y schal a-quyte f y trauail hew ......... 

f ou schalt 3elde f e recreant to .......... 

To C[harlis] suf f e i wille f e grant ....... 

f an bi-gan f er a ferly fi^te ........... 716 

Eyf e>* enpeynedem with is myf^t] ......... 

fey laide on fan so feste wyf .......... 

fat f e sot of hem gan out berste & mad ....... 

Sir Fyrumbras f e stronge Olyuer ......... 720 

" f ou durest me alto longe . f .......... 



FERUMBRAS HAVING LEFT HIS SIDE EXPOSED, OLIVER PIERCES HIM. 31 

pan him spak erld Olyuere f " pou ne afferest me no3t so ! iieaf 10] 

Other tydyng schalt pow here f er we departe a-two." 

IF Al so scharply pes men of mayn f paw smyte to-gadre a$y 724 their strokes 

So dop pe fyr & wynd & rayn f an he} al on pe sky, 

With wilde strokes pat pay streken f eyper on oper asonder, 

Helmes & scheldes par-wip to-breken '. & schilde, so dop pe ponder, 

IT Firumbras wax wod on Olyuer f pat he hym wipstonde mijte ; 728 

A toke is swerd, & 3ude hi?ft neere f to slen him had he ti}te ; angry 

A smot him on pe helm an he} f pat was of god entaille, 

A qua[r]ter per-wip a-way par fle} f & for-carf ys cappe of maille ; and cuts 

Wyp pat stroke a schar away f a gret del of ys hare ; 732 cap-of-maa. 

Ac god halp 0[lyuer] pat best may f pat he nas wonded sare. 

IT Oflyuer] egerlich 1 po gan to lok f & smot til him wip ire, Oliver aims a 

& eymede ful euene to 3yue pe strok f pe sarsyn on is swyre. nS mbras ' s 

Wan Fifrumbras] pe strok come 863 f pat Oliuer til hym mente, 2 736 

His scheld held he vp an he? f to kepe hym fro bat dente : Ferumbras 

guards too 

Ac As he huld is scheld vp so f discouert was al ys side, amn'eaves 

& 0[lyuer] aperceuede ful wel pat po f & no lengre nolde abide, covered""" 
Bote Til him a gerte a stroke anon f & egerlich he hym sette : 740 Oliver thrusts 
1 In the margin ' stwmelich.' 2 \>ai til hym \_\>o was] mente. 

panne him saide Oflyuer] " pou afFerest Original 

Oper tydyng pou schalt here draft. 

Als so scherply pys kny}tes 724 

So dop pe fur wynd & rayn 

With wylde strokes pat pey 

Helmes & scheldes per-wttfc . 

Fferumbras] wax wod on Ofliuer] pat he him .... 728 

A takep ys swerd & com him n[eer] 

& smot him on pe helm an he} 

A quarter per-of he to clef & eke 

With pat stroke he schar a-way . . , 732 

Ac god hym halp pat best may pat 

pan wax he ful egre of mod & 

& eymed to 3yue him a stroke 

Wan F[erumbras] pat stronge stroke y[-se3~| 736 

Hys scheld he held vp parme an [1103] . 

As he huld his scheld vp so , 

0[lyuer] pat perceyuede po, no len , 

To him he a gerte a strok a . . . 740 



32 FERUMBRAS BEGS FOR MERCY, AND PROMISES TO BECOME A CHRISTIAN. 

at his breast, Vnder ys brest f e dent hi???, com f ac ys costrel fferst him mette ; 
f e costrel fat was with yre y-bou?zde f ]per-with a-two he carf 1 , 
& f atlykour f er-on schadon f e grou?zde f & pat swerd on ys syde swarf 1 , 

cuts his & Of er half spanne for carf 2 a two f of is hauberke ymad of may lie, 
& of is lupoim hit 3 dude al-so f fat was of riche entaylle, 745 

and s of his & wib bat strok dotw hit do (?) nam f v. ribbes of ys syde. 

ribs in two, J J 

& wel ne3 ys guttes fat swerd him ran f & made hym a wouwde ou?iride. 
and his guts His guttes f er-wM gurme out f alle f & dourc gan rewne fat blod ; 
out - & 3ut stod he strong & stif wM-alle f & ne batedede no^t is mod ; 749 

Of herte was he hoi & sound f & pleynede him f e $ute no f yng, 
?own ne a?d ^ c sonQ ^ e knelede oppon f e grond f & f ankede heuene kyng, 

If f awne clypede til hym ry3t f erld Olyuer and sayde : 752 

pjjy Oliver Haue mercy of me, iantail kny^t f for Marie sone fat mayde. 4 
him> & For his loue fat al may see f y pray f e, sle me no^t ; 

Hit is my wille cristned to bee f certis fat is my f ojt. 



My godes fat y me affied on f buf no^t to haue on mynde, 756 

fay mo3e no more do fan a ston i & fat y now auynde, 
}if hit by-tidef so fat y may i be y-wareschid of my wounde, 
persecute y schal scabye hem nht & day f bat bileueb on Mahouwde : 

Mahomed- J yj 

ans, Cristendom by me schal encressed be f sykerly if y may scape ; /GO 

1 ' These two lines in margin. 2 spanne [he] carf. 

3 he altered to hit. 4 for [loue of] Marie sone. 

Original Faste vnder is breste he com .......... 

draft. Of er half spawne he carf at [wo] ......... 

& of his iupouft he dude also fat w ........ 745 

With fat stroke a doura he carf his rib ....... 

Ne} f e guttes fat swerd dou?* .......... 

Ac f ow he 863 his guttes fall a ......... 

He stod als-so stif for al as h ..... ..... 749 

Of herte was he hoi & sound & ... ...... 

Bott knelede him doun on f e grond & ....... 

Sone he clepede to him ri3t E .......... 752 

" Mercy," he saide, u iantail kny3t for loue ....... 

For his loue fat al may se y p[ray] ..... . . 

For y f enke to cristened be ce ....... 

My godes fat y affied on bef ......... 756 

fay mowe ...... ston ........ 

......... may be ....... 

[6 or 7 lines cut off?] 
y schal bofe ni^t & day ........... 759 



FERUMBRAS WARNS OLIVER OP AN AMBUSH OF THE SARACENS. 



33 



& for payenye, so mot y pe f f ul yuele wil y schape ; 

pawne schullep peynymes cristned be f & hure lay for-sake. 

& pe croune of porn & pe naylles pre f a^en fa/me wil y betake, 

& al pe relyqes pat y haue i y-take a^eyn pe n^i, 764 

Y wil ^eld op, so god me saue f & bileue on god almi^t. 

IT y 3ylde me her to Charlis kyng f pe beste kny}t y-core 

pat is owar now lyuyng f oper euere was her be-fore. 

for pou me hauest conquerid her f i put me in-to py grace ; 768 

y pray pe iantail Olyuer ' for-^yf me my manace ! " 

1T Wan Olyuer had him al yherd i is herte gan vp sprynge, 

In-to is scaberke he potte his swerd i & went him to pat kynge, 

& huld hi?7i vp, for he wax paal f bi-twene ys armes ro.wzde, 772 

& laid him douw par-wip-al f ful softe oppon pe grouwde 

& pulte is bowels in ageyn f & is goffanourc he gan to berste ; 

To make a bond he was ful feyn f & bond hem in wel feste. 775 

1T paw saide Fi[rumbras] til hi?rc a}e f "do let me hennes bere, 

fat y ne daye in pis degre f cristned y wolde y were." 

" Certis," saide J>e ientail kny^t f " y wolde wel fayne fonde, 778 

If y wiste how ymy^t f make Je vp to stonde ; 

Ac J>ow hast so myche y-bled f pat paal ys al J?y face, 

Wharfor y am sore adred s . to remuwe pe of pys place." 

IT pan Fi[rumbras] enforcede hym per f to arise vp-on ys fete, 782 

& stod hym vp by Olyuer f & saide wordes swete : 

" Iantail kny3t, of me tak rewpe f as pow art god & hende, 

& help me hannes for py trewpe f for y am ne$ myn ende. 

Myn herte hi??i ys a-go ful ner f ychaunged is al my chere ; 786 

y pray pe, iantail Olyue-r f let me no3t daye here. 

f Go now, tak niy gode stede f pat tyed ys at pis tree, 

& he schal wel in thys [my] nede '. bere bope me & pee. 

& tak al-so my swerd ploraunce f pat hongep her by my side, 790 

pe hefpe of hym dop greuaunce f to my wounde wyde j 

& help me y were on hym an horce f y pray pe, ne spare pou no$t, 

& y wil me selue enforce f pat y wer on hym bro^t. 

Set me be-for pe on is bak f & pe silue be-hynde panne, 794 

& so schalt pou wyp-oute lak i safly haue me hanne. 

11 Ac y warne pe of a torn f war-for y wolde pow spedde ; 

FERUMBRAS. D 



and make 
Pagans be 
christened, 
[leaf 10, back] 
He will 
restore the 
reliques he 
has, 

and yield to 
King Charles. 



Oliver pities 
Ferumbras, 



pushes his 
bowels in, 
and binds 
them up with 
his flag. 
Ferumbras 
asks to be 
carried away. 

Oliver says 
he is afraid to 
move him. 



Ferumbras 
asks 



him to 



fetch his 
steed, 



and take 
his sword 
Ploraunce 
from his side, 
as it hurts 
his wound, 



and to lift 
him on to his 
horse. 

Ferumbras 
warns Oliver 



34 



OLIVER IS SURROUNDED BY SARACENS : HE FIGHTS BRAVELY, 



of an ambush 
of 15,000 
Saracens 



[leaf 11] 
waiting 

for his return. 



Oliver lifts 
him on to his 
horse, 

and leaps up 
behind him, 



but the 
Saracens in 
ambush 
break out. 



The French 
blow the 
assembly. 



Charlemagne 
and his peers 
arm. 

Oliver being 
surrounded, 
sets down 
Ferumbras, 



but finding 
he cannot 
escape, 



pys dai erly by pe morwn 5 wan y ros of my bedcle, 

y leuede ^ond on a buchyment f sarasyns wonder fale, 798 

In pe wode pat Bonder stent '. ten pousant al by tale ; 

& in fat like brusschet by f v. pousant of opre and mo, 

y-horced & y-armed ful sykerly f fro pe top in-to pe to. 

Ac y for-bed hem alle pere f wan y departede hem fro, 802 

pat non of hem so hardy were i fro penne pay ne scholde go, 

Or ich hadde sum viage done f & til hem come a-geyn. 

Go we hanne per-for sone f & elles pow worst beleyn." 

IF Wan Oflyuer] y-hurde how he spak f in herte a was agreued, 806 

A tok pe stede pat was colblak 1 f & softly vp him heued. 

Fir[umbras] was hard, & suffrede wel f 03 hit him greuede sare, 

& 0[lyuer] lep vp be-hynde hym snel f & forp wip him gan fare. 

Ac al pat trauayl he cast away f as 36 schul here sone, 810 

For or pat he eft kyng Charlis say f ful miche had he to done. 

OF pys anbuschymen^ pan brek out f Bruyllant of Mourct mirree, 
&Sortybrant of Comblesw?M hure rout f & p e kyng of Mantreblee, 
Arrenor Grwychard & Moredas f Gayot and Angwyree, 814 

Wyp al pe power pat peer was f xv. pousant & three. 
Olyuer sone y-se^ pat cas i & swypper bi-gan to haste. 816 

But he was encombred wip Fyrumbras f pat he ne may ride faste. 
Ac wan pe f rensche men hit 8636 & knewe f how pe Sarsyns come wM bost, 
Hure commune horn parcne pay blewe f to assemblie to-gadre hure host. 
IT Charlis neuew duke Roland f pan was sore amayed, 820 

So wern pe doppepers y vnderstand i for pay wern ou?i-araid, 
Ac as 3erne pay nn^te i pay caste pa?zne on hure gere, 
Bope kyng, duk, erld & kny3t f & al othere pat par were. 
II pe Sarsyn3 gura prykie a-rauwdoura f & Olyuer bi-sette aboute, 824 
pe wouwdede man pan he set adourc f & pou3te askape pe route. 
& pan he prayde to god aln^t f schold saue him pat ilke day, 
As wys hit was in trewpe & ri3t f pat he tok pat iornay. 
& al-so he prayde for Fyrumbras f pat no man him be-reue 828 

Til he wer cristned por3 godes gras f & y-bro3t to pe ri3t beleue. 
IT & pan he be-gan to prykie bet f & nolde no lengfer] abide, 
Ac wip Sarsyns he was bi-set f pat come on euery side, 
pat he ne mi3te a-scape pe ferd i so pikke pay fulle him aan ; 832 



AND SLAYS GREAT NUMBERS OF THEM. 35 

& bawne at arst drow he is swerd f & defendede him as a man. draws his 

sword, 

11" fawne was Opyuer] fat sembbly kny^t f al-one among is fon; down U num- 

He hew]} on Sara^yns witfe al is my^t ' & slef of hem manyon. sSiSJ! 6 

Wham he smytef wyf his dent f to de])e a leyf hem doune, 836 

Helmes & haherkes he al-torent : & do^tylich scherth hure croune. 

IF fan Oflyuer] bleynte hym a-side f & fo^te a-scape J> e route, [leafii.bk] 

Bot f awne f er cam til him ride f lampatrys f e prpute : 

f e sarsyn bar til him a spere f ac for Opyuer] haf no schelde 840 

f e strong strok awey to bere f is bodi a-side he felde, 

& ferlich til him a rod a-gayn f wif wel egre mode, dodges ' 

& wif is swerd a clef is brayn f f orw-out helm & hode : cleaves ins 

f e sarsyn ful doun ded anon f & Olyuer tok is spere 844 gj 1 tal jjJ IB 

& eke ys scheld & heng hit on f f er-wif him-self to were, 

And metef with Turgys on fe feld f & ridef til him for tene, through"- 87 

& $af him a strok on f e scheld f fat was ful wel y-sene ; 

f orw scheld, haberke, & aketouw f fat sper him gan to glyde, 848 

f orw-out is body he bar him doun f & ded he ful fat tide. 

1F & ban he drow out hautecler f is swerd ful scharp igrourcde. then draws 

his sword 



& smot a sara^yn fat cam him ner f & }af him def es wounde : 

Wif four othre metef he fan f fat of is way him lette, 852 

& smot him bof e f orw hed & pan f & f uld hem on f e flette. SraoeS 8 five 

Alle fat Opyuer] areche mi^te f wif hautecler he dust him dourc. 

fawne f e sarsyns waxe afri^te f & flowen him what fay mown. 

IT To him ward come far ride fan f Moradas & kyng Kargys, 856 Mondaa and 

throe kings 

& f e kyng of Combles, sir Sortybran f & eke f e kyng Margys, 

fus kynges a-scried erld Olyuer f & gradde til him ful hye, charge Oliver. 

" fou ne askapest no$t ous, pautener f bot her ri3t fou schalt dye." 

1T fan Olyuer gan drede hym sare f & faste prikede away, 860 He flies 

And com f o wel ne^ him fare f Firumbras as he lay. g^st Ferum- 

By fat tyme hadde sir Firumbras f ys haberiouw of y-caste, 

& to Olyuer clepede in fat cas f & said til hym an haste : 

" fys hauberk y rede tak of me f & cast it oppon fyn owe, 864 J^, 10 k sa y 8: 

f e sikerlukere f er-inne mo^e 30 f defendy ^our body af rowe . hauberk, 

f ow hast f er-to grete nede f wyf sarsyns f ow art enclos, 

fe grete god fe helpe & spede '. & kepe fe fram fy fos ! " 



fan Olyuer hym f onkede ^erne f & cchridde him wM fat gere, 868 Oliver puts 



36 



OLIVER IS AT LAST OVERCOME BY NUMBERS AND TAKEN PRISONER. 



Kargys with 
attack him. 



Oliver slays 
20, 



[leaf 12] 

and then 
the King 
himself. 



& anof er way gan he terne f fat Firumbras y-founde nere. 

The 1 Saracens Aboute Olyuer fan ful faste f fay prikede wif spers & scheldes 
& sturnelich on him fay f raste f Sarasyns in tal f e feldes. 
Ac euere he metef hem with is brond ' & dele]) strokes sounde, 872 
Wham so he hittef wyf ys hond f a $af he??i def es wounde. 

Kyng Kargys wes stwrne & prout f & Olyuer gan ^erne assaille 

ten f ousant sarsyns stif & stout f wel y-armed witft-oute faille. 
Olyuer gan hym sturie about ' & for-hewf hem plate & maille 876 
xx* 1 slow he of fat rout f fat non armure ne mi^t hem vaille \ 
& fan he metef wif fat kyng ' & ridef til hym wyf mod, 
& smot him wif is swerd keruyng f a sterne strok & a god ; 
f orw helm & scolle he clef him doun f & f 013 auentaile & f or} hod 880 
f orw haberke & f orw is aketourc f attes nauel f e dent a-stod. 
IT fan laid he on f e Sarsyns wykke f faste be euery helue, 
Ac euere fay fulle on him so f ykke f fat ounef e he kepte hi?w-selue. 

The Saracens be sarsyns wente til hym wib strengbe f & laid on him al aboute. 884 

swarm round r 

him. Ac 0[lyuer] kepte hymen 1 is swerdes lengfe f euerechone wif-oute, 

& smytef til hymen with my3t & mayn f & kepf him be euery syde ; 
Summe he smytef in-to f e brayn f & summe 3af woundes wyde ; 
A sterne gret schour a $af hem far 5 & laide hem a doun ful f ykke. 
Neuer nas o man fat bettre him bar f amonges so mony wikke. 889 

His horse is 1T fan cam til him a Sarsyn prout 1 prikyng wif rendourc, 

& smot his stede wif a sper f orw-out f fat he ful ded adouw. 

0[lyuer] stert vp . & til hym wond f & }af him a stroke wyf mi^te, 

Wyf al f e strengf e of bof e ys hond f & to-clef ys body ri^te. 893 

51 f e Sarasyns wrof e gu^ne to waxe f & as wode men f araie fay furde, 

& layde til him wif sper & axe f wyf Gysarmes & with swerde. 

ys scheld fat was wyf golde y-batrid f & eke wyf ire y-bouwde, 896 

Sone fay had hit al to-clatrid f f e peeces leye on f e grounde. 

ys helm, ys coyphe, ys habryiou?^ f alle fay hadde to-rente, 

& eke ys noble aketouw i was [al] for-hewe & schente. 

Ac al f e whyle fat he was sounde f he delte dentes sare, 900 

Til he hauede so many a-wounde f fat he ne n^t li^te no mare. 

The Saracens IT fan f e Sarsyns on him nwne f & set on him hondes fale, 

him, To f e erf e fay habbef him wonne f & bro3t is body on bale. 

1 MS. hymem. 



His shield, 



his helmet, 

and his 
jacket are 
in pieces. 



ROLAND AND OTHERS FOLLOW TO RESCUE HIM; 37 

His hondes pan pay toke-r^t f & leyden him on his bake be-hynde, 904 tie his hands, 

& al so harde as tweyne my^i f wip a corde pai duden him bynde. 

& suppe pay han y-take a clout f & duden him more tene, blindfold 

& bynde]) per-wip is 6301*6 about '. for he ne schold no}t sene. 

An hakenay pay toke pat pay founde f & set him per-on god spede, 908 

& vnder ys wombe ys legges bounde f pe sykerluker hym to lede. 

IT pan pe kny3t is mone gan make f & sayde, "alas f alas ! 

Charlis kyng, for py sake f me is bi-tid pys cas." 

He saide, " Charlis, whar ert pou 5 in hwam my trist was euere ? 912 

A f Rolond, felawe, help me now ' ! for pou ne failedest me neuere." 

Til hym pan saide kyng Moradas '. " a^-noper schal be py songe, Moradas 

y ne schal no^t ete, by Mahouw is fas f til pow be he^e an honge." bim 

NOW ys Olyuer pus ytake f among is enymys^ 916 [leaf 12, bk] 

Moradas pe kyng of wham y spake f clipep his companys, 
L. Sara3yns panne a chees f among hem par and sede : im rder8 

" Wendep bi-fore & ledep pees f to Egremoyneward w^ god spede ; A^raiS.* 
Farep faste on ^our way f bote euere habep on mynde, 920 

pat he be kept in yuel aray f & we willep }ow kepe behynde." 
pay went hem forp on apendant f with olyuer pat was ibouwde, 
pat hewles was of semblant f for he bar many a wourade. 
His blod gan renne a-dou% ful to^.t f by pe waye as he gan ride, 924 
& }ut pe sarasyns ne spared him no^t f bote beten euere & cride, His escort 

torment and 

" Turmentye we wel pes cmfene pef f p e wile he is ous amonge, threaten him. 

For he hath don ous gret reprefe f to mor^e schal he ben howge." 

IT By pat was araid duke Rolant f & saw hymen awayward schake, 928 Roland sees 

them* 

"Alas," said he, "god vayllant, f " Olyuer my felaw ys take ! 

y-seep pat Bonder company f how pay him ledep away ; 

now spede we him to socoury ' for godes loue wat 30 may ! " and calls for 

Roland prikede is stede of prys ' so dude scot Gwylmer,. 932 

So dude Geffray and Aubrys f & Berard of Montdisdier ; The French 

So dude pe duk 1 of Borgoygne Sir Gy f pat hardy was & wys, 

& eke Richard of normandy 5 & eke sire Alorys ; 

& duk neymes of Baueer f Wyp pe gray hore berde, 936 

Basyn, Terry, and Ogier f & Charlis wip al his ferde. 

pay criede " a mont ioie ! seynt dynys f " after hem as pay gunne ryde, ride to rescue 

liiin. 

" 30 token yuele pe kny3t of prys f & yuele 3011 schal be-tyde." 



38 BUT THE SARACENS RALLY AND CAPTURE FOUR OF THE DOUZEPERES. 

IF Eolant ran to Cornybourgh f & smot him with a spere, 940 

A persched ys scheld & bar him p orwh f & slow hym for al ys gere. 
Berard in pe same plas f mette wyp Turgys, 
& Oger deneys wyp Athenas f & Bi chard wyp Margys, 
& siretGyoiw of Borgoygne 5 wip Brudelan of mourctbys, 944 

Each slays So bat euerech with-oute ensoygne f hab a-slawe his. 

a Saracen. 

To pe Sarasyns $yuen pay hard batail f & slowe him alle aboute ; 
Wan hure speres gu/me to faille f hure swerdes pay drowen oute. 947 
Of summe pay smyte of legges & armes f & of sum pe heuedes fay gerde, 
&summepay stykede 013 guttes & pearmes f so foule with hem pei ferde. 
They are like Als furde bay wib bat ilke hepe f wib-oute tales mo, 

wolves in a 

flck of As dop wolues among pe shepe f wan pay comep hem to. 

Al pe feldes po wern y-fuld f of dede men on pe grounde, 952 

Saue an vewe pat leye & ^ulde f & abide hure depes stouwde. 
[leaf is] IT pe whyle pys batail was don per f as y ha told $ow here, 
Oliver's pe opre of wyche y tolde of eer f chacyep forp Olyuere, 
wm on, And leggep on hym strokes harde f as he 113 dt y-bourade, 956 

pe wyles pay of pe rerewarde f bup y-laid doun to grouwde. 
and take to 5F Wan pay y-se3e pat pes frensche men f ^yue hem so scherp a schour, 

Faste a-wayward guwne pay flen f pay sparede no deshonour. 
butsorty- Ac pe kyng of Combles, sir Sortybran f pat was hure gouernour, 960 

bran 

pawne cryede, " lordes, comep a^en f & schewyap $our vygour ! 
We wollep sle pus frensche her f ri^t in clene bataille." 

and the hem ' ^^ f at I 56 ^ ars y ns re liede hem per f & pe frensche mew guwne tassaille. 
^ f 6 Sarsyns panne with gode herte i fo^te & sparede hem na^t, 964 
Harde strokes & eke smerte ' to pe frenschemen pawne pay ra^t. 
pay caste til hem gleyues & laurcce f falsar^ & feperd dart^ 
& slowe p0r-wip kni^tes of fraurcce f & ^aue hem batail hard. 
Gr water pay a slowe pen f & Gwylmyn pay duden al-so, 968 

-^ n( ^ ^ * nre frensche men f wel thre score & mo. 
So sherplich po on hem pay fulle f pes Sarsyns al wip strengpe, 
pat pe frensche men pai made reculle ' wel an akers lengpe. 

Gwyimer, paTzne pay asayllede Scot Gwylmer 1 f & toke him a-force fyne, 972 

andSry ^ e ^ G s ^ r ^ erar( i ^ Moundisder 2 f & Geffray of Langeuyne ; 

are taken, ^ ^ Q f eT ^ Q ^ token al-so pere f sir Aubry, a noble kny^t, 

1 Jjay asayllede [Berard of montdisdier]. 2 Some words erased here. 



ROLAND AND OGIER PURSUE THE SARACENS TILL SUNSET. 



39 



& alle pay am of pe dofpepere ' pat po bupe taken in fy^t. 

IT pus barons were/i take wip force '. & harde y-bourade y trowe, 976 

And suppen y-set alle an horce f & away ward with hem pay.drowe. 

Ac wan Charlis hit wiste & 863 '. for hymen hym gan to maye : 

Ofte a cride to his host an he3 f " now prikeap kny3tes, y praye ; 

If pay hymen ledep pus away f my doppepers pat bup y-take, 980 

pawae ys my worschip lost for ay f certes for pat sake." 

pawne mi3te me sen pe frensche men f after pis Sarsyn} chace, 

pay huld hur scheldes bi-forn hem i & harde hem bi-gurmc enbrace. 

At aualyng of an hulle 5 pe frensche han Jjey of-take, 984 

& wawne p e frensche men on hem fulle f pe Sarasyns gurane to quake, 

1T pan comencede a batail newe f by-twene pes hostes two, 

pe Sarasyns sone fay al-to-hewe f pat J>ay of-token J?o. 

Eolond drow out durendal f ])at schon so siluer bri^t, 988 

For Oflyuer] hym was wo wy]) al f jjat he ne had him in si^t. 

Ac suj?])e fat he ne may hym seen f a fo^te fan or he wente 

Amonges hem per a-wreke is teen f sone wyjj swerdes dente. 

11" fe furste he mette hi3t engwylard i a Sarsyn of gret renouw, 992 

J>or3 helm & coyphe pat wern hard f he clef ys hed a-doura ; 

He fel douw ded oppon pe grouwd f is lifdawes wern ido ; 

" Rest," quap he, " pou hepene hound " i & anoperne he lawte po, 

& 3af him a strok al on ys yre 1 vriih durendal is brond : 996 

His heued gerte he fro pe swyre f pat it tomblede on pe sond. 

Al pat he areche mi^te f a dust hem dourc to dede. 

pe Sarasyn3 wern of him affri^te f & prykede away god spede, 

& ledep wip hem pe ryche prysourcs '. pat pay habbep y-take, 1000 

& pay fo^yeap after wip rendouws f wel sory for hure sake. 

IF Roland prykede after blyf '. for pe loue of Olyuer pan, 

& potte an auenture ys owe lif f to rescuwy pat do^ty man. 

Ogier deneys on Bryafort f wip him prikede al-so, 1004 Ogier 

And 3af Roland god coumfort f pat chyuachee for to do. 

11 Now chaciep pay pe Sarseneys f pis noble kni3tes tweye, 

Ouer mountayns & ouer valeys f ne dradde pai for non aye. 

To rescuwe pis barourcs gode ' euere pay prykede faste, 1 008 

As noble men & he3 of mode \ pat of nopyng wern agaste. 

Ac al pat pay of-take im^te '. as pay prikcdc po, 



tied on 
horses, 
and carried 
away. 

Charles 
laments 
for his 
knights. 



Then the 
French 
pursue the 
Saracens, 
and overtake 
them. 



A fresh fight 
begins. 



Roland draws 
his sword 
Durendal 



[leaf 13, back] 
and cuts 
down Eng- 
wylard. 



The Saracens 
fly with their 
prisoners. 



Roland and 



chace the 
Saracens over 
hill and dale, 



slaying all 
they can 
catch, 



40 CHARLES DISCOVERS FERUMBRAS, WHO BEGS FOR MERCY. 

With dent of swerd pay sloven him ri3t i & prikede for]? after mo. 
pus pay prikede, puse two barou^ f hure frendes to rescowe, 1012 
tin nearly Til be sonne was ne} go doun ' & gan to sitte lowe. 

sunset, 

Sory wer pey for hi ne mi^t f hure pruwesse fulfille pore. 

when they To Charlis host a^Gii pay ti^t f be-hynde he?ft fer Jjo^ pay wore. 

1f Wei longe hadde pys chas y-lest f of pys kny^tes tweyn, 1016 
pe Sarsyns fle3e & no^t ne sest f war-for pay twrnde a3eyn. 
Al ful were pe weyes almost f of sarasyns pay han a-sleyn, 
Ac for Rolond hauep is purpos lost f pan was he nopyng fayn. 

Charles at f Charlis saw p e sowne nes set f pat red pan schon & lowe. 1020 

sunset retires 

to his camp, j n j^g pauillouTzs to haue recet f piderward gan he drawe. 

& wip his host he tornde a^eyn i wip a wel yuele chere, 
grieving for & QuerG he si^te & gan. to seyn f ' Alas ' ' pat he cam theere : 

"Alas f Olyuer, my gode knijt f for pe myn herte ys cold. 1024 

Alas ! pe tyme pou scholdest fyt '. with pat Sara^yn bold. 

Alas ! now bup myn barouns wy3t i fro me y-take in hold. 

Alas ! pe tyme pat in mi si}t f pis mischef falle schold." 
Ncymescom- ^ Duk neymes ihurde ys mone f & saide to pe kyng, 1028 

" Auenge pe her-of eft sone f & let now py mornyng. 
[leaf 14] pyn barons schullep be delyuered wel f wip pe hilp of god almi^t, 

& pe Sarasyns, be pay no^t so fel f sclmllap abigge pys ounri^t." 
Charles vows pan kyng CfhaTlis] swer is op f ne scholde- he neuere be fayn, 1032 

Til he had hi?ft mad he?ft wrop f & his barons gete a^ayn. 
AS they ride ^[ As pey ride so 1 on pe way f sechyng on pe playne, 
Ferumbras. jj ev f oun ^ e ^iru??^bras par a lay '. vndex a tre of frayne. 

Wan Charlis y-saw him war he was i he ne^hedem & sayde, 1036 
cimries " Maugree haue pou, Fyrumbras f for py foul mysbrayde ; 

y haue y-lost Erld Olyuer f pys day for py sake, 

& duk Berard of Moundesdier '. & opre pat bup y-take." 
Ferumbras ^ FyrFumbras] herde what Charlis saide f & made a grete syayng, 1040 

signs deeply 

i PP 07i y s arm Y s neued a layde '. & humbliche ansuered pe kyng, 






" A f charlis, kyng of fraunce f ne spek per-of no more ; 
i have y haue ynow of greuaunce f & }ut me ys wers per-fore. 

-^ r ^ Olyuer with strenpe in fijt '. hap me her conquered, 1044 

& Y til him am trewe y-pli3t f & haue myn op y-swered, 
pat y schal euere fro pys day c . pe hepene lay f or-sake r 
1 MS. ride [forpj. 



CHARLES PITIES HIM, AND ORDERS HIS PHYSICIANS TO ATTEND TO HIM. 41 



1048 



1052 



1056 



1060 



1064 



And beleue in cmfcne fay f & folloht to me take, 
y suffrie ynow of sorwe & pyn '. my syde ys al to-tore, 
& if y daye her sarsyn f y wot y am y-lore. 
For f e loue of f ilke crist f fat f ou lyuest on, 
Help me fat y were baptist f in f e holy fanston : 
For wer ich mad a cristenman f & my wounde faire y-helid, 
Hef emen schold y so greue fan f fat fay shulle.sore y-felid, 
& fay fat now buf Sarasyns f schold twrne to cmfene lay, 
& elles fay scholde f olye pyns i for hure false fay. 
1T f e croune of f orn schal y ^eld vp '. & f e naylles three 
fat pyned ^our lord wan he was put i on f e rode tree ; 
& of re reliques riche y-now f whar-of y haue plentee, 
y schal he?tt 3elde a^en to ^ow f Charlis kyng so free. 
Be f e saule fat y bere l . & as god lese me of my greuaimce, 
Me greuef more for Olyuere f fan of my owe penauwce ; 
Ac If y be helyd by help & cure f of my wounde wyde, 
Alle fey schulle abbigget dure i fat token him in fat tide. 
For godes loue, sir Emperour f tak pite of me here, 
It twrnef 30 w to gret deshonowr f & y daye in f is manere." 
1F Wan Charlis had herd f is answere f is herte to himward feld ; 
He het .iiij. kni3tes him arere f & bere him forf on a scheld. 
Softe fus kny^tes farc him bere '. to fe kyngis pauylloura 1068 

& of hur handes ne let him nere f til Charlis het set him douw. 
11 Charlis hemself & sire Oger f ouwarmede him f o anon, 
& wan he was sengle amourcg hem f er f hy auysed is schap echon. 
Erode scholdres had he with-alle f & brtistes ful quarree, 1072 

Wyf longe sydes & middel smalle f a wel schape man was hee. 
With Browes bente & e^en stoute f and lokede so f e facourc : 
To seche f e worlde al aboute f ne was man of fairer fasou?z. 
Alle fat him be-hulde fan f among hem fai saide fere, 1076 

.fat Olyuer was a do^ty man f wan hym he mi^t corcquere. 
f A wel fair kni3t was Firumbras f ourcarmid wan he lay, 
Ac ys Fysage al discolourid was i for is blod was gon away ; 
thre sif es a sounede afforn hem fere f for angwys of ys wounde, 1080 
By-fore f e lordes fat far were '. wif -inne a litel stonde. 
IT Charlis tok pite of fat si3t '. an archebisschop a clepede anon, 



Christian ; 

I am sore 
wounded. 



Help me now 
and I will 
make all 
Saracens 
become 
Christians. 



I will give uj 
the crown of 
thorns, and 
the three 
nails 

and other 
relics. 



I grieve more 
for Oliver 
than tor 
myself, 
but I will 
avenge him.' 



[leaf 14, back] 



Charles 
orders four 
knights to 
bear him to 
his tent, 

and takes off 
his armour. 



A well shaped 
man lie was, 
with broad 
shoulders, 
and eyes like 
an eagle. 



Thrice he 
faints with 
pain. 

Charles 
orders an 
Archbishop 



42 MEANWHILE OLIVER AND THE OTHERS HAVE BEEN TAKEN TO AIGREMONT. 

to^apUse And het him sone fat he wer di^t f to blessy f e holy fanston, 

ni & ht - fat he were fulled fat like ni3t f & ymad cristenmon. 1084 

f e prelat dide al so he hi^t f & plungede him sone f er-on. 
He is 5[ ban was cristned sir Firumbras f a man of gret deffens, 

baptised, 



chan h ed n to me J s name * ner y-chaunged was f & was ihote Florens, 

ac f3 me tornde far ys name f as fe manere was, 1088 



Ferumbras. Euere ^ut after a baar f e same i & men cliped him Firumbras. 
IF Wan he was cmfene man ymad f on a bed fan was he laid, 
fat with riche clof es was y-sprad f & ful faire araid. 

Charles' own Charlis clipede ys leches fo f & ^erne gan him praye 1092 

attend to f #t f ai scholde til hi?ft go f is wounde to enserche & saye. 

1T At is heste fey wente f er-to f & softe gurme taste is wouwde, 
His lyure, ys Image & is guttes al-so f & fouwd hem hoi & souwde. 

They declare ban saide bay to Charlemayn f bay wolde him vndertake, 1096 

they can cure . . 

him within j)ay wolde wzt^-inne monbes twayn f hoi & sowzd him make. 

two months, " 

at which " Do]>," qua]) he, "$at faire cure f & siker ynow ^e beo, 
pleased. Of 3our warysou^ ^e schul be sure f wan fat ich it seo." 
[leaf 15] 1T famie saide f e Emperour f " iherid beo god almijt ! 1100 

Had y now erld Olyuer f myn herte were al ly^t : 
& myne ofre barons gode f fat fe Sara^yns han y-take." 
fan set he him dou?i drurymode f & dropede for hure sake. 
Meanwhile f I lOme we asen in tour sawes f & speke we atte frome 1104 

Oliver and 

h ri8oncw" ^ Erld Olyuer & his felawes f fat Sara3yns habbef ynome. 

f e Sara^yns prykyaf faste away f as harde as fay may hye, 
are hurried And ledef wif hymen fat riche pray f f e flour of Chyualarye, 

By hilles & roches swyfe horrible f on hur cors fay wente, 1108 
to Mwitribie, And er fay come to Mantrible f neuere fay ne astente. 

Ouer f e brigge fay guwne ride '. fat was ful huge of lengthe, 
where they In be Cite bat nyat to abyde '. to kep hem ber in strengthe. 

pass the r 

night. Wif hure prisouus fay comen in f fat were ytake be chaunce ; 1112 
f e dra^tbrigge was drawe vp after hem f for drede of f e host fraurcce. 
Next mom- Sone fay ryse vp-on f e morwe f & to Egremoygne fay toke f e way. 



Aiirem a o r nt to ^ ^ e P e 1? Q P r i sou ^ s out <& sorwe f f or earful fay were fat day ! 

Wawne fay come to f e castel ^ate f hure homes fay blewe faste, 1116 
f e porter alredi was f er-ate & let hym in an haste. 

The Emir, 11 f e lieghe Amcrel sir Balan f fat was on his halle an he3, 



BALAN ENQUIRES THEIE NAMES, AND ORDERS THEM TO DEATH, 



43 



Faste pyder pa?oie he ran f wanne he hymen come 

& wip hem al-so sir Lama^our f a kyng of hepene londe, 1120 

& wan pay comen doim of pe tour f after tydyngges pay guwne to f onde. 

IT Bruillant, p e kyng of moimtmirree f of is stede him li^te adoura, 

fan amyral pawne saluede hee f in pe name of sire Mahourc, 

pe Amyral of hym axeth sone f wat tydynge pay had y-bro^t; 1124 

" Tel pou hem me ri$t anone f and for no-pyng hele pou no3t. 

haue 30 taken duk Roland f & Olyuer his felawe, 

& wyp Charlis fo^t wyp hand f & hys doppepers a-slawe ? " 

1T " Nay," seyp he, " by seynt Mahouw f it is no3t as 30 sayn ; 1128 

We bup discomfyt & sleyn a-doim f wip pe kyng Charlemayn, 

& py sone sir Fyrumbras f pat fau3t with a kny3t of fraunce, 

Be name ne know y no3t wat he was f ac par is betid a chaiwce, 

pat Eyfrumbras] by him ys ouercome f as pay %te in felde, 1132 

& to cristendom hab him nome f & to Charlis kvnsr is 2elde." 

J ' 

1T Wan pe Amyral hap iherd pe kyng f in sowenyng gan he falle ; 

Ac wan he awok of his so3nyng f loude he gan to calle, 

& wrong ys hondes & saide, " alas f ys my sone y-nome? 1136 

My ioye ys lost For Fyrumbras f wat man is he bi-come. 

U Alas ! what sorwe hap he don f pat was so hardy & wi3t, 

pat he was encombred so for on f to yeld him to such a 

V. hundred y saw a3en him gon f & he slow alle in fty, 1140 

& now ys he take among is fon f y-lost ys al my mi3t. 

& if he is turwd to m'sfene lay f alas i pawne is hit wers, 

Leuere me were by my fay f he were to-drawe wyp hors." 

IT be Amyral saide baraie a^eyn f "tel me what is be kny^t, 1144 

pat was so mi3ty man of mayn f to ouercome my sone in fi3t." 

Bruyllant saide, " so mot y bryue : bes moste man in sht, 

pat stent ibounde among hem vyue her by-fore 3ow ri3t." 

IT " Aha !" quap he, "is pes pe pef 1 f pe deuel him mote for > -gna3e, 

pat ouercom my sone pat was me lef f & bro3t him to is lawe ! 1149 

By Mahouw, pat is my god in pref f ne schal y no3t be fawe, 

Er y sen him haue mischef f an-hanged & to-drawe." 

H Wan pay herd him prete p&s f pe frenschemen par pay stode, 1152 

Olyuer saide, "help, iesus f pat bo3test ous wip py blode ! 

& felawes," he saide, " cowfortiap 3ow wel f & for no3t pat may be-falle, 



runs to 



they bnngl 



Bruiiiant 

says : * 






has become 

a Christian.' 

The Emir 
grieves 



for Ferum- 
[Si5,back] 



and asks who 

conquered his 

Bruiiiant 

points out 

Oliver. 



Baian swears 
be hanged 

and drawn. 



Oliver warns 
companion 



44 BUT AFTERWARDS ORDERS THEM TO BE PLACED IN A DUNGEON. 

not to tell ipat non of ous is name ne tel f auysyeb sow wel w?'t/i-alle : 

their names, ' 

for wiste f e Ameral sykerly i of fe doffepers fat we were, 1156 
for al Jje gold in cristenty i non of ous wolde lie spare, 
they will bat we ne scholde to debe gon \ be han^id & to-drawe, 

assuredly be 

hanged. Ouf er be demembrid euerechourc f & bro^t of lyues dawe." 

IT "As fy wil is," saide fay fo f "we willef alle heere." 1160 

The Saracens To hem fan wente Sarsyns two & ouwarmide Olyuere ; 

f e bond fat is fysage was boiwde wyf f to stoppen is lonely si^t, 
fay ouwbouwde & is felawes sif f fat were al men of mi^te. 
Oliver is pale. 1T fan was Olyuer al colourlees i for fe blod fat he had schad. 1164 
The Emir Wan f e Amyral y-saw al wat a was f for wraf f e he wax ne} mad, 
name. And til him a wente anon f & askede hym what he hi^t : 

An e w 8 rS " ^ re >" sa i^ ne > " Angwyion f of f ranee a pore kny^t, 

To serue Charlis in bataille ; him self me dobbede ri$t ; 1168 

y ne haue no fyng with-oute faille ; bote wat y may wynne in fi3t. 
andttmtthey & my 1 felawes fat her beef f kny^tes fay buf fol sure, 
knights. A C j, a y ne jjaue namore fan 36 seeth f hure hors & hure armure." 
th^Bmir 8 * 14 ^ " Ala 8 /' f an sa y de J 56 Amyral f "how is fys afare 1 ? 1172 

ISry chance: ^ or m y sone J> at y louede wel f of blisse y am al bare, 
[leaf 16] & now y hopede bat buse had y-ben f dukes & Erldlis of frauwce, 

I had hoped 

these were & [fay] ne buf bote demeyne men f f is is a sory chau?ice ! 

earis.' no ^ f QT ^ ^ e S chul wel sen i fat fay schul haue greuauwce." 1176 

Quyke he het fay scholde hem flen f w^-oute more distaurcce. 
Lamasourad- IT barzne saide kyng Lamasour i bat stod him faste bye, 

vises him not 

to slay them, y re( j e jj e> S { IQ} f or jjy n honour f a-stau?^che f yn herte hye ; 

For to slen suche vauasours f what nii^t hit profetye? 1180 

but to im- Enprisone hem her wif-inne by tours f & so f er let hem lye." 

prison them. 

The Emir 11 f e Amyral f o wif -drow ys mod f ys herte was ful of grame ; 
orders' & clepede ys iayler ber a stod f brytamourc bi is name : 

his gaoler to 

"Tak," he sayde, "fys vauasours f & to prisoura fou hem lede, 1184 
& pote hem to sorwe out of cours i y hote f e oppon f y mede. 
bind them Bynd hem herde wyb yre & steel f & pote hem in stokkes of trow, 

strongly and 

surely, & I ke fay fare no3t to weel ' hot kep hem harde ynow. 

And 30, lordes, fat han hem take f gof now alle y-same 1188 

& helpef him for my sones sake f fat fay ben maked tame. 
1 MS. my my felawes. 



FLORIPAS HEARS THEIR LAMENTATIONS, AND ASKS THE REASON. 45 

& namlich b/s ilke chef felourc f pat hap me pus anuyed, ^especially 

Lokiep he be in such prisouw f pat sone he be distruyed." 

H pan wende forp pe iayler f & tok til hym socoure, 1192 The gaoler 

& ladde wip hymen erld Olyuer f & pe oper barons foure. 

Wan pey comen per the prisouw wes f wip yre pay bounde hem faste, l^ 8 ^ 01 ' 

& left hem per al mete-les f & so fro peym pay paste. an^od** 

1T Wan pey wern in prysou?* pare f pay criede & made hure mone, 1196 They lament 

And saide, " lord, how schul we fare f in prisouw her al-one. 

As pow seest bope fer & ner f sittyng on py trone, 

help ous, lord, whyle we bup her f & kep ous fram our fone ! " 

FLoryppe on hure chambre seet f p e Amyral is do^tre dere; 1200 Fioripas.the 
Sche was a mayde fair & swet c . & hurde hure dulful here, heareS' 

& pe grete noyse sche herde also f pat among hem y-maked was. cnes ' 
Sche clepede hure maydens to hur po f wyte sehe wolde pat cas. 
Florippe, pat maide fair & gent f hur maidens pan tok anon, 1204 
& out of chambre dourc sche went f par pat folk gan gon. and goes to 

Wan sche cam par pay were f sche askede of on & on, reason. 

Why pat noise was maked pere f amonges hem euerechon. 
1T On ansuerede as it was f & told hure al & some : 1208 she is toid of 

her brother's 

How hur brober Fyrumbras f cristen man was bi-come, conversion, 

and the eap- 

& how pat pilke stronge kny^t f pat wan hym in bataile French the 

Wyp four othre men of my^t f wern put po per in baile : 

And how pay criede, & made hure mon f as pay in prisouw sete. 1212 

Sone sche leuede hem echon f & pan iayler gan sche mete, [leaf IG, back] 

For hure broper sche gan to wepe f ac sone sche had ido. she weeps fer 

Ferumbras, 

H Wip hure maydens at an hepe f to pe iayler is sche go ; but not long. 

Sche takep a syde Brytamowi ' a conseil, & gan him frayne : 1216 Then she asks 

Brytjuuon, 

& askep what bup pay barouw '. in prysourc sche herde pleyne. wh g his ler ' 

" So Mahoura 3yue me gode chauwce f ma dame," gan he sayne, prisoners are. 

"Hit bup kni3tes out of frauwce '. pat were wyp Charlemayne. He telpher; 

pus bup paye pat han ouwdo f py brother, sir Fyrumbras ; 1220 

& many of oure pay habbep al-so f y-sleyn on many a plas. 

On ber vs amonges hem ber f a bacheler fair of syate. and that one 

r J of them is the 

In big werld ne saw ich er f so fair y-schape a kmate. fairest he had 

* eve r " 

He conquerede sir Fyrumbras f in batail par pay fi3te, 1 224 

now hap he in prisouw herde gras f & more til him is ty^te." 



46 SHE SLATS THE GAOLER, AND COMES TO THE FRENCH KNIGHTS. 

she asks to ^J " BrvtamouTz," fawne saide sche f " let me wib hem speke a browe 

speak with J 

them. For to wyte wat fay be f & hure couyne y-knowe." 

He says it " Dame," said he, " for drede of gyle f y ne dar nost bat it be so : 1228 

can't be done. 

f y wyt wolde turne wttA-inne awhyle f haddest f mi leue f ar-to. 
f y fader me for-bed al-so f fat for f yng fat mi3te be-falle 
His orders bat to no man ne schold y be dore vndo '. with hymen to speke or calle ; 

are strict. * 

& y wil don ys commaundiment f }>y speche ys al in vayne. 1232 
For fe ne wil y no3t ben y-schent f i tel fe in certayne." 
Thou vile IF ' ' Wat ! harlot gadelyng," saide sche ban ' " mote bou be hese an-honge ! 

rascal,' said 

she, 'thus to How answerest fow a iantail womman f fat budef fe no wronge ! 
lady!* j, ou schalt abye it if y can f 30 ^ut or come o^t longe. 1236 

J>e meede fat f ou schalt her for han f wel sone f ou schalt af onge ! " 
she winks at ^[ & jj a n sche preynte with huree^e f oppowhurchamberere far sche stod. 
ant 11 fat mayde was bof e wys & sle^e f & knew ful wel hur mod, 

who runs to In-to be chambre sche sterte annexe f rewnyng as sche wer wod, 1240 

her chamber, * 

& tok vp a strong staf fat sche se^e f hwych was herd & god, 
returns with a Vnder hur mantel sche hidde be staf f & turnde a^e wel faste 

staff, and 

gjyesittoher & hym to hur lady sone sche $af f & to-ward f e p7*isoll?^ sche paste. 
They try to Wawne sche was be dore affore f sche ean be-holde aboute, 1244 

break open 

the prison & g a yw f er no man fat was bore f with-iime ne w^t/i-oute, 
Saue Brytamouw abod f e iayler f fat of hur fan tok wonder, 
f e prisouw dore fan wend heo ner f & putte hure staf an vnder 
As sche wolde fe dore to-breke f sche gan fo hebbe & pynge : 1248 

Brytamon f e iayler fan f yderward gan to reke f to letten hur of fat f ynge ; 

her^but^he g e he lefte be dore & wend him ner f & lifte vp f e staf with mayne, 

knocks out r f 

with Staff & so on J> e teued sche set him f er f fat out sterte al is brayne. 
[leaf n] f'Rest," quaf sche, "fow sory wy^t f god 3yue yuele chaunce ! 1252 

now schal y speke my fille ri^t f with )es kny3tes of fraunce." 
she unlocks U f e keyes sche tok of him anon f & ounlok f e dore an haste : 

By-twene hymen f awne euerechon f fay lift vp fat bodi faste, 
and they & in-to prisouw fay g^ne hem gon f with fat cors vnwraste, 1256 

throw the 

body into the & in f e dupe pit f er fay wer on f sone fas hit caste. 

IT fan were f us prisouws alle f of f e fallyng i-pot in fere, 
frightens the So harde amonge% hem hit gan falle f bay wende be deuel it were. 

prisoners. 

SnSher Florippe het a damesel bri3te f hastelich gon & fette 
j r a ch. fora A gret torche & hym ali3te f sone wif-oute lette. 



FLORIPAS PROMISES TO RELEASE THEM IF THEY WILL HELP HER IN HER WISHES. 47 



pe damesel dude ase sche l^t f & com a^en ful sone, 

& bro3te a torche brennyng bri^t 5 & sperde pe dore anone. 

1F Florippe hure drow to anoper part f & par an dore ouwlekes 1264 

fat drow to pe putte ward f & douw in the pyt sche strekes. down and 

Wan sche to pe prisouws was y-come f of hymen sche asked pare, 

What pay bup pat par bup nome f & warmys pat pay ware. 

IT " Damesel," saide erld Olyuere f " as god me 3yue god chaunce, 1268 

We bup kny3tes alle y-vere f y-born in douce fraunce, 

And bup Charlis men pe Emperere f & vnder his liegeaunce. 

pe Ameral hap y-put ous in prisouw here f & dop ous gret greuaunce. 

We bup her wel herde y-bouwde f with gyues & cheynes grete, 1272 

Lyggyng on pys pittes grouwde f w^-oute drynke & mete. 

By god pat made pis werlde rourade f me were leuere my lif for-lete 

pan her to polie pe stronge stourcde f per wormes dop ous ete. 

For honger our bodies waxep feynt f & poliep moche pyne, 1276 

War-for damesel as bov art gent ' 2yf ous sum what to dyne." na begs her 

' J J to give them 

IF Flofrippe] tok wel gret pyte f of pys iantaile kny3te, 



pro- 
& pus panne answerede sche f " 3ow be-symep to beo men of mi^tc, mi8est ao 80 

36 schul ha mete, so mote y the f & drynke y-now at rijte : 1280 

Ac arst pow schalt sykery me f & py treup 6 surly ply3te, 

pat pou for me schalt don a pyng f pat y schal the saye, if they wm 

& ther-to ben myn helpyng f by the power pat pou maye." for her> 

" Certes," said Olyuer, "my derlyng f y wil don at py paye, 1284 oiirersaya 

y nolde pe faile, be heuene kyng f in payne par-f or to daye. Ji3j? r 8he 

3yf y schal for pe fi^te f 3yf me mete & drynke, 

& supp e arme me at my ri3te f & y wol for pe swynke ; 

& if y schal pawne gon & mete f wyp pe Sarsyns pat bup abowe 1288 

Doggedlich y schal hem grete f swetyng for by loue, he win fight 

any number 

po3 per be of hem two hundred f y wil slen he?ft helue." [leaf 17, bk] 

of Saracens. 

pat mayde pan gan wax awondred f & po3te by hur selue 
pat he was do3ty man ynow f suche dedes to fulfille. 1292 

Flofrippe] saide, " sir, for py prow f y pray pe hold pe stille. Fioripas begs 

To auawnt pe her in pis plas f it is ful gret folie, *i uiet ' 

It mi3te hermye 3ow alle in cas f if my fader nn^t it spie." leather 

f pan him spak sir Berard f pe erld of montdisdier, 1296 

Then Berard 

pat was pe fairest kni3t of regard f of alle pe doppeper ; 



48 THEY AGREE, AND SHE TAKES THEM TO HER OWN CHAMBER. 

says that if " Comly mayde of kynges kende f f e corteyst fat i knowe, 

friend 6 theh Fayr of f ace n w beo our frende ', and we schul ben f yn owe ; 

anyKng for & For fy loue fat art so hende f we schul bofe ryde & rowe, 1300 
& f ylke fat buf to f e ourckende f f ay schullef be bro^t ful lowe." 
IT " Certis," saide fat faire flour i " y f anke f e swete wy^t, 
f ow couf est wel louye paramour f me semef a lady bri^t." 
"}ea for sof," quaf scot Gwylmer f " }e habbef aredid ari^t, 1304 
In many a lady fer & ner i his loue haf he y-py3t." 

Fieri as ^ pawne was fat mayde fayn c . wan sche wiste hure wille. 
After Maumecet hure chamberlayn f f a?zne sche sente stille, 



sends for an & het to brynge Vftth him anon f anuylt, tange & slegge. 1308 

anvil, tongs, 

hammer ge " & sone ^ e com w yf euerecn on f & bro^t he??i on is rigge. 
the d kn?|iit8 " Ou?ido f is prysou?zs on & on " f Florippe til liim gan sigge, 
bound. " fey schullef out of f is sory won f & her no lenger ligge." 

IF Maumecet coufe ful wel fat craft f & put him anon far-to : 1312 
This is done, Of al hure ehavnes he hab him raft f & ek hure vetres ouwdo. 

and 



* e? u"iui h d t8 ^ one ^y s ^ 0( ie oppon hure fete f and god fay f ankede f o. 

And f e damesele fair & swete f with hure sche made hem go, 
IT By an old for-sake ^eate f of fe olde antiquytee 1316 

Sche made f ys barowzs passye ate f f e damesele fat was so fre. 
Maumecet f e torche afforn him baar f brennynge fayre & bi^te, 

to her And ful pryuvly ladde hem bar f in-to hure chambre rhte. 

chamber, 

FLorippe is in-to Chambre gon f pryuiliche & stille, 1320 

& f ys kni^tes wif hure ecchon f as it was hur wille. 
Wan fay were wyf-inne ibro^t f aboute fay gunne be-holde 
So riche a chambre & so y-wro3t f ne saw fay neuere on molde. 
the wails of f fe walles of fe chambre were f araid for fe nones, 1324 

precious y-maked of ful riche gere i of coral & riche stones, 

stones, * 

of jalp? w8 I 36 wyndowes wern y-mad of iaspre i & of of re stones fyne, 
ypoudred wyf perree of polastre f f e leues were masalyne, 
the beams Al be copies cipres were i & be raftres wer al-so, 1328 

and rafters 

of cypress, And fe bases fat hem bere f wif golde were bi-go : 

[leaf is] f e celynge with-innQ was sillier plat f & with red gold ful wel yguld. 
ceiling ne sawe fay neuere by-fore fat f a place so faire ybuld. 
"rocKr 11 J> e chambre stod oppon fe se f amid ward a roch of stone : 1332 

in C it S FioS < as f er-inne duelte fat maide fre f as chef of al fat wone, 






FLORIPA'S GOVERNESS RECOGNISES THE KNIGHTS. 49 

& with hure maide loyaunce ' f e kynges do^tre of Floyre, Hve with 

Clarymouwde & mayde Floraunce f & fat fayre may Baudoyre, maidens. 

& of re maydens elleuene '. burdes bri^te on boure; 1336 

xv. far were of hem ful euene f duellyng in fat toure. 

11 Ful noble was f e ryche aray 5 fat in f e chambre was. 

fat vessel was of golde gay '. fat scholde be tyn & bras. 

be dossers were of ryche pal f y-brouded al wib golde, 1340 The curtains 

are of rich 

& J)e beddes of sente f orw-out-al f as f arto falle scholde. embroidered 

11 To a wyndowe wente f es barouws fre '. & ther Jjay loked oute, 
fay 8630 f e wa3es of J>e se f harde to-gadre route. 



As fay auysede a-boute oueral f fe wardes fat fer wore, 1344 

f e wawes walwede a-geyn f e wal f a sper schaft lengf e & more. 
" Parfay," fan saide erld Berard f " fys tour is strong to wymie, a h d s ^ m Si 
For any kyng it were ful hard f wyf assaut to comen inne." of the tower - 

IT fe wyle fis barouras ley out fan i & tolde hure tales rouwde, 1348 
To Flo[rippe] com hure maystres gan f fat hi^te Maragounde, Fioripas' 

," sche saide, " wat men buf f eese f fat f on hast of prisouw 



f y fader loue f ow schalt lese f for hymen as y ha 

fe longe man wyf fe pale fas f fat ys erld Olyuer 1352 

fat ouercom f y brof er Fyrumbras f ful wel y koowe hym f er : 

bat other wyb be crollid her f bat stent hym faste by, She rec g- 

Jr y J1 nisesthe 

fat ys Berard of mountdisdier f & f e f ridde ys Aubery : knights, 

f e ferthe fat stent hymen bytwyn f fat is Scot Gwylmere ; 1356 

f e fifthe ys Geffray Langeuyn 5 of france a dof f epere. 

ne schal y neuere ete no more f . bi Mahoura, fat ys my lord, Se wiiuS? 

Or y ha told fy fader fore f fy doyngge euery word." 

IT Wan fat mayde y-hurde hure speke f chaunged was al hure blee ; Fioripas runs 

Til a wondowe sche gan to reke '. fat lay out to fe see ; 1361 J^JJjg 

& atte wondowe sche lynede out f hure angre sche f o^te awreke. out; 

Huremaistresse banne sche clipede aloudf & bad hurw^t/i hure to speke. then calls her 

governess to 

Marigounde compf til hure renne f & hure lied til hire gan layn, 1364 her 
Flofrippe] stod vp & preynte f enne f to-ward hure Chamberlayn, If d J ! J t k8 

& a3en sche laid hur there f & fur out sche bent hure f o, tendant, 

& to whyte what hure wille were f hure maistrasse dude al-so. 
f f yderward f e Chamberlayn hym faste ran f fat hur cast y-knew ful wel, [leaf is, bk] 

FERUMBRAS. E 




50 



FLORTPAS THROWS HER GOVERNESS OUT OF THE WINDOW. 



who seizes the 

governess, 
her^utof the 

window. 



The knights 

are delighted. 



bids them 

cheer ff d 



she sees 

blood on 



if he 






she gives 

him a warm 



heals every 

wound. 

Then she 

gives them 

food 



and rich 



then 



!? S w!ii er 
promise he 

had made 



& By be legges lifte he be schrewe ban f & schef hur out ech del. 1369 

J * 

^ ful d UW M lde tiate ' in ' t0 J 36 Salte SQG > 

^ Flo[rippe] fat was f araie f er ate f turn]? hure in faire a}e, 

& sayde : " Maumecet my mate f y-blessed mot fou "be 1372 

For aled f ow hast muche debate f to-ward f ys barnee." 

1T Wan bys Frenscheinen wiste of bis f al how it stod arist, 

* J 

In herte fay hadde ioje & blys f & f onked god almi^t. 

Flofrippe] baraie til hem wendes f & spak til 2am & saide : 1376 

" Confortyef 3ow, my leue frendes f & buf nof yng amaiede, 

Syf e 36 buf her on f is clos f at my owe ledyngge ; 

Ne drede $ow nopyng of ^our fos i bot letej) away mornyngge." 

H" Sehe caste hure e?e on Olyuer f & saw him al be-bled : 1380 

J^ ma y^ e V 2 ^ n y m ne 3 e( i ner & askede war he hed 

On his body any wouwde f & Olyuer sayde, " 366 ! 

WyJ? swerdes and speres scharp igrourzde ' y haue take three." 

H " Parfay," saide fat burde b^t f " f ou schalt be hoi anon, 1384 

& recuuer y al fy my3t f rnaugre al fy fon." 

Sche fet him a drench bat noble was f & mad him drynk it warm, 

& 0[lyuer] wax hoi sone J?as f and felede no manor harm. 

Muche hi? wondred of fat cas f & fan gropede he euery wounde, 1388 

And f ouwde hem ba?me in Query plas f ouer al hoi & sou?zde. 

U" & fan she dude hem to drynke and ete f of f e beste fat mi;te bee : 

& seruede hem alle at f e mete ' & tau^te fat sche was free. 

Sche confortede hem with Al hure mi^t f & bad he?tt be glad & blyf e, 

And hy hure fankede faire aply3t f & ete & dronke swyfe. 1393 

U Wan fay had ete & dronke ynow '. fe bord sche het arere, 

Ryche garnyment} f orf sche drow f & by-tok hymen for to were. 

fan said she : " lordes wel 36 knawe f fat y haue do myche for 3ow 

Suffe y haue 3ow of prysoiw drawe f agayn my fader prow : 1397 

y do hym wrong 3ow to saue f Syn Olyuer fat her ys now 

My brof er in batail ouer-come hauef f & is worschip f er-vfith ourcdow. 

y knowe Oflyuer] swyfe wel f he ne may no3t to me be hud, 1400 

nofeles ne drede him neuer adel f for me ne schal he be kud. 

Now wolt bou Oliuer bat couenant holde f hwich bov me be-hete 1 

^ s J )OW sa i^ es * J 3 ^ $ ovr wolde f waiine fow in prysou?z sete." 

^ " ?e, w said he, " fat wil y do f do say me now f y wille." 1404 



FLORIPAS TELLS THE KNIGHTS THAT SHE LOVES SIR GUY. 51 

" fat wil y no^t," qua]) sclie f o f " til fou me ban sakred tillc." 

fan 0[lyuer] huld vp his hant f trewely for to holde J? do whS- 

By is power fat couenant f fan spak she til hym & tolde, Ses. e 

fat a kny3t far was of fraunee f fat sche hadde longe y-loued ; 1408 

hwych was icomen of gret lyaunce f & a noble kny$t aproued. 

f e kny^t fat was so gret of fame f was cosyn to kyng CharlouH, 

& Gv of Borgoyne was be name '. of bat bolde baroun. Guy of 

Burgundy, 

" Wan fe Amyral my fader, Sir Balan f waste Eome Citee, 1412 



far saw ich f arcne fat noble man f to don a dede free. R e m? ing f 

_ ,, < -r i / i f when he slew 

Lucafer of Bandas f a kyng of gret renoun, Lucafer, 

king of 

On a stede y-armed was f and rod to fat Baroun, Bandas. 

And bar til hym wif a spere f to ha sleyn him in fe feld ; 1416 

& f e kny3t f e strok away gan bere f nianlich wyf is scheld. 

f e iantail kni^t fan drow ys brond f & ^af hi??i a stroke wif mayn, 

fat hors & man adourz. he wound f & leye f er-on f e playn. 

Fro fat day in-to fys f myn herte haf he yraft, 1420 

Ne kepte y neuere more blys f were he to meward laft. 

Wolde he be my worldly make f & weddy me to wyue, if he win 

marry her, 

For his loue wold y take ' eristendom al so blyue. * he ^{^ 

J J baptised at 

As fou art a trewe kny^t ' do & help now wat fou maye." 1424 once> 
Olyuer saide : " bi god al-miit f damesele y schal a-saye." Oliver says 

he will do all 

Ow let we be f is Barourcs ther f speke we of other f yng. he cau - 

Olyueris fader, fe duk Reyner f com to Charlis kyng, Meanwhile 

Reyncr tolls 

Ther he was amorcg is host f & spekef on hys resouw : 1428 Charles 
" For f y sake my soraie ys lost ( . fat was a bold baroun, 
To mofYbe erly wan it is day i to sechen hym wil y f onde, that he is 

going to seek 

& bote ich him a^eward gete may f for sorwe y go to schonde." for Oliver. 

H Wan f e Emperour haf hurd him speke f of him he toke pyte, 1 432 Charles 
On is fet sone gan he reke f & Eoland ban clipeb he : runs to 

Roland, and 

" Cosyn," saide he, " fo$ hit be so f fat hit falle in drede, lt him 

A message for me f ow most do f fat touchef a mannys dede : 

To Egremoygne-ward scheltou fare f to morwe wan it is day, 1436 

To f e Amyral Balan fat is thare f and belyff on f e false fay. he must go 

Loke for nof yng fat f ow ne spare f to tellen him as y say. JStiiSreats 

On myn half say him fat he me restare f fat he haf mystaken away, $ oi52?SnS, r 

And specialiche myn barouns free f hot him in myn helue, 1440 

E2 



N 



52 CHARLES ORDERS ROLAND AND SIX OTHERS TO BEAR HIS MESSAGE TO BALAN. 

fat he hymen hastelich ^elde a^ee f as he wol saue hym selue. 

And if a dof nc>3t as y say f & tariej) f er wyf to longe, 

y wil do take hym on a day f & on gahvys he3e an honge." 
Naymcs 1T fan hym spak duk Naymoura f that was his courcseyller, 1444 

A gret lord was he of renoiw f & of fraunce a dof f epeer. 
remonstrates " Certis, sire, 36 buj) no3t sle3 f to sende til him Roland : 

By-J>enk fat he ys f y cosyn ne^ f and al f yn other hand, 
[leaf 19, bk] D u k Rofland] is a man of my3t f f e do3tyeste fat lyf to fraunce ; 1 448 

fanne the to lese suche a kny3t f it were a 1 sory chaunce. 

Myn herte me 31 ff fat 3if he went f and takef fat iornee, 
that they win bat fou ne seest hvm no more verament f & ber-for auvse be." 

never see 

ThSTiiS'the " ^ e * depardieux," quaf fe kyng f " ne schal he no3t gon al-one ; 1452 
shaif'notgo Wend f ow wif hym, my derlyng f my message schul 36 done.'* 
shalt go'with IT By-fore f e kyng com duk Basyn f be f ridde dof f eper, 
Basyn inter- & of is speche by-f O3te him f & ne3ede Charlys neer. 

" Sir," said he, f 'me fynkef now f be fat 36 gof aboute, 1456 

fat ri3tself willes f ou f enkst ou?idow f f e beste of al f y route." 
and Charles " Certis," quaf Charlys, " and f ou schalt gon f wyf hymen & be f e f ridde, 

suyS) *Thoiif 

too, shait go.' jj^t schal my message to f e Amyral don '. and do now as y bidde." 
Then Richard IF fan com forf a doffeper ( . Kycliard of normaundye, 1460 

protests, And sayde to f e kynge ther \ " sire, f ow dost folye 

In suche a message for to sende f of al f y lond fat prys, 
To don him sle ther & to schende f amonges f yne enymys." 
and Charles " Aha " f quaf kyng Charlemayn f " now is f is wel by-fo3t, 1464 

says he shall 

Klir 1 aid? f at Eolond ne is felaws twayn f f e contreye ne knowef no3t. 

f ou schalt ben hure iantail gyde f & my furf e Messager ; 

For f ou knowest by euery syde '. fe contreys fer & neer." 
Then starts ^[ Yp a sterte after bane f a dobbeper of fraunce. 1468 

up Terry of 

mnonstrates, J> e duk Terr y of Ardane f A hwowi of gret lyaunce. 

" Sir," said he, " what hast f ow ment f wilt f ow f yn barons spille ? 

If fay gof, fan buf fey schent '. fay comef f e no more tille." 
sa'l^TivV " ^ e ^ d e P ar( li e V quaf Charlis f o 1 " greyfe f e on fy gere, 1472 
be the fifth. JJ QW g^aj^ \) G jj e >v< p a t schal go f my message for to bere." 
Then Ogier ^[ Vp fan aros oppon ys fet f sir Ogier f e Denys, 

& spak to Charlis thar a seet f & sayde on his deuys ; 

1 MS. y. 



THE MESSENGERS MADE READY AND START ON THEIR MISSION. 53 

" Sir," saide he, " y ^ow praye 1 as 30 buf of kynges flour, 1476 

Al fys doynge letef away f & kepef 3our honour. 

For if 3our barou?*s fat buf fre '. wendef in fat message, 

In auntwre ys hure comyng a3e i fram fat sory vyage." 

Charlis saide to hym j>an '. wyj> a stordy chere ; 1480 

" y knowe fe for an hardy man f & of my lond a pere, 

Such a message for to don i ne ys non bettere here. 

Go f ou al-so vritii hem ecchon f & be my messagere. 

Cryst of heuene jow alle saue f my messagers alle sixe ! 1484 

& 3ut f e vij schulle 36 haue f 3our felaschip to make wixe." 

IT Sir Gy of Borgoygne stod faste bye '. fe vij. dofeperf 

Charlis on hym caste ys ey3e f & bad him come neer : ot Burgundy, 

" Sir Gy," quaf Char[lis], " y loue })e wel f for f ow art of my blod, [leaf 20] 

& euere y hope fat y schel c . for J?ow art wys & god : 1489 

A do3ty kny3t & hardy ynow f to don al ma?inys dede, 

& canst ful wel as y trow f gon in such a nede. 

far-for Gyouw, by god of heuene f wyj> fes othre fou most gon j 1492 saysheshaii 

fan haue y barouns seuene f my message wel to don." seventh. 

IT J>e ny3t hure ne3ehede faste f fe day was ne$ ago, T et e read Rhts 

fe lordes buf fan a-paste f wyf-oute more a-do. 

fys messagers agayn fe morwe i a-rayd hem for hure message. 1496 

god saue hem alle fro sorwe f fay takef an hard vyage ! 

11 On f e morwe wan it was day \ & f e larke by-gan to synge, At daybreak 

fys messegers come in god aray i alle by-fore f e kynge ; 

Wel y-armed forw-out al fyng i euerechone fey ware, 1500 

& toke hure leue of Char[lis] kyng i on hure message forf to fare. they 

Char[lis] bi-tok hymen god aln^t f f e he3 kyng of heuene. Suo a " <l 

Hure way toke fay f ane ri3t f to Egremoygneward ful euene ; Aigremont. 

To fe Amyral ward, sire Balan f on ys castel far he lay. 1504 

LMany was f e iantail man i fat for hymen bad fat day, 
fat god hemg?mmtede grace &mi3tesf to a3e come in god aray : 
& forf hem wendef f es noble kny3tes f & takef hure iornay. 
Ete we now fys lordes fare f god leue hym wel to spede ! 1508 Meanwhile 

the Emir 

And twrne we a3en far as we ware f & of f e Amyral y wol rede. 
For his sone, sir Fyruwbras f & is Sarsyns fat wern a-slawe, 
Sory & wrof ynow a was f ri3t al so sayf f e sawe. 



54 BALAN SENDS SEVEN KINGS ON A MESSAGE TO CHARLES. 

seven" kin 3 ^' ^ vn o es f ma( ^ e ne come f afforn ys owe presaunce; 1512 

presence, Peynymes pei were alle & some i & vnder his liegiaunce. 
Among hem seuene on far was f pat was chef of alle, 
Ys name hote Moradas f pay comen to pe Amyralle. 
1T Moradas askede for wat nede ' pat pay wern of sent. 1516 

and tells them pe Amyral ansuerede for a dede ( . "y-hyrep now pantent. 

Lordlynges, wel 30 wytep alle i how Charpis] pe kyng of fraunce 
now is oppon my lond afalle i with prude & gret bobaunce, 
And he penkp my lond conquerere '. & to don ous alle schame. 1520 
Bot arst y penke hym affere f & alle hise to grame, 
to go to Wendep per-f or to Morymond f y-logged per lie lys, 
charts And S ^8 G 1^ * P e cr&fene hofid ' Charpis?] of parys, 
[leaf 20, back] Ys ffmfene fay]? pat he for-sake f and be-lyue on Mahone, 1524 



to give up & hastelich myne amendes make f & ^ylde a^eyn my sone, 

Ss^aswd 1 * ^ e ^ e a ^ f 6 rea ^ me ^ frannce i pat he htir holde of me, 
porw-out al in god liegeance i for euere-more in fee : 
& pat he fie fro panne a- way f & lete my lond in pees. 1528 

& yf he ne dop no^t as y say f pat neuere ne wil y sees, 
Til y haue him distrayed f & alle pat y fynde of his ; 
for he me hauep so sore anuyed f wendep & siggep him pys ; 
& ^if ^e metep with any cristew man f baroim outher kny^t, 1532 
lokeap pat 36 legge hem an i & slep hem a-dotm wyp my3t." 
rhis is a 1T Sir Morafdas] saide to pe Amerel ' " pys message ys muche to drede. 

errand,' said pys frensche men bup bop lyther & fel f wan pay herep o^t of quede, 
& if we schul don pys message f we ne comep no3t alle a^eyn. 1536 

'nevertheless We wolleb nobeles do bat vyage f ber-fore to ben a-sleyn. 

we will do it.' 

pat y ne say it for no drede f 30 mo we it wel deuyse, 

Do we wollep wel py nede f w/t/i-oute any feyntyse. 

Me selue py message y wil abede i in such a manure gyse, 1540 

pat, bot y be taken oper dede i an hundred hit schullep a-gryse. 

Wip my swerd scherp 1 y-grounde f hure cronnes wol y schane; 

&, bot if my sawe sop be founde f maugre mot y haue." 

The other six 1F pe sixe saide pay wolde al-so i & faste pay made host 1544 

would go. p#t to Char[lis] pay wolde werche wo f & eke to al is host. 

Sone pay wern araid ari^t f pus vij kyngis y-vere, 

1 MS. sehrep. 



THE FRENCH ON THEIR ROAD MEET THE SARACEN KINGS. 55 



In stedes fat were fair of si3t f & eke on riche armere. 

Alday f ai riden & no$t ne a^t '. to- don fat ilke cure, 1548 

Til f ai come to Mantrible at ni^t I & wolde abyde fere. 

On f e morwenyng wan it was day f forf wende pes kynges seuene, 

To morymond-ward fay toke f e way f as he lay ful euene. 

Faste fay passede ouer al Jne weys f fey knew ful wel fe cost ; 1552 

Ne sparede fay hulles, nof er valeys '. bote prikede f orf* vrith bost. 



A 



S bese frensche men come ryde f on- message fro Charloun, as the French 

ride along, 



Duk Naymes gan be-holde a syde f & saw hem & hure pcnoun. ^ a; [ 
" Mercy god," quaf naymes fan 5 " now bujf we betraied ; 1556 

Bonder y se come many a man f y-armed & wel araid. 
Hit semeb sarasyns as be si^te f fat prikeab as wynd & rayn ; 
Willeb we wib hymen mete & fi^te f ofer ^e wollab twrne agay?" 



" Sir duk," quab Rolond, " what eylet be f ber ne bub no^ xxx" bare ; P 



Ne .xx". neyber, ful wel y se f why makest fou such a fare 2 1561 Oaf 21] 
Mete we vrith hem on cristes name '. & go we to hymen afrouwt. of them,* says 

J Roland, 

We schulleb hastely make tame f alle bilke beben-e hound." sooVtame 

bay pry kede hure stedes with hure spores f & ban pay ruraie away ; them *' 
Ne spared rigges nober vores f til bay mette fat pray. 15-65 

IT Wan bey come to-eradre nei - & Moradas be kvns hem mette : Wh en they 

come near the 

A cryede to hymen wel an 1*03 f & f us he hymen grette : 

" If 36 lyuef on f e hef ene lay i Mahouw jov saue & kepe : 1568 

& if 36 ben cmfene men of fay f y dime 3ow al f e hepe." 

IT " Sarsyn," saide duk neymouw f " haue f ou muche maugree, 

We wendef on message fram Cha?lou?^ f to f e Amyral of nubbee. 8aid Nu y mes - 

fow scholdest no message? bere a doun 5 for al fyn h3 degree.' r !572 

" 3us," quaf he, " be Seynt Mahoura 5 & jut y $ow diffye a^ee. 

Wollef 30 3ou defende f o-uf er 30 wollef flen ? " 

" 3ea, so god me mende " f f e duk him sayde a^en ; 

" Hwych of 3ow wil wyf me fi3te" f saide fe Sarsyn fans. 1576 

"y am," quaf Naymes, " al-redy i-di3te f a^eyn fe for to gan. u 

1T " Fy," quaf Moradas, " wat ert fow f fat telest of me so lyte 1 



For such a do3eyne 1 y make auow f y nolde no^t spyue a myte. old. 8 ' 

Al for elde ys hor fyn her f hit semef wel by si3t : 1580 

Send me anof er fat ys my peer f on him to kyf e my 
1 MS. doj^eyne. 



56 MORADAS CHALLENGES ANY FRENCH KNIGHT I ROLAND CHARGES AT HIM. 

A do3ty iolyf bacheler f a 3ong man & a wi^t, 
bat is of body f resell & fier f wib such on wold y 3!." 
Then he If bawne bad he to be company i bat wib liim were bare, 1584 

orders his r 

tosSSnSck f at non ^ ^ em ne come ^ m n y k w so ^ ky kiw ^ are - 

" For al \QS m'sfene conquere y schal f bis day me self al-one, 
& hymen presenty to be Amyral f to-morwe or it be none." 
Roland is ^[ Wan Rofland] hurd him how he spak f for angre a wax nej wod : 

indignant, 

seizes a spear A tok a spere wib-oute lak f & rod til him wyb xcod ; 1589 

" Whar to makest bow al bat host, Sara3ynT' Ropand] sede 
*' Or bow passye out of bys cost f me self schal do by nede. 

charges wm. War now of me, ich be diffie" f & bar til him is spere, 1592 

And he anober tok an hye f & scherply til him gan here. 

Their spears So harde bay acoupede on hur scheldes f bat broke bub bobe hure schaf te, 
& be peces fulle on be feldes f be hedes on be tre by-lafte. 

and they Now haueb bay hure speres tyntf hure swerdes out bay twy^te, 1596 

draw their 

[leaf 21, back] On helmes & scheldes ful many a dynt f ayber til ober are^te : 

swords. 

So harde bey hywe on helm & scheld f bat bay al to-rente, 
Me mi3te y-sen in tal be feld f how be sparkes by-fore- out- wente : 
be cercles bat were on hur helmes set f of perre y-mad & golde, 1GOO 
bey hern hem douw wib-oute let 1 ne mi3t bay no$t wit/i-holde. 
What halt hit muche her-of to telle i to drecchen J ous of our lay 1 
Roland Ropand] ate laste wyb hym gan melle i & ta3te hi?7i a sory play. 
through 8 his Roland smot hym on be helm an he3 f & laid hit a douw wiVi mayn, 
leiinet. Helm & coyfe ther wyb a clef f borw-out heued & brayn. 1605 

His auentaile ne vailede hi?ft no3t ' bat be swerd ne clef him bawne, 
Til it hadde in-to is bodi i-so3t f by-nythe is brest a spanne. 
His followers IT Wawne his felawes bat y-syef bat Moradas be kyng was ded, 1608 
Loude bay cryede & skry3te an hye f " Mahout wat is by red 1 
How schulle we now ous selue gye f now ous lackeb our hed 1 
bus cmfene houwdes schulleb sore abye f auengy we hym," bay sed. 
charge at ^T Agayn duk Ko[land] ban com bys route i wyb hure swerdes drawe, 
aveiige their & heweb til hym al aboute f to hauen hem banne a slawe. 1613 

Roland & Ro[land] 3erne him gan defende f wyb durendale is brond, 
cuts Lam- And stwrne strokes til hymen he slente ' bawne wib bobe ys hond. 
head off, and Rolond smot be kyng Lambrok f wan he was ameued, 1616 

1 MS. dracchen altered to drecchen. 



ALL THE SARACEN KINGS, SAVE ONE, ARE KILLED. 57 

In f e necke f fat wyf fat strok * A wypede of his heued. 

A-noJjer strok fan a gerte f to Colbrant f e kyng wit/i mayn, 

& borw-out is helm & ys coyfe him herte i & [all for-clef is brayn. cleaves 

Colbrank's 

1T fe foure of re flo^en faste ' wan fay se3en hem falle, 1620 

Ac f ys frenschemen an haste f a$e requilled hem alle, 



& wan bay hadden hymen w/t/i-inne f alle bay slose f saf on. and 8 k em ' 

slay all, save 

On was clouen in-to f e chynne f another to f e brust-bon ; one. 

fe fridde was styked with a swerd f fe furthe a-scapede away, 1624 

And prykede faste to fe furd f far fat f e Amyral lay ; 

Til he com to Egremoyne f neuere fat he ne blan : 

fan wente he wif-oute ensoygne ' to speke wif Balan. 

IF Wan fat fe Ameral y-saw him come f filke hefene kyng, 1628 

fan way a^en hi?ft haf he nome f & askede what tydyng. The Emir 

" Certes sire," sayde fe kyng i " suche tydynges haue y bro^t brin n ? he 

fat willef lyke f e nof yng f by fat f ow art by-f O3t. 

pester day, so mote y thee f as we ryde forf ry^tes, 1632 



Wif seuen glotouws mette we f fat buf of Char[lis] kny^tes : 
Al fyn Messagers fay han a-slawe ( . saue me fat am a-scaped, f [leaf 22] 

To schewe to f e f orw my sawe f how fat ous is hapid. him what has 

1T fey vij. f e vyage han vndertake f hiderward fram Charflis] kyng, JjJ,^* l ' he 
To fe a message for to make i & hiderward buf now comyng. 1637 Sn ffir way 
Hure wyle n^t fow now wel $ylde f beo fai hider i-come, 



Al quike y rede fan let hem hylde f fe glotouws alle & some." 

IT " Alas ! " saide f e Amyral fan '. " now am y broit in care, 1640 The Emir 

J laments his 



No lengre lyue y ne can i of blisse y am al bare. 

Furst y loste Fyrwwbras i my sone fat was me dere : 

& now haue y lost kyng Moradas f a kny^t vrith oute pere : 
And othre kynges manye f & muche of my socour ; 1644 
Now my folkes dof f us wanye f y-lost ys myn honour." 
Eue we her fan Amyrel '. liggyng in sorwe & care ; The French 

& of f is barouws y wil }ow tel i fat to hymward buf a-fare. consult! 
Wan fe vj. kynges wern y-sleyne f & fe vij e . was a-go, 1648 

fan were fay alle in wittes tweyne f what was best to do. 

Duk Naymes f e furste was '. fat spak of f ys entent : 

" How rnowe do, lordes, in this cas f bat we buf now y-sent 1 Naymes 

advises them 

If we gof now to f e Amyrel f certis we buf y-schent. 1652 



58 ROLAND PROPOSES TO PRESENT THE HEADS OF THE SARACENS TO BALAN. 

to return, Turne we a,je, j rede wel f & telle we how it stent." 

deciSSe ^ " ^ ay '" ^^ ^^ an( ^ to J> e duyk f " fan [wei] we yuele spedde ; 

wm Leuere me were to ban be syk f liggyng on my bedde. 

If god send grace my wit to belde f & my owe lif to saue, 1656 
And durendale my swerd to welde f by-fore f is as y haue, 

bacf tum Turne ajeynward y ne schal f for no mannis speche, 

^ v ^ a s P^ e w j]? J> e Amyral f wbar ich hym euere seche : 

& lokeaf 30 lordes do al-so f to kepe 3011 out of blame : 1660 

& certis, sirs, bote 30 do f 36 do]) ^ow selue schame. 

J*e proposes ^ And take we f e beuedes of f ys Sarsyns f & lede we with ous fader ; 
Euerech trossye on at his dyuys f to f e arsoiw of his sadel. 
we willef hym lede for]) boldely f with ous wif-oute affray, 1664 
& if par is any fat speke]) 03t by f say we it is our pray. 
& wan we come]) to f e Amerel '. al-so mot y waxe, 

each^present y schal him presenty 1 fair & wel '. fe heuedes alle sixe." 

Names ^ " Eofland]," qua]) neymes, " why spekestou so ? J)0u ert of he3e parage, 
J 50U f e selue & ous a sl f J> orw such a fo1 outtrage 1 " 1669 



Terry sup- " Be dure god," qua]) Terry fo f " it wil be rijt god rage, 



and Ri3t as he wil let it be do i for fat is vassalage." 

eacMak'es 1 ^ ^ Euerech of hymen fan tok an hed i as it dyuysid was, 1672 

& forf fay riden wyf-oute dred f god help him for is gras ! 
Naymes Duk naymes be-fore f aym gan to fonde f & afferrom lokede f o : 

fan saw he Mantryble aiforn him stonde i & f e brigge fat lay f ar-to. 
points out " By-holdef now, syrs," quaf duk Naymouft f " f e 3ondre faire Citee : 
fs n Aig a remLt. Me J j y nke l ) f at f at is Egrymou?^ f fer we scholden bee." 1677 

R?ch y ard a Mt " -^ a y>" ^ ua f l^i cnar( i f normaundye f " sof ely y f e sigge, 
with a us rible ' ^* y s Mantryble fat fow sye f wyf fe grete brigge. 
bridge A fes half Mantrible fe grete Citee f ys fe brigge y-set, 1680 

of marble Al of inarbre y-mad ys sche f wyf a quynte iet. 

with, sixty 

P iers - Sixty pers far buf f ar-on i fat buth grete & rouwde. 

f e werste piece of hem ecchon f cosnede a f ousant pounde. 

Oppon ech pere far stent a tour f enbataild wyf queynte engynne, 1684 

Twenty kny^t&s of gret honour f mowe wel beo loged ynne. 

The bridge f e syd walles fat on f e brigge stondef f buf an hundred pas of Icngf e ; 

ions. Bot how dup sche ys no man ne f ondef f f e ryuer is so gret of strengf c. 



MS. prenscnty. 



THE FRENCH KNIGHTS ARRIVE AT THE BRIDGE OP MANTRIBLE. 59 

pe brigge ys of fair entaylle f on brede fourty fete. 1688 jncuo yards 

An hundred kny^tes wyp-oute faille f per-on affrouftt mowe mete. 

.x. cheynes bar bub ouerthwart adrawe f in stedes dyuers y-set. Ten chains 

are drawn 

As lieuye as twenty men drogy mawe f ys euerech wip-oute let, 1691 across it. 

In tyme of nede pe chaynes buj) bent f & on othre tymes buj) ou?*do. 

Wo wer him pat wyp-inne went ' $yf he par hadde a fo. 

Oppon J)e tour aundward ri^t f par stondep a iuwel gay, {iwe" the 

An egle of gold pat schynap bri^t f so dop p e so?me on may. 

par is pe wacche y-mad ani$t f wyp sarsyns of gret aray ; 1696 the watch i 

Many ys pe gode cristene kni^t i pat par haj) be don of day. 

pe fairnesse J)ar-of no man ne wot f to telle it al on sender. 

be dotouse ryuer me calt flagot f bat raply renneb vnder : The river is 

J _ called Flagot. 

A geant ys mated briggeward f pat symep pe fend to see ; 1700 A giant is 

Wyp an hache an honde heuy & hard f pe brigge ay kepep hee. brid s e - 
pe geant ys so wonderly wy^t f and so pereillous on ys pray, so mighty is 

pat po$ par come an hundred kni^t f par forp to take pe way, 
Bot if pay don as he wol ri3t f wyp-oute more delay, 1704 

Hasteliche wil he wib hem fiat f . & don hem out of day. he would be 

' a match for 

for wham he may with pe hache arede f po$ he be i-armed wel, 

He clefp him doun to pe gurdelstede f ouper is body porw echdel." 

Euerech til ober banne sede ( . "ther by-gynneb luther haunsel, 1708 The French 

1 ' cw f are f,. igllt . 

To don pe Message pat we bup bede f to Balan pe Amyrel." ened but 

II "Lordes," quap Eo[land], "now hauy cast i to speken wip pat hounde. Km tSle 
To knowe ys wil y wil him tast f & drecehen him a stou^de. [leaf 23] 

Til 30 alle be wel apast f & paw iwil him 3yue a wounde 1712 

Wyp durendal by godes fast f pat he ne schel neuere be souwde." and slay him. 
IT " Nay," quap Naymys, " by myn hed f so ne schalt pow no^t ; 'Nay,' saya 

If pou dudest as pou sed f it mi^te be dure 



Ac wan we seep him dop after my red f & makiep it nopyng to3t, 1716 ' leave him to 
& y wille ouercome pe qued f wyp lesynges pat y ha po3t." 
1T Alle pay duden panne assente to pat ' pat he gan sigge, They agree, 

& forbward f aste on hure way bey wente f & entrede on b e brisse. and ride on 

to the bridge. 

pe Briggeward was y-redy ther f at entre of pe 3eate, 1720 

Wyp an hoi hundred of sarsyns fer f pat y-armed stode par-ate. Naymes tries 

1T Duk Naymes furst gan to entre f pe brigge afore warde, 

Ac pe Briggeward sone him hente f by pe brydel harde ; 



60 ALAGOLOFURE, THE BRIDGEWARD, DEMANDS TOLL OF THE FRENCH. 

& sone he askef \vy])-oute ensoygne f wyderward he was boun 1724 
Naymes says " Sir," saij) naymes, "to Egremoygne f fys day if me mown." 

" Was men buth 36," sayde he agayn '. " fat comej) in such arayf 
they are " We buf ," quaf he, " with Chaiieniayn f be emperour. for sob to say. 

on a message 

to Baiau. To Egremoyiie we moste on his message f to f e Amyral sir Balan. 1 728 

Let ous 1103 1 of oure vyage f y praye fe, gode man." 

'Ye must H u ^e mote furst," quaf fe Sara^yn f "syffe 36 fyder fondef, 

e For fe truwage make fyn f fat to fis brigge longef." 



& N[aymes] hym answerede sone f "do tel me wat is fe trow, 1732 
& ful longe or hit beo none i fy pees schal wel be dow." 
11 fan Ansuerede f e wardeyn f " hit is no^t ly^t to fynde, 
Ac nof eles y-hure me seyn f and haue it on f y mynde. 

^ S 16 * 6 ^ iertes re ^ et at a * J as ^y ^ 3 OW an hundred, 1736 

& clene maydens faire smal f al-so manye y-sondred. 
100 falcons, An .C. of gyrfacoufts y asky bo f y-muwed ouer ^ere, 
and 100 white & an hundred of whyte stedes al-so f bat neuere no sadel bere. 

steeds; and 

hoofo? -^ or ec ^ ^^ ^ 3 our s ^ e( ^ es fati 36 now rydej) on, 1740 

acarbuncie 3 e mote al-so her paye nedes '. a charbuncle ston. 

Quyclych payej) J?ys truwage ' fat 36 han i-hurd me sigge, 
And wendef forth on 3our viage f ouer fys iolif brigge. 
& Jx>3 30 now wolde leue hit f & twne a3e as 36 come, 1744 

For-gon 3ou tidde ferfor 30111- heued f & fer-of nemaf gome." 
Naymes says ^[ " Wel, depardieu," nemys said ' " al f ys y knew be-fore, 
thit'their ^ ^ J^ 11 a kynge schaltou beo ipaid f siffew it nys no more. 
foiSfng, 8 Oure harneys comef her be-hynde ' wif to hundred men araid : 1748 
wMii find ail W*t/i hymen schalt bou al fyng fynde f fat f ov hast to ous y-said ; 

he requires, 

Gyrfacou?is y-muwed & white stedes i & hertes of gresse y wene ; 
[leaf 23, bk] And louely ladies on hure wedes f maydeyns fay buf clene. 
and besides, fey bryngef al-so cofres fyld f of golde & precious stones; 1752 
gold and Tak y now ber-of wat bou wylt ' and let ous gon at ones." 

precious 

The tree er ^ " J o rante we V Sa ^ e ne 1? ' " su f f 011 foj Schullef paye. 



and e Ss them f 6 rayne f anne let he go f & let hem gon hure waye. 

After him alle fan toke fe way f & Ropand] gan lawe smere, 1756 
AS they And lawyng to Naymes gan he say '. fat he was a gret lyere. 

cross Roland 

eees^a ^[ AS fay ouer fe brigge gu?ine ryde f Ro[land] hi??i lokede aboute, 

A Sarasyn saw he ful of pride < ouer fe brigge fat lyned oute ; 



THE FRENCH CROSS THE BRIDGE, AND ARRIVE AT AIGREMONT. 61 

A bo} adoim on pat tyde f and ca^te hym by pe snoute, 1760 stoops down, 

& cast him on pe ryuer vnryde f & folghede po for]) pe route. ^ les hira 

IF "Alas," qua]) Neymys, "wat man is pys f alas ! why fare]? lie so? ^Ai.r says 

Hys he^e herte & his hardynys f schel hrynge ous alle in wo. JyjJ 1 ^ n into 

y had leuere pan myn hors y-wys f were we fayre ago, 1764 trouble -' 

Or we wem a-spyed of pys f god kepe ous fram oure fo ! " 

1F pay wern banne ful sore agaste f pe Citee to wende porwgh, 

Nopeles pa?me pai p?*ikede faste f til pay wer passed pe borwgh. They ride on, 

til pey wer comen to Agremouw f neuere pey ne astynte. 1768 

& bi-fore pe castel pay li^te adouft f & at pe ^eate in pay wente. 

IT Wyp a sarsyn ]>an Jjai mette f )ms ba^ou7^s gode & lei, 

And askede of him wib-oute lette '. war was hure Amyrel. They enquire 

where Balan 

J?e sarsyn hym answerede ]>er f J?at faste par-by was he, 1772 is - 

Sittynge on a grene erber f & talkede wyj> kynges three. 

f " Lorlynges," saide naymes pawne i " delyueriej? me Jje wryt, Naymes 

fat Charpes] sente to sir Balanne f for y wol presente hit. 

v wolde fayne be be furste f to tellen him oure message, 1776 that he win 

deliver the 

Leste be Amyral don ous burste i for any of oure outrage." message; 

11 " Let of, sir duk," Sir Eo[land] sede f " whar-to spekest jjow so? but Roland 

J?yn herte ys na^t to such a dede f me self y wil hit do. 

y schal be J?e furste of alle 5 J?at our message schal a-bede, 1780 jj^JJJ Jjj'jj. 6 

Wat so euere J>ar-of falle f y ne leuet for no drede 

J>e lettre bat ys til hym wryte f take]) him me, y praye, 

& be heuedes fat we of smyte f ^usterday by be waye ; 

& als 30 alle schul sen it wel f boldelich wil y gon, 1784 

& y wil hymen to Amyrel '. presenty vp anon : and win 

y schal it don apertely '. be god bat me haj) bo3t : Laian to 

For drede of hura ne his maygny f nel ich spare no^t." 

Al was til hym bo by-take f be hure commun assent, 1788 They give 

& bat present to Amyral make f in-to be erber ba^ bay went. amfenter the 

1T be A[myral] ban fay founde ber f cowselyngge wit/& kynges fre, arb [ieaf24] 

And wyb hymen a gret power f sara3yns of hure meyne, 

Ac nobeles bey of fraunce f afFore be Amerel ^ude 1792 

And Eofland] wib sterne co?^tina7^ce f ys message bws gan bude : Roland 

GOd ft ys our Sauyor f bat al byng knowb & see]), message 

Saue Charpes] be Emperour f & al pat wib him beep ! 



62 ROLAND PRESENTS THE HEADS TO BALAN, AND DELIVERS THE MESSAGE. 



and the devil 
take thee, 
and all thine. 



Yesterday 
seven robbers 
of thine tried 
to rob us, 
but they were 
sadly 
deceived.' 



He throws 
down the 
heads, 

and says, 
' We have 
been sent to 
demand the 
holy relics 



and the five 
knights. 



And if thou 
refuse 
we will 



take theef 
and hang 
thee.' 



Balan is 
enraged, 
swears he 
will have 
vengeance, 



and specially 
on Roland. 



him to 
stand aside, 



& fe Amyral fat sittcst ther f fe deuel fe for-drawe, 1796 

And alle fat buf wif f e her f & lyuef on f e false lawe : 

For f ov mayntenest f ef reyuours f her ne$ to f yn honde, 

To gon aboute & robby ous f fat walkaf on f y londe. 

U As we 3usterday at pryme f hiderward comen euene, 1800 

on f e gate we mette of f yne ' stronge f eues seuene. 

fay Jjo^te ous far haue be-reyued f of our hors & of our gere, 

Ac fay were foule deceyued f hure heuedes fay lefte there ; 

& if fou ne rni^t me far-of ilyue f be-hold her war fay beef." 1804 

a caste f e heuedes by-for him blyue f fat he & hyse hit seef . 

IF " Herkne ^ut more," said he fan f " f e cause of oure comyng. 

We buf y-sent 1 to fe, Balan f be Charlis, fe Conily kyng. 

By ous sente he fe to sayn f to warnye fe by-forn, 1808 

f e nayles f ow scholdest him ^elde a^eyn f & eke f e croune of f om, 

& f e of re relyqes fat buf fre ' fat fou hast away y-born 

Out of Rome ys owe Citee f & elles f ow gest a torn. 

H f ov scholdest hym ^elde a^e also f ys barourzs fou hast y-take, 1812 

And out of f y prisou^ let hem go f & for hymen amendes make. 

& certis he sayf bote f ow do f after fat is lettre spake, 

He wol f e chacy as ys f o f & werche f e sorwe & wrake. 

Whar ere fou be founde in londe f of hym fou nn^t be adrad, 1816 

for f e ty3d be-take .wyf honde f & to parys fou worst y-lad, 

And thar f anne f e ty3d be an honge f ys auow he hauef y-mad. 

So schel he quyte f e f y wronge f & f er-of wil y be glad." 

If f e Amyral wax f aw wod & wrof f wan he haf herd \\irn speke ; 1820 

& be Mahouw he swor ys of f fat he wolde ben awreke, 

Of f like fat slowe kyng Moradas & ys of re kynges fyue : 

& namlieh of him fat so hardy was f to fore him so to stryue, 1823 

& presenty til him with such outrage f fay heuedes bi-fore him selue, 

& so vylenly beode ys message f & schamy he?ft in euery helue 2 . 

He het Roland fan stonde a-side f ther him self al-one, 

Til he hauede y-herde fat tyde f f e speche of euerechone. 

& be Mohouft fan swer f e schrewe f fat he nolde etc no bred, 1828 



1 MS. of y-sent. 
2 This line at the bottom in the margin : 

for J>y schrewed sake as he sayde & to ous spake. 



AFTER ROLAND NAYMES AND RICHARD DELIVER THE MESSAGE. 63 

Til he were al to-hewe f for f e message fat he abed. 

" 3if fow dost so longe faste " f Eolond to him sede, 

" f yn herte f anne wil ouercaste f & ake wil fyn hede." 

IT Duk neymys com forth fan f & by-fore Balan 3ude, 1832 

And in f e fairest manere pat he can i f e Message he gan abude ; 

" Now list to me, sire Amerant i & tak it to non outrage, message to 

Balan. 

War-for we buf to f e y-sent f f 03 y telle my message. 

Charlys kyng & Emperour i sente fe to sayne, 1836 

fat f ou scholdet wyf honour f tjelde vp til him a3eyne 

pe ryche relyqes fat f ov toke f in Eome ys owe Cytee : 

& al-so fow scholdest loke f fat is barons were sent a^e, 

fat fow hast to fy prisouw take f & liggef among hure fone : 1840 

& his amendes Jjou scholdest make f of pe harmes Jwu hast him done : 

Outher such word he J?e sent f fat he nel neuere a-stynte, 

Orhefehabbewyf strengfey-hentf outherslawe f ewz't/?<swerdesdynte." Baian teiis 

" Wei," said he, " y knowe ys wille f fairer fou abust fy tale. 1844 gjfj^i 16 

Let anofer ys message telle f & stond fou fer by J>y fale." the others. 

IT f aw com forf hym bi-f ore f Eychard of Normaundye ; Normand f 

A strong kny^t & a wel icore f was he wif-oute lye : 

" Herkne," said he, " sire Balan 5 Ameral of nubbye : 1848 repeats the 

& y wil her as y can '. my message to f e ourcwrye. 

IT Charlys fe noble kyng of fraunce f sendef to f e tydynge, 

fou scholdest leue fy false creauwce f & belyue on heuene kynge : 

fou also ^elde him fe croune of thorn f & ys othre relyqes dere, 1852 

fat f ou dudest a-way be born f in Eome thar thay were ; 

And eke ys barouns fat buf y-take f fow scholdest hem }elde a^eyn ; 

And suf f e to hi?w amendes make '. for hymen fat buf y-sleyn. 

Outher certis for fy wronge f he dof fe now to seyn, 1856 

fow worst ful he^e an honge f wyf-inne f es monefys tweyn." 

"3eaf haue fow yuele grace" f fe Amyral sayde an hye, 

" f ou semest me by thy face f Eychard of Normaundye. 

He fat slow myn owen Eem f fe kyng of Mandralye ; 1860 

Were bou he by bys leem i sone bow scholdest dye. him to join 

Roland and 

Now haue y herd three of 3ow f fat wolde i were in bale. 

Go thow to fy felawes now f & fe furthe let telle ys tale." 

IT fan com forf a doffepeer i duk Basyn of Genueys, 1864 [leaf 25] 



64 BASYX AND TERRY REPEAT CHARLES' MESSAGE TO BALAN. 

Basyn & to be Amyral he wente ner f & til hvm bus lie sevs : 

delivers the J 

message. Wost wat word he J?e seiite f Charlis kyng by ous. 
As jjou ne wilt be y-schente f to 3elde hi?w his barons, 
And ]>e scherpe croune of thorn f & J>e nayles three, 1868 

War wij) cristes flesche was torn f on J>e rode tree ; 
& if J?ou tarie longe f her-wyj? j>ou worst y-schent 
He^e Jow. worst an honge f such word he J?e sent." 

Baian tells " $ea, trupt " f qua]? J>e Amyrale f " y set no^t by jjy sawes. 1872 
aside with let come ]je fyffe & telle ys tale f & go J>ou to J?y felawes." 



^ Ardane, S ^ TQ Terry f sterte for]) on is fet : 
amfafter WyJ> a stwne look & hardy f is herte was ful gret : 
S ArdSs, Ys herd was long, & al whyt hor f a was [a] grymly freke. 1876 
grim man, His brest he bend vp as a bor f & to Amyral gan he speke : 
repeats it. Now list to me, jjow Sara^yn 5 J?at makest so gret bobaunce, 
"What word j>e sende Charlemyn i J>e noble kyng of fraunce. 
Charlis J>e kyng of fraunce f J>e sende pis tydynge, 1880 

To leue fy false creaunce f & belyue on heuene kynge ; 
& $elde him fou scholdest ]?e croune of Jjorn f & J>e nayles three, 
Hwych f on & J? yne away han born f of Rome is owe Citee ; 
& ek ys barouws fat J?ou hast y-take f Jjou scholdest he?tt sende a-gayn, 
& ys amendes fayre make f for J?ilke fow hast a-slayn : 1885 

And ellis for )?y wronge f or come Jjws monies twayn, 
Wei he^e fou werst an honge f he sendej* J?e f us to sayn." 
Baian is IT be Amyral herknede hym ful wel f how he tolde ys tale : 1888 

frightened at r . 

him, A-fry^t he wax 01 hym sum del . so grym a was in gale : 

" Jjow semest bet," qua)) Amerel l . " a deuel gonde in dale, 
Jjan a man of flesche & fel f so grym Jwu art a fale. 

and asks him Ac nojjeles woldy of J?e fayn f wyte wyjj-oute strif, 1892 

a man is Wat maner man ys Charlemayn f & how he let his lif." 

Charles. 

Terry tells Terry him ansuerede ban f at schorte wordes & rouwde : 

him that he 

is a noble " Charlis vs a noble man f nys no war is per y-founde : 

and religious 

man He louej) god almi^ty wel f & eke al holicherche. 1896 

neuere ne SC ^ 6 ^ ' at ^ 16 ne W 



and that 

biowofhis Gr Q( ie kny3tes wil he haue f goynge -with hym aboute. 

knock oSt ld Were a her so god me saue f fan wer J?ou bro^t in doute ; 

brains. With ys hond a wolde j)e ^yue 1 a such on on ]j e luste 1900 



OGIER AND GUY OF BURGUNDY REPEAT THE MESSAGE. 65 

pat al py breyn scholde clyue f al aboute ys fuste." [leaf 25, back] 

IT Wan be Amerel herd him sigge so '. in ys herte wax he wrop : Baian is 

angry, 

" pou ferly freke," saide he po f " of o pyng say me sop : Te?ry t0 bane 

And y wer now on py mastrye f as pou art her in myne, 1904 

Tel me be waye of companye f how wostou pan do by me." 

" By pe cristendom pat y fong" f quap Terry parcne sone, 

" pou scholdest be ful heje an-honge f pis day jut or none." 

" So schalt pow beo pe self" f saide pe Amyrel parnie: 1908 andcaiisthe 

" Go stand ther in pat other helf f & let come pe sixte manne." 

IT pan com forp a doppepeer f Erld Ogier pe Deneys, o^/anT 

& to pe Amyral he nejep neer f & til him pan he seys : message the 

" Charlemayn, kyng of fraunce f sente pe word be ous, 1912 

pow scholdest, wip-oute more distau/wse f jelde him his barourcs, 

& pe scherpe croune of porn f & pe opere reliqes dere, 

pat pow & pyne away han born 5 of Kome ther pay were 

& cristendom pou scholdesi fonge ' & leue py foule entent ; 1916 

& amendie hem of py wronge ' of al pyng pou hym hast offent. 

& if pou tariest ojt to longe i pan eertis ert pow schent, 

He pe wil don heje an-honge '. & such word he pe sent." 

" y haue y-hurd .vj. of my fon" 5 saide pe Amyrelle, 1920 Baian calls 

" Do let come pe .vij. anon f and is tale let hym telle." 



IT Wyth pat com sterte pe gade Gy f pat duk was of Borgoygne, Guy of Bur- 

gundy next 

pat bore was in normaundy f y-norschid in Sessoyngne. delivers the 

He comep by-fore pe Amyrel 1 & ys message abed him pere, 1924 



as y $ow now telle schel '. jif 30 me wollep here : 
" Charlis, pat is of fraunce kyng f & of Rome Emperour, 
Hotep pe porw alle pyng f to leuen f pyn errour 
& hotep pe pat pou for-sake f py false god Mahone, 1928 

& to cristendom pat pov take f and belyue on godes sone. 
Such word al-so he sendep pe f Charles pe Emperour, 
pat pou him scholdest sende a$e i ys kny3tes of honour 1 ; 
And ^elde a$e pe croune of thorn f and the naylles three, 1932 
War-wip cristis flech was torn f on pe rode tree ; 
& pe other relyqes ryche f wyche pov Inim hast y-raft ; 
Oper ellis certis he wil pe syche f whar pou euere be laft ; 
1 MS. hononour. 

FERUMBRAS. P 



66 BALAN CONSULTS WHAT IS TO BE DONE WITH THE KNIGHTS. 

& take fe as a proued fef 1 an do fe wel he^e an-honge. 1936 

and advises & f er-for if fy lif is lef f ne tarie f ou no$t to longe : 
loves his life, y wil JP6 techen how fow may f abaty al f ys strif ; 
[leaf 26] & loke f ou do as y f e say f if fou wilt haue f y lyf. 

Al fy clofes fou schalt of don f witA wyche fou art y-shrid, 1940 
& eke J>yn hosyn & fyn schon f let don of f er myd j 
to go barefoot Lef bou sengle on by scherte '. & bar-f ot bou most go. 

and bare- 
headed, , Al open-her, & eke oungerte i and be-for Char[les] com fow so, 

and beg Wyb a rop aboute by nekke f to Charlies] so wend an hye, 1944 

mercy from 

Charles. & loke jj rt t jj ou jj an m ukly speke f & to hym mercy crye. 
& Jms schalt fou gete f y pees f & esye al Jjy lond : 
& elles ne wol he neuere cees f til Jjow beo bro^t to schond." 

The Emir is IT Jje Amyral gan waxe wonder wroj> f wan he herd \\\m speken : 1948 

swears and ^ Mahouw fanne swer he ys oj) f fat sone a wolde be wreken 

Of hymen J?at hadde ys kynges slayn f & dryuen \\irn so to schonde. 

he win hang He swor he scholde neuere beo fayn ' til bey were alle an-honge. 

them all. ' J 

IT Jje ^eates were Jjanne sone y-schet f & J>e dra^t-brige vp y-drawe ; 
Sone he J>03te wijj-oute let f Jms barouws lete don of dawe : 1953 
He and his be Amyral bende ys browes rowe f & clepede is consaile : 

Council J 

Kyng Sortybrant & oj>re ynowe f ther come wyjj-oute fayle. 
consult what " Barourcs ," sayd he, " banne sone f telleb me aour p?^rpos : 1956 

is to be done 

knights 6 What is ])e beste wyf hem to done f ]>ai bujj now her enclos, 
jrat habbef Jms my kynges slone f & f oule ourcdo my los 1 
Whar-for to ^ow y make my mone f eniugiej) ^e my foos." 

They advise IT Sortybrant spak J)at word for alle I wan J)t Jjay were assent : 1960 
" SleeJ) hem wat so Jjer-of by-falle f ]>at is our iuggyment. 

death by Hastely doj) fey be to-hewe ' & sleef hem wyf such turment ; 
& so fow schalt hemera alle schewe f fat fay buf al my s- went. 

and after- & far-after schalt fow wende '. to Morymond wif fyn host, 1964 

wards to go * 

and 1 3S3c nd ^ nc * ta ^ e ^ e ky n & fat is ounhende f Charlys for al f is host ; 
Charles. ^ di SCO umfitye far his ferde ( . fat wif hym dar abyde. 

fan do an-honge him wyf f e berde f Char[lys] for al ys pride. 

& fus fow schalt a-wreke fe f of alle fyn enymys." 1968 

Baianis " By Mahouw," banne sayde he f " bys ys a god deuys. 

pleased, and 

anSeSers To m y Gayhol gof anon f & f e fyue fat buf ther 
to be brought j^ryngef hem out euerechon '. to hure falawes her. 



FLORIPAS ASKS TO BE ALLOWED TO TAKE CHARGE OF THE KNIGHTS. 67 

pys day ne wol y on myn halle f drynke whit wyn ne red, 1972 that they may 
Til y [haue] seen pe glotouws alle f on schentfule depe be ded." together. 

FLorippe, his do3tre pe cortoyse f in chambre par sche was, SlSJ s the 

In the paleys y-hurde noise f & pyder sone she gas ; mls to the 

And er sche cam strait in-to halle f neuere heo ne stente, 1976 



& forp sche praste among hem alle f & to hur fader ry^t heo wents. 

By p e hond she tok him euene f & drow hym by. y opre helue, 

& askede of him what were pay seuene '. pat stode par by hem-seine, 

IT " Do^tre dure ; " pan saide he f " as Mahouw me auaurace, 1980 knights 

H/t bep kni^tes y-sent to me f fram charlis kyng of fraunce ; her 

Myne kynges pay han a-slawe f hyderward as pay come, 

& avoweded wel wip hure sawe f & presented pe hedes to me. 

And 3ut were pay no3t apaid per-by f bote wolde me greue more, 1984 

Hure message pay abode dispitously f & schamede me ful sore, 

Now, dure do3tere, myn Al-one f wat ys py gode red and asks her 

Wyp myn enymys for to done f pat habbep ido pis qued ? " to dowith n 

IF pan him ansuerede pat faire mayde f sle^ sche was & sad : 1988 



" So pat 36 per-of be a-paide f my red schel sone be rad ; &eybe that 

Dop pat hy be faste y-bounde f sonderliche euerechon, 

& suppen y-cast to pe grourale f euerech by hym on ; 

& banne wyb swerdes sherp y-grouwde f let hewen hem flesch & bon, hewn to 

pieces. 

pat no lym be laft y-sounde f & chaste 36 so 30111- fon." 1993 

IT " By Mahoiuz, do^tre ," saide he f " parforny y wol by red, Baian 

declares he 

Ne schal no mete synke on me f or bat baye beo ded. m follow 

her advice. 

& ek hure felawes for wham pay come f of pryson y wil do fecche, 

& pay schullep haue pe selue dome f nel y no lenger drecche." 1997 

f " Fader," quap sche, "let beo pyn haste 1 it is wel ne3 pe non, Fioripassays, 

Hit were ful longe 3ow to vaste f or pis were al y-don. near noon, 

Takep hem to me al pe hepe f and gop 36 to 3our mete, 2000 

And sykerliche y wil hem kepe f pe wyle pat 36 dop ete. i win take 

After fbel mete fol wel mo^e ?e f al bys byng ful-fille. and after thou 

rj rJ * hast eaten it 

Now, fader, as 36 louyep me f dop 30. as y telle." can be done/ 

1[ " Do3tre," saide pe Amyrel f " py courcseii ys god & hende ; 2004 Baian agrees, 
So tak hzm to pe & kep he?7^ wel f til y to pe sende." 

pan him spak kyng Sortybran f wordes wel owakende : butsortybran 

" pow ert a-sotid, as y am man f py do3tre wil pe schende. 

F 2 



68 



FLORIPAS LEADS THEM TO HER CHAMBER TO JOIN THE OTHERS. 



him, b for ray 
[leaf 27] 



women are 






and threatens 
Baian quiets 






to her 

chamber. 



Roland sees 

Oliver, 



him - 



Oliver 

enquires after 

his father. 



By-f enk f e wel of fat brayde f fat touchide duke Myloiw ; 2008 

^ ow y s do3tre hy m betrayde f fat hy^te Saramoun, 

^ an scne to k out Grodefrayde f fat was in his prysouw. 

f e Duk f a?me fay yuele arayde f to def e fay duste him doiw, 

& she hym wedede after fan f fat was hure fader fo. 2012 

Many ys f e manlich man f fat f orw womman ys by-go." 

^ Wawne fat mayde y-hurde f ys f [for wraf f e she was ne$ wod , 

For angre sche wax al pal y-wys f & spak til him with mod ; 

" Say, fow gadelyng horesone f lecher, & stronge fef ! 2016 

To speke yuele euere ys f y wone '. Mahoura ^yue f e euele f ref ! 

Wy woldest fow letten wif fy speche i fat ys my fader lef ? 

If y ma y lyue y wol f e teche f a torn fat schal f e gref." 

f " Do3tre," quaf Balan, " y fe pray f now let al fat be stille, 2020 

& tak f ys prysouns & go f y way f for haue f on schalt f i wille." 

" As 30 willef ," sche gan say f f e barons sche wendef tille : 

" Now comef wyf me/' quaf fat may i " $ut haue 36 her npn ille." 

fl" Wyf hure fan way forf fay nome i f or^-out halle & bour, 2024 

Til bay in-to hure chambre come f bat y-buld was on a tour. 

* J 

Wan fay weren alle yn y-paste f f e mayde & fay yfere, 

Florippe het schitte f e dore [faste] i & welcornedewi vrUJi gode chere. 

f Eoland y-saw eiid Olyuer f & ys herte wax glad anon, 2028 



2032 






if they wish 






Ro[land] kuste him louelich ther f & f onked god al-on, 
fat he haf founde him hoi & fer f thar among his fon. 
Olyuer f awne gan a-spye f what is fader dof : 
& Roland sayde ; " sykerlye f for f e he ys ful wrof . 
fer nis no murg^f e fat may him gayne f y say f e verament, 
Til he may hure word eertayne f by f e al how it stent." 
IT Wan fay were ther alle y-same f f es do^opers xij. of frauwce, 2036 
Florippe fat maide hadde ioie & game f to sen hure cowtynauwce. 
To hem com fan fat iantail may f & corteisly spekef hem tille : 
' Lystef now, Lordes, wat y schal say f & perfornyef 36 my wille. 
aif 36 fynkef to askape away f fat my fader 3ow ne spille, 2040 
To me 36 mote sykery 3 our fay f my pwrpos to fulfille : 

& f at is to d me naue a ) > y n g ^ al m y n nerte y s n -" 

"We wollef ," quaf Naymes, " be heuene kyng 1 so fat we mowe it don; 



FLORIPAS ENQUIRES THE NAMES OF THE KNIGHTS. 69 



So pat pou ous sykerye affore f to help ous in this clos, 2044 

J)at non of ous ne beo for-lore f her among our fos." 

par-to sche sykerede parane hure fay i to help hew be hure mi3te, 

In alle wyse pat sche may f to daye for far ri^te. [leaf 27, back] 

IT & parme tok sche pat swete wy$t i duke naymes by pe honde : 2048 

" Tel me," sche saide, " py name ari^t i as pow art freo to fonde." gie asks 

pe duk aunswerede pat mayde free i humelich & fayre : Immc - 

" Damesel, certis me clepep me i duke neymys of Bauayre. He teiis her. 

Charpis] consailer am y pryue f y-sent on his message." 2052 

" By Mahoun, sire," saide sche f " pou madest an hard vyage." 

IT pa?me to Richard of Normandy i wente pat burde bri3t, 

& prayedem faire & corteysly i to tel hure what he hi^t. 

" Certis y wol ^ow telle my name " i sayde he, " wit/i-oute lye, 2056 

In f?*aunce men callep me, ma dame f Richard of Normauwdye." 

"36? Mahouw," quap sche, "}yue pe schame f for pyn oncortesye ! 

Myn vncle pow slowe a kni^t of fame f Corsible of Mantrie. Sain a her g 

Ac suppe pou art now on pis clos f among pes fair ferede, 2060 u " 

y wol pe kepe fro py fos f haue pov none drede." 

11 To Rolond pa/me tornde pat mayde f pat was so gret of fame : she questions 

" Ia[n]tail kni^t," til him sche sayde f " tel pov me py name." 

" Ful fayne," sayde pe noble kny3t f " wil ich, swete dame. 2064 

Ropand] 1 my name is callid ri3t f wan y am at hame ; 

And Charpes] suster sone y am f y-comen of he3 parage ; 

And to py fader fro hi?ft y cam f to bryngen him message." 

pan hur spak pe 2 damesel f " myn herte now waxep K^t, 2068 

pat pyng now hope y gete wel f on wham myn herte ys pi3t." 

Wei corteysly parme abo3ede she f & to help hure gan him praye. 

"Tel me py wil," pan sayde he f " & y wol do what y maye." 

*fi pan hure spak pat burde bri3t f " herknyap my chesourc : 2072 

In Charlis companye ys a kny3t f as f ers as any lyourc ; 

Gwy of Borgoygne ys name ys ri3t i y-called in euery toun ; 

On hym for-sope my loue ys Ii3t f for he ys god baroura. 

Wan pat my fader sire Balan f be-segede Rome Citee, 2076 since she saw 

par saw y pat do3ty man f to done a dede free : at Kome ' 

Lucafer pe kyng of Bandas f a strong kyng of renouw, 

1 [Duk"] Holand my name is ri^t. ' [}?#t] f>e. 



70 FLORIPAS AND GUY ARE BETROTHED. 

In a stede y-armed was f & rod to pat barouw. 

Lucafer egrelich wy]> a spere f mette hym in pe feld, 2080 

& Gy pe strokes a\vey gan here i manliche with ys scheld. 
Gyoun jm/ine adrow is brond f & ^if him a strok with mayn, 
pat hors and man a-douft it wond f & leye per on Jje playn. 
Ki3t fro pat day in-to jns f myn herte haj> he y-raft. 2084 

[leaf 28] y-now y hadde of ioie & blys i were his to me-ward laft ; 
Wolde he be my worldly make f & wedde me to wyue, 
For his loue wold y take f cristendom farcne blyue. 
As ]?ow art a trewe kny^t f & for do^ty barourc y-knowe, 2088 

Help me to haue ]>at worldly wyjt i & y 1 wil ben is owe." 
Roland IF Eolond aunswerede hure & low f " dame, by god of heuene, 

laughs, says 

Gu k "ven 8 y knowe Gyoun wel ynow f he ys my cosyn euene ; 

Setohw 18 Fuliche ne is he no3t now frani J>e f vj fet y-mete in brede." 2092 

moment. " For J>y cortesye J?an ^if hym me " f F[lorippe] to hym sede. 

" Dame, j?y wille schal be don i as y am trewe kni^t. 
He teiis Guy Com now forb, sir Gvon f & tak bys burde bri^t ! " 

to take her, 

refuSs y P an Ansuerede J?at barou?i f pat wyuy nolde he no3t, 2096 

chuS 6 * WztA-oute assent of kyng Charlou?i i J?at had him vp i-bro^t. 
Fiodpaa is 1f Wa^ bat maide hym vnderstod f on herte she wax ful wrob : 

enraged. 

For angre sche braid hure wel ne$ wod f & by Ma[houn] swor 

hur oj>, 

]>at bote if Gy to wyue hure take f Ipat sche had loued so longe, 2100 
Ecchone ]?ay scholde for is sake f or euene beo an-honge. 
Roland f ban hym spak duk Eoland f to Gy 2 ys cosyn free, 

persuades 

ouy, Xak thys damesele by J?e hand '. as fow louest me." 

"As Jiow wolt y wol done" f saide J>e kynde kni^t. 2104 

and they are By ]>e hond j?awne he tok hur sone f & be-treuj)ede pat swete wijt. 
J?an wern Jjay glad bo)?e ^onge & olde f & comforted wel apli^t : 

rioripas & Flofrippe] hure handes gan vp holde f & Jjankede god almi^t : 

"Lord," sche saide, "y panky ]>e ' fat al ]>yng sest & wost, 2108 
now j?ou hast y-sent to me f pat fyng i louede most. 

says now she & now wil y f or pG loue of hym f my false fay for-sake, 

will be 

baptised. & e ke my fader and al my kyn f and cmfendom to me take." 

Loueliche Jjay wente to-gadre po c . & cussede i-same an haste, 2112 
1 MS. & i & y. 2 to [Gyouu], 



FLORIPAS PRESENTS THE HOLY RELICS TO THE FRENCH KNIGHTS. 

To fermye loue by-twene he??i two i & to makye hem stedeuaste. 1 

Wan fat F[lorippe] fat swete pyng i so y-comforted was \ Then 

A dore sche openef & let hem in i in-to a pryue plas. j 

War sche tok out of a shryn i araid of riche golde, 2116 brings out 

f e relyqes preciouse & fyn f fat y $ow ere-of tolde. 

Furst sche tok out be croune sterk i bat crist on is heued let ; th e crown 

of thorns, 



& suffe fe nailles fat wer scherp f fat percede hi?^ honde & fet ; duyat 

f a?i after sche tok a clof of gold f fat was fer-for arayde 2120 goid. cloth of 

& oppon fat clof ase heo wold f f es reliqes fayre layde. 

" Be-holdef , lordes," sayde sche fan f " & buf now murie & glad ; p^f 28,^* 

f is ys fat tresour whar-for 30 han f trauayl 2 & tene i-had ; 

Which fat my fader let bere away f of Eome as 36 knowe, 2124 

& hauef y-kept hit in-to f is day f euere as for ys owe. 

Fyruwfbras] fat my brof er ys i to me f ys f yng be-toke, 

& be-fore al f yng bad me kepe f ys 5 & faste hit her by-loke. 

& now 36 hauef far-of a si^t f & whar hit is y-knowe. 2128 

Wyf }ow 36 take hit be day or ny3t f & holde)) hit as 3our owe. Take them 

f f is barourcs f anne hir f ankede alle f wan fay y-knewe hir wille ; 



& Adourc fay gurme 3 falle f knelyng on fe erthe stille. 

fay worschepede hem f awne w?'t^ al hure m^tf &kussederaeuerechone; worship the 
& fan wente sheo fe burde bri3t f & tok hem vp anone, 2133 

& laide hem in-to f e schryn a3eyn f & dude hure far sche was. 
fan were fys lordes glad & feyn f & fankede godes gras, 
fat fay hadden fouwde fore f fe relyqes ryche and fayre, 2136 

For whicche fay hadde far byfore f ben in gret dispayre. 
"Ow leue wil y fz's matere f of fys Barouns stille, 

And twrne a3eyn far y lafte ere f & of f e A[myral] y wil telle. 

f us wyle was he on halle sittyng 5 vfiili is puple atte mete, ^"Jjg Balan 
fan com fer an hefene kyng f rydynge atte 3ete ; 2141 




A wykkeder man fan he was on ' nas non on al hure lawe : King. 

Many was f e cristene mon f fat he had bro3t of dawe. 

Kyng Lucafer of Bandas f cleped was he of alle. 2144 Lucifer of 

.. . Bandas, is 

he Ii3t mm douw, & f orf a gas f spedylich in-to halle, his name - 

& byfore f e Amyral f awne he gof f & by-gan him fort-affrayne : 

1 [pAn was Florippe on hure bour '. murgher \>&n sche was, ) ^ 
j^e barou^s sche lade)? wyj> honowr ' in-to a pryue plas.] ) ' 

2 [niuche] trauayl. 3 Adou/t )?ay guwne [ecchone]. 



72 



LUCIFER BURSTS OPEN THE DOOR OF FLORIPAS* CHAMBER. 



He asks 
Balan if it is 
true that 

Ferumbras 
has been 
taken 
prisoner. 



Balan says, 
yes, 



but that his 
conqueror 
has been 
taken with 
others, 
[leaf 29] 



and are in 
charge of his 
daughter. 

'That is 
foolish,' says 
Lucifer, ' I 
will go and 
see them.' 



Balan gives 
him leave. 



Lucifer 
hurries to the 
chamber of 
Floripas; 



he bursts the 
door in with 
his foot. 



" Sir," saide he, " ys f is sof f on centre fat men sayne ? 

y hurde telle a wonder cas f suffen fat y slep uake, 2148 

fat f y son Fyrumbras f conquerid was & take. 

f e beste kny^t of is hond f oueral he was y-holde 

fat was knowed in any lond f for to do dedes bolde." 

f " 3ea, for-sof e," quaf f e Amyrel '. " & fat ys al my tene : 2152 

Taken ys he, y wot it wel f and y-lost for euere y wene, 

f ys Bonder day at morymond f conquered for so]? was hee, 

"With a f ef, a cristene hond f far many men dide hit see. 

Hys conqwerowr ys a bold baron f & on of Charlys route, 2156 

Ac now lyf he in my prisouw ri^t f & of re mo wel proute. 

And now buf come of re al-so f vij bolde bachelers, 

fat han me muche schame ido f & y-slawe my messagers, 

Fram kyng Charlis as fay were sent f to meward on message. 2160 

Ac alle fay schullen sone be schent f for hure foul outrage ; 

neuere ne wil y ete more f or fey be dede ecchone. 

fe of re al-so fat come bifore f fe same way schullef gone." 2163 

IF " Whar buf f e messagers, y wolde hem sen " f sayde f e hef en kyng. 

" In my do3tere bour far fay ben f sche hauef hem in kepyng." 

" Ey Mahourc," saide Lukafer f " fat ys wel gret folye ; 

For wommanes wyt gof her & f er '. in hymen ys no3tt affye. 

By fy leue y wol go ner f of hymen y wolde aspye, 2168 

Of Charlis p^rpos wat hit wer f fat makef so gret maistrye." 

1T " Go forth," saide f e Amyrel f " & gret wel my do^tre dere, 

& bid hure fat sche wardye wel f f e messagers fat buf fere." 

Lucafeer turnd him & faste gas '. & spedde him til fe tour, 2172 

far as Flo[rippe] chambre was '. ibuld wif gret honour. 

He put him-seluen on a cas f whar-for agat a schour, 

fat turnd. him far after to harde gras '. to schennes & dolour. 

IT Kyng Lukafer of wham y spake f was a wykked man ; 2176 

To f e chambre so harde he rake f fat f yderward he ran ; 

Ac wan he com f e dore to f ys herte was so gret, 

fat he dedeynede to clepe, " oimdo " f bot ran to wif is fet : 

So harde he bot here in fat haste f fe kyng fat was so strong, 2180 

fat f e henges bof e barste f & f e stapel f ar-wz't/i out sprong. 

& f 03 f e dore were strong & huge f wif f e strok sche 803 



LUCIFER SEIZES NAYMES BY THE BEARD AND DEMANDS HIS BUSINESS. 73 



Lusband. 



2188 At Rome, 

but for Guy, 



2192 



he would 
have killed 



. 
Christian. 



him suffer. 

[leaf ay, back] 



2196 



Out of f e Hokes & fram hir sege f x. vet y-mete wel 1103. 
IF Wan Flo[rippe] y-saw f e dore vn-do f al chaungede hure hew & mod : Fioripas in 
To Rolond sche spak & playned hi?tt to '. f ar-of how it stod ; 2185 
" f is is he fat fader myn f ordeynef my lord to be ; 
In al hef enis ys no Sarsyn f wikkeder fan is he ; 
Wif is hond oppon o day f at rome iu 3oure Citee, 
he slow fer fat it y say f hundredes 1 mo fan free, 
nad 2 my spouse fat her is f far i-born him dourc 
Lyues nolde he haue ilaft y-wys f no criste man in f e toun. 
& now haf he 3 my dore y-broke f ous alle in dispyte ; 
y pray 3ow far-fore al fus y spoke f ys trauail fat 30 quyte." 
IF Ro[land] answerde fat mayde anon f & bad sche scholde be stille, 
" For fat torn or fat a gon f ful sore him schal a-grille, 
neuere ne brak he dore non f fat dude him so mykel ille." 
~With fat com he among is fon i with a ful wikked wille. 
5F far fond he f es lordes alle i in armwre araid ai^t ; 
& F[lorippe] with f e middel smalle f fat fa?i was sore affi^t, 
Duk naymes stod next hur by f & had hure by fe honde. 
f e kyng f ar-of hadde envy f & comef by hymen stonde ; 
& f 03 duk naymes were al hore f he was ful wel ymaked, 
ys helm was don of by-fore f & ys heued was f o al naked ; 
ys berd was huge & stra3te along f <fe Lukefer f o gara taket, 
And wyf his fyngres fat were strong '. harde gan he schaket. 
By f e berde as he hym held f a askef wif-oute drede : 
" Wawnes ert f ow, olde cherld f & what makest f on in f is f ede ? " 
1F " Y am of Bauere," fan saide he f " & haue far herytage ; 2208 Naymes tells 
And am Charflis] consayller pryuee f y-sent hider in message. h e is. 

& alle fus of re fat 30 her see f buf lordes of he3 parage ; 
Dukes, & erldis, & barons in fee f & holdef by baronage. 
A message ous sente Charlis kyng f to famyral fat is so bolde, 2212 
& for we told it no3t at is lekyng f he pot ous her in holde. 
Let of my berd, y pray f e now f suf f e y haue f e tolde." 
" y nelle," quaf he, " y make auow f to Mafhoun] fat stont in golde. Lucifer 
Tel me furst by f y lay f wat dof 3our men of fraunce ; 2216 ^ 

Of hure disport & ek hure play f what is 3our mest vsaunce 1 " 
1 MS. huddredes. 2 nad [ibe]. * he [her]. 



Lucifer feels 



jealous 
because 

99f)0 Naymes has 
-" JVU Fioripas by 
the hand. 



He seizes 
Naymes by 
2204 the beard, 



and asks him 



Christians 



74 



NAYMES IN A RAGE KNOCKS LUCIFER INTO THE FIRE. 



Naymes says 
first they 
hear Mass 
and after 



some go 
hawking, 

some hunting, 
some to 
jousts and 
tournaments; 
others 
play chess, 

or draughts, 



and some 
fence. 



' I will tench 
you one of 
our games,' 
says Lucifer. 

He drags 
Nuymes by 
the beard to 
the fire, 

[leaf 30] 



seizes a 

burning 

brand and 

burns 

Naymes' 

mouth. 



Naymes 
seizes it 



and burns 
half his 
beard. 
Lucifer 

smites at 
Naymes, 



who with a 
blow of his 
fist kills 
him. 



Roland 
laughs and 
compliments 
Naymes. 



If "fe manere of hew," fan sayde he i " is erly gon to cherche, 

& after-ward ech man on his degree i after his stat fay werche. 

J>o fat lordes buf of fe lond f in som tyme of the 3ere, 2220 

fay take]) hure facouns faire an hond i & faref to ryuere ; 

& Su?7ime a deer hontej) of hem far went 1 & some to fox and hare ; 

& to ioustes and tornyment f wel mo \e,r wendef ofte fare. 

fo fat willief to leue at hame f pleyef to fe eschekkere, 2224 

& su??zme of hem to iew-de-dame 1 & summe to tablere : 

Su?7ime fay vsef a maner of play f to caste wel a spere ; 

And so?ftme for to sckyrme asay i vrith swerd & bokelere. 

fys buf fe games of my centre f fat y fe telle here." 2228 

" ^ea f alle f ese buf no$t worf a stre " f fan saide Lucafere. 

If " We haue a game in this corctray f to blowen atte glede. 

f ov schalt lerny fat ilke play f as Ma[hoim] me helpe & spede." 

fan was fer on a chymenay f a gret fyr fat brente rede, 2232 

fan duk drow he be f e berde gray f & to f e fyr a dof him lede. 

IF fan lawede Rofland] on Olyuer f & to hym gan to saye : 

" f ow schalt sen god game her f suffrie we hem to playe." 

Lncafer fa?ine tok op an-hastef fe brennyngest bronde a coufe, 2236 

& to neymes-werd blew he so faste i fat f e fir ful on is mouf e. 

" now tak f on f e brond," saide he fan f " & blowe to me f on fonde." 

" y wil," quaf naymes, "as y can" ' & tok hym of his honde, 

Naymes fa?me Wit/i-oute 3ede f & hadde fe kyng wif-inne, 2240 

& to f e schrewe he huld f e glede i & blew toward is chynne : 

So harde leid he f er-on is onde f fat sone f e lye out rende, 

& in-to ys berd sone it sprang f & o syde f er-of hit brende. 

f Lucafer fanne wax ne} wod f & drow out a schort fachoiitt, 2244 

& smot to neymys far a stod f & f O3te haue born hym doura ; 

Neymes was war & sterte a-syde i & let f e strok to pace, 

& wit/i his hand }yf him a strok ouwride i wif-inne f e neckes space ; 

Such on a gurt him with is fuste ' fat sondrede al fe lif, 2248 

& ys necke f ar-wif a-two to-duste f & ys e^ene no^e out f ar-wyf . 

fat bodi ful doim amidde f e fyre '. wit/i-oute any more delay : 

" now rest," quaf Naymes, " f ou proute syre f f on playest a sory play." 

IF fan him lawede duk Rolond i & to naymes saide an haste : 2252 

" $ea faire hure falle fat ilke hond f fat so can foles chaste ; 



THE FRENCH KNIGHTS ARM THEMSELVES AND BURST INTO THE HALL. 75 

He wende wif is ferete f haue do f e vylonye, 

And now is fallen is nytyte f in-to ys owen eye." 

IT " Syre," qua]) Flofrippe] " he louaj) fat fyr i let hym enchaufye ynne, 

3ute naf lie no desyr '. to aryse and go ]>enne. 2257 

For he hopede haf wedded me f of him he hadde enuye, 

f er-for in his iolyte f he cam to make maystrye." 

To Duk naymes saide heo ban f " leue sir, faire be falle. 2260 Fioripas 

thanks 

bow hast delyuerid me of be man f ich hatede most of alle." Naymes for 

J delivering 

[l^TOw buf fay delyuered of Lucafer f hur enymy fat was a schrewe. her 
L -L 1 Byfore ])es barouws fan Flofrippe] ther f hure pwrpos gan thus 

schewe. 1 ] 

" Ac lustef now alle . what y schal say f & warny 3ow for 3our prow : and then teiis 
36 buf her 2 in yuele aray i and in gret peril now. 2265 her P lans - 

be Amyrel my fader as he can f arayeb him for be nones, she points 

out their 

To destruye ^ow sone euerech man i & for-hewe ^ow flech" & bones. dan er. 
fys dom to day y demed 3 was f longe by-fore fe none. 2268 

now helpef ^ow silue on fyes cas i or 1 ellis ^e buf for-done. 

sour helmes makieb alle faste f hastilich on ;our heued, and recom- 

mends them 
& }our scheldes on ^ow 36 caste i for nofyng 30 ne leuet : to arm 

Wan fay sef 3ow armed wel i fe more fey wil 3ow drede. 2272 [leaf so, back] 

Gof out 4 of f is chambre snel i & dof now as y rede ; 

Sechef f is paleys ouer al i bof e in lengf e & brede, and km an 

whom they 

& lokief 36 ne spare gret ne smal f fat he ne go to dede," ca find - 

IT fat council f 03te hew alle god f & f anked hur lasse & more. 2276 They 

Hure helmes fay duden oppon hure hod i fey alle fat fer wore 5 

[Wherfor fay duden oppouw hure hod f hure helmes lasse & more ; 6 ] arm them- 

Hure scheldes on hem fast f ai caste i euerech of f es barourcs, 

& of f e chambre out fay paste f as hardy as any lyoiws. 2280 and start off 

Hure swerdes fan fay a-drowe f fat wern scharp y-grourcde, 



& alle f e Sarsyns fay a-slowe f fat fay afforn him founde. and slay aii 

f &n wente fay in-to f e he3e halle '. far fat f e lordes sete, meet - 

& fo3te far to slen him alle f sittyng atte mete. 2284 

Roland cryede an he3 " mou/itioye " f wan he be-huld j>ay scoute : n^and cries 
1 These 2 lines crossed through. 'Mountjoy ,' 

2 MS. [Y warne ^ow] ^e buth [now]. 3 MS. dememed. 

4 MS. out out. 5 This line written over a line erased. 

6 This line in margin at bottom of page. 



76 BALAN ESCAPES BY JUMPING OUT OF A WINDOW. 

Many sarsyn} pan huld hem coye f pat raper wer fers & proute. 

Ac pis barowjs laid hem on f wip swerdes al aboute, 

And to-hewe hem bope par} flechs & bon f p e moste dol of pe route. 

he kills IF Kofland] }af a strok with mayn f to Corsyband pe kyng, 2289 
& clef ys body euene a-tvvayn i with pat stronge spryng. 

and oiirer Olyuer smot kyng Coudryn i & gert him in-to pe brayn. 

Coudryn. Many was pe proute Sarsyn f pat par was pawne a-slayn. 2292 

for Al so furde pis xij. barons i by pat foule 1 hepe, 
Also wolde so many lyouws f among so many schepe. 
pe mete pat was ful richly raied f in disches of golde fyn, 
Wei sone it was a-dourc i-leid f & schad was al pe wyn. 2296 

pe coupes of gold were treden a-syde f al with mannis fet, 
And alle pe sarsyns pat wolde abyde f par pai lore pat swet. 

The saraens pe Sarasyn} pat po wer laft on lyue '. faste pay gu?ine He, 

the winaows, & f u i ou t a t pe wyndowes blyue f be twye & ek be three, 2300 

& su?rraie fulle out ouer pe wal i in-to pe dupe dongoim, 

over 100 fail & breke hure nekkes to pieces smal i so hese bay fulle actouw. 

into the 

br"ik e their nd ^ e ^ au nun d re( i out ]> ar praste f panne in pilke wyse, 

pat wip pe fallyng pai to-braste f & neuere ne mi^te aryse. 2304 

Baian flies, IF pe day hym was ful ne$ agan f & come was ne^ pe ni3t, 
pan dude pe Amyral Balaan ' turne him to pe fi^t j 

pursued by Eoland him folghede as wilde & wod f with is swerd a-drawe. 

Roland ; 

pat po al bapid was on blod f of Sarsyns he hap slawe. 2308 

[leaf si] IF And he} dude hym pa/me ascrye f & sayde : " now kep pyn lied, 

Torn to me, ich pe diffye f her ri^t pou schalt be ded." 
he jumps out be Amerel vm-til a wyndow ran i & bar lep out bat syre. 

of a window. T 



xti ^J 31116 ful he f an of diipnisse . vmtil A myre. 2312 

the mud. D u fc Ro[land] after hym slent i with his swerd to slen him panno, 

Ac on a marbre ful pe dent i & smot per-on a spanne. 

Roland 5s Bote wan p e A[myralJ was scapid him so f pat Ro[land] hym 2 ne lau^te, 
Angry wax he per-for po i & pe deuele pan hym betau^te. 2316 

IF " Felawe," saide sir Olyuer i " ys he ous now a-scapid ? " 
" ^e, for-sop," saide he ther f " ac oper-weys y hadde y-schape hit, 
Mi^te ich him ones habbe ara^t f with my swerd y-grounde ; 2319 
ys heued schold ich him habbe y-raft ' ouper 3eue him depes wounde." 
1 pat [mykle]. * MS. hyn. 



BALAN IS RESCUED, AND VOWS VENGEANCE AGAINST THE FRENCH. 77 



, 



~Ow habbef f es frensche lordes stoute f conquered f e stronge tour 

And habbef a-slawe & dryuen oute f fe Sarsyn^ w/t/i vygour. thecastie; 
-1. 1 fay schutte f e gates & vp fay drowe f f e dra^tbrig al wM gywne : 
Wolde god fat fay had y-nowe f of vytailes f er wif-inne ; 2324 
For in b e centre ber w^-oute f vitales geteb bay none iut they 

* * f f J have no 

Bot if f ai mo^e be so stoute f to geten hem of hure f one. provisions. 

IT f e Amyral fat was so riche f ys falle dou?i fram an he}, 

And walwede f anne on f e dyche f & was y-sowe wel ne$. 2328 Baian is 



Ase loude so he f a?me mi^te f to ys men criede he there : 

" Helpef me, myne men so wi$te f & elles y daye here ; criesfor help ' 

Bote if }e me helpe vp to drawe f f e raf ere out of f is fenne, 

Wif colde chile ich worf a-slawe f ne go y neuere henne." 2332 

IT Wib bat cam renne sire Bruvllant f be kvng of mouwtmirree, He is drawn 

up out of the 

& f e kyng of combres, sir Sortibrant f is cor^seyler fat was pryuee ; mud 

& op fay drowe . sire Balan f f e Amyral of f e dyche : 

fat so on f e fenne f o was by-gan f fat a semede f e diuel ileche. 2336 

WaTme fat he was vppe f o f & stod oppon ys fet, 

for sorwe made he muche wo f & mornyng eke gret ; 

& saide : " alas ! for Lucafer f bat was so strong a knht, and laments 

r for the loss 



& for my barons fat wern her f so noble men & 1 wi^t ! 2340 

f e flour of Chyualarie now haue y lost f [al] for f e loue of one, 

In wham y trust to alre most f & heo me haf by-gone." 

H " Sire," fan saide Sortybran f " y-lif me betre eft-sone, 'Believe me 

Ho fat ne wol bi conseil dan f som tyme hym schal mone." 2344 [leaf si, back] 

1T " By Mahout," fan swer f e Amyrel f sykynge al for tene, sSrf'bIS 8 

" Er xv. dawes y wil ful wel f of hymen y wreke bene. Balan 

dof now & lete} myn homes blowe f quiclich and anon, orders his 

fat myne men mowe iknowe f what fay schullef don. 2348 

f e tour we wollab anon asaile f & awreke ous of our fon." attack the 

castle 

" It is now," quaf he, " sa^faile f to late f er-to to gon, 

f e day him is a-go f ul ny f y rede }ut fat 36 leue 

Til to-morwe fat f e sonne be hy f ne schal hit no-fyng greue. 2352 

By fat f y barons wollef be come f & beo assembled here." 

" y grante," quaf f amyral, " al & some f god couwsail is god to lere. 

Alas f for my gode felawe ( . Lucafer fat me ys wo. 

1 & [80]. 



78 BALAN ENGAGES MAUBYN TO STEAL THE MAGIC GIRDLE. 

bes frensemen him habbef a-slawe f . now wot y wel it ys so. 2356 
Ac to Malioiw y make auov '. to wham ys al my chere, 
To morwe we wollef with strengf e y-now f by-gynne f e sege here ; 
& fro fat time 1 she ys by-gu?me f ne schal heo neuere be laft, 
Til fe tour a^en be wonne f wif strenfe oufer be craft. 2360 

He vows & f aw schullef fay f eues stronge i fat Jms me habbef agreued, 



Frendi Beo to-drawe and eke an-honge f & al-so for-gon hure heued. 
and Fioripas. & my do^tre f e foule scoute f f anne schal heo beo f or-brent, 

For hure couyne to-ward fat route ' & hure anbettyment. 2364 

fey mote nedes wif-oute faile f sone 3 eld op f e toure 

For fay ne hauef no^t vytaile f to lyue with dawes foure. 

Of Charlemeyn ne his ferede '. nabbef fay non help, y legge ; 

y knowe it wel he wol drede f Mantryble for fe brigge." 2368 

Next morning Amorwe be non fyder wern .y-come f so many Sarsyn} wy^te, 
assemble. ^t j, e f e ldes wer keuerid alle & some f with scheldes & helmes bri^te. 

f e Ameral f yderward haf him nome, to f e feldeward f a,n ful ri^t ; 

& wan he sawe fat huge trome f his herte anon gan ly^te. 2372 

The Emir ban be Amiral hem tolde with tristour f by him how [it] is y-went 

tells them * Y J L J J 

n 6 ^ OUr * n W 



The Saracens fay sworen f a?me ^unge & olde f to hym by commun assent, 

avenge him. f e syge scholde be f er iholde ' to 3er 3yf nede by stent. 2376 

f e sarsyns fan giuzne vaste bulde i hure pauylons far with-outQ. 
Tiieir camp fe logyng of fat gret host fulde f vj. mylen to gon aboute. 

is 6 miles 

round. Now god helpe f e frensche men f fay aren in grete drede ; 

y not how fay schul a-scape fen i fat hy ne gof to dede. 2380 

The French "Ik ~T"Ow bub bus barowis of honour i al-one her enclos ; 

are not afraid, |\ | 

Wyf Sarsyns biseged 2 in fe tour i an .C. f ousand fos ; 
Of hem alle fat far were i drede had f ei none, 
Deaf 32] [Ac] be vytailles lacked there i hwyche were ne$ agone. 2384 

but they are L 



N' 



S rolis?ons ^ P 6 ^ m y ra ^ clypede to \\\m fan f Maubyn of egremolee ; 
M a aSbyn duce8 A s[uch f ]ef as he was an i was non in his regnee. 

" Maubyn," saide f e Amyral f " wolt f ou hit vndertake, 
to scale the To ste?e out ouer fe castel wal '. wa?me fe ny^t gynt blake, 2388 

wall, and 

dl e if liter's ^ P r i u yli cne stalke in-to hur hour '. my do3ter fat lyf fere, 
girdle, ^. gte j e jj e g ur( j e i O f honour i fat she ys woned to were ? 

1 MS. tine. 2 bisegeged. 



MAUBYN HAVING STOLEN THE GIRDLE TRIES TO RAVISH FLORTPAS. 

& brynge him me hoi & sound '. wan jjov hast don py dede ; 

And )>ov schalt haue an hundred pou?zd f of golde for py niede. 2392 

for if y may pat gurdel dure f fro hure so take away. 

To wynne pe tour pan am y sure f wit/z-inne pis ])ridde day. 

for whyle heo hauep pat gurdel fyn '. no huwger ne may hem deere. 

Stel me pe gurdel, gode Maubyn f ne spare pov for no fere." 2396 

IT " Sire, my lord," pan saide f e pef f " let me par-wip al-one ; 

y wol do pe haue pat pe ys lef '. to-morwe or it be none. 

pis ny3t wil y my myster kype f & do an hardy dede." 

pe A[myral] pankede him parcne swype f & sayde "Ma[houn] pe spede !" 

U" WAnne pe day him was afalle i & tyme was come to walke, 2401 

Maubyn toward pe Castel walle f pryuyliche gan hym stalke : At night he 

Sone he cam out ouer dych '. wip wyles pat a coupe, wal1 

In al pe werld nas pef him lych f by norpe ne be soupe. 2404 (never was 

Wan he cam to pe castel wal f oppon wend he by sle^pe, dever thief ^ ; 

Wyp a laddre of lethere & crokes smal f sone had he pe he^pe. 

Comen ys he wip-inne pe tour f pe paleys he porw sa^te ; 

Atte laste he cam to Florippe bour f as be deuel [ban] him taste, he reaches 

the chamber 

pe chambris dore pat was y-schyt i sone he hauep oundo. 2409 Jif^JS 8 t { ie 

Wyp a charme oundude he hit i and in he 1 wente po. man, ia 

And fyndep pe barons in bedde ibro^t ( . & hymen he charmep so, with winch 

pat hy ne my3te a-wakye no3t f for wele ne for wo. 2412 gj?^* 8 

Wyp a charme he makep fyr '. & a candlee he attendep ; 8leep - 

And to haue is desyr 1 to Floripe bour he wendep. 

pawne pe pef by-gan be-holde f pe chambre al aboute, He searches 

And fond hure per pat burde bolde '. liggyng vnder shroute. 2416 

Slepyng was pat ladi softe f pe pef him bar ful stille, 

And to & fro wende he ofte f or he hauede ys wille : 

Ate laste ban gurdel he fond f liggvng at hure hede. and finds it 

lying at her 

Mahourc he ponkede pan of is sond f & gurd him vritfi pat wede, nTpu 
1T Gy of Borgoyne hure druwerye i wakyng pe $ute was hee, 2421 
& out at a wyndowe pan gan lye i pat lay to-ward pe see ; 
Of pat host to be-holde p e huge aray f & of sarsyn^ pe semblee. 
pe wyle pe pef po dude is pray f pat yuele moste he pee ! 2424 

IT Wan he hauep pat gurdel so f mo maystries wold he fonde ; 
1 MS. he [ys ago]. 



80 



GUY HEARING HER CRIES RESCUES FLORIPAS AND SLAYS MAUBYN. 



[leaf 32, back] 
and then 
attempts to 
ravish 
Floripas. 



Floripas 
awakes and 
cries out. 



Her maids 
run to her, 



but are 
frightened 
and run 
away. 



Guy hears 
her cries, 



hurries to her 
assistance, 



and cuts 
Maubyn 
down. 



Floripas 
thanks him. 



Guy tells his 
companions 
what has 
happened. 



They all 
wonder how 
he got in, 
and what he 
came for. 



To lye be fat burde f o^te he f o f & to don hure schame & schonde. 
f e clof es fat wern on hure bed ilaid '. araid al wif f e beste, 
Alle haf he wif is hondes braid '. doun be-nyfe hure breste. 2428 
fan lif sche f er, fat swete f ynge f as whit as wales bon ; 
ys feye blod him gan to pynge I and ful on hure anon, 
And hent hure by fe middel faste '. & gan to kisse fat free. 2431 
Florippe a-wok and cryde an haste f " now, lordes, helpef me ! " 
" Al fy cryyng is on waste" '. saide fe fef a^ee ; 
" y nam of hymen no3t agaste '. f ei mowe no3t helpe f e." 
IF Hure damesels vrith fat cry a-wakede f & vp of hure bed fay ras, 
Al affraied fay sterte al nakede 1 til hure far sche was : 2436 

f e f ef to hem fan tornd is fas ' fat was so blac so cole, 
fan niftne fai away & saide alas ' & wende fat deuel he wore. 
By fat had he hur legges ouwdo ' & saide, " so Mahouw me saue, 
Whefer fov wile now oufer no f fy maydenhed schal y haue." 2440 
1F Gyoiw fat on f e turet was < f orw grace iherd hure crye, 
he tornef him sone fro fat plas f & fyderward gan hym 1 hye; 
& wan he saw him wyf yule gras f how he on hure gan lye, 
" f ef," saide he, " by godes fas '. a^eld f e, fov schalt dye." 2444 
IF fan wax maubyn sore afferd '. & lep out of f e bedde ; 
Ac Gy wif fat adrow is swerd '. & a strok on him a ledde, 
f orw is heued, chyn, & berd f fat swerd adourcward fledde, 
& in-to fe breggurdel him gerd '. fan ful he adou?i & bledde. 2448 
Tf fan sche spak fat burde bri3t '. fat al naked was saf hir cerke ; 
"Wei worf fat bond, my swete wijt < y fankie fe for fy werke, 
ne haddest f ou come to me now ri^t ( & mad him of f y merke, 
A schame for euere had he me di$t f now her al on fe derke." 2452 
1F His felawes awakede he fan & tolde i how he haf fouwde a f ef 
fat was come in-to fat holde '. hem alle to repref ; 
& how f e f ef f er ri}t scholde '. haue leyen by ys lef, 
Xad he come fo as god wolde i & distorbed fat myschef. 2456 

& how he haf sleyn him a tolde him al '. fan wowdrede fai myche f e?* 
How he mi3te come ouw f e wal ( . & into hure chambre, 
Ac [sikernesse] nad fey non '. his comyng whi yt was, 
But vp fey sterte euerechon '. & be-held him on fe fas. 2460 

1 hym him. 



BALAN ATTACKS THE TOWER, BUT THE FRENCH DEFEND IT WELL. 81 

fan lai he far so blac so pych f ys bodi was ne$ to-hewe. 

" f es ys,"quaf Ko[land], "f e deuel ilychldelyuery we ous of f e schrewe." 

f ai leid on him hande fan an haste '. & to f e water gate him bere 

& into f e see fer him caste '. & bede pleye bere. 2464 Thejcwt 

r him into the 

Alas '. f e tyme fat he was bore f for f e damage fat f er was f o : 8ea ; but,aia 8 , 
For bo was be gurdel bat he com fore '. y-lost for euere-mo. tfa e girdle 

was on him, 

fat gret damage ho may restore i fat f arcne was far ido. 

f 03 he kyng ouf er Emperour wore l . to litel had he far-to. 2468 

11 Bote wan fe frensche men vnder^yte i by fe gurdel how it was, [leaf ss] 

Sory f ai wern, 30 mowe wel wyte i for fat foule cas. T rieved r< but 

Ac wan f ai se$e fat of fat f yng '. recuuerer non far nas, no hefp. 6 ta 

fay lefte fanne hure mornyng * & f ankede godes gras ; 2472 

And confortede fat maide gent \ fat was so faire of si$te, 

And to hure beddes a^en buf went f & rest hem f er al ni^te. fo bed etum 

IT ban erlich oppon be morwe f wan be sonne hure schon. in the 

morning the 

fe amerel & is host with sorwe f armede hymen ecchon, 2476 



In gode & wel sykere wede f y-mad of fair entayle ; castle. th 

And }urne f o f ai guwne hem spede f f e frensche men for tassaile. 

11 f e A[miral] callef sir Bruyllant \ f e kyng of mourctmyrree}, Baian calls 

& f e kyng of Comble, Sir Sortybraunt f & othre of his pryuee^ : 

" Herknyaf, lordes of honor" '. saide he, "what is my fo3t. 2481 

Our f ef ys slawe on f e tour f now he ne comef no$t, 

If he wer now lyues man i afore fis had he come." 

" ;ea, for-sof ," saif Sortybran f " he is ded or nome. 2484 

Let blowe f yn homes ri$t anon i we wollef assaile f e tour." 

"now to," quaf fe Afmiral], "euerechon f myne barourcs of honour." 

Hure homes f ai gurane f o to blowe f f ul many at one blaste, The attack 

fe Sarsyns fawne fyderward drowe f to assaile fe tour an haste. 2 488 

Hure engyns barcne bay arayde f & stones bar-wib bay caste. They hurl 

stones at the 

& made a ful sterne brayde f wif bowes and arbelaste. castle - 

Wel scherpe dof fay by-gynne f to assayle f e grete tour ; 

Ac f es barons fat buf wif-inne f defendief hem wyf vygour. 2492 The knights 
With stones & tres fat fay cast out f oppon hure f on fat day, but want of 

Mo fan huTzdred of hure rout f fay affulde ded on f e clay ; m ^% JJJJ n 

Of nofyng certis dof (?) fay drede i bot of Mode one. ' 100 Saracens. 

Ac now failled bofe wyn & bred { . vatailles habbef fay none. 2496 

FERUMBRAS. G 



82 GUY PROPOSES A SALLY IN QUEST OF PROVISIONS. 

f e damesels fat woren of gret honour ' for hvwgre f ai fulle y-sowe, 



s to be Flofrippe] bri^t on bour i whar-for was sorwe ynowe. 

GuVof ^ ^[y] f Borgoyne hure nywe spouse f confortede hir wat lie maye ; 

pro r p1>"esMU> for hure is herte was angwischouse '. & to his felawes gan he saye : 

panions " Lordes," said he, "30 wytej) wel f fiat we buf her enclos, 2501 
Herde by-syged wyf f e Amyrel f & of of re fat buf our fos : 
And now is this J>e f ridde day f fat oure vytails failed ; 
Our bred, our wyn ys al away f & harde we bef asailed. 2504 

9n myn herte me ys wo f fat J)ys wymmen waxef feynte, 
fey buf so mate fay mo we no3t go i so honger haf he??z teynte. 

[leaf 33, back] & if fat hy among ous here f for hungre scholde dye, 

For ous a gret repref it were f in euery companye. 2508 

Leuere me were, bi god almi^t f in my body be wounded sare, 

fan to sen f ys burdes bri^t i for huwger f us forfare. 

Teche we far-fore in dede f fat we buf men of my^te, 

and do we now on our wede i & araie we ous to fi^te. 2512 

to make a & wewde we out of bis stronge tour f to-ward be Sarasyns : 

sortie against 



toobtSood* ^ n( * 8 ete we ous v J ta ^ es w?:t ^ honowr i among our enymys. 

Certis, come we hymen among { somme [vytaille] schulle we haue ; 
Oufer fey schullen don ous wrong l . al so god me saue. 2516 

Wat so f ei ben fat lettef ous o^t i vytailles far to vacche, 
non of ous ne sparie him no3t i strokes fat f ai ne lacche^ 
Teche we far to oure fos f fat vytailes gete we konne, 
And cesse we neuere of our pwrpos i or we ha su??ime y-wonne, 2520 
Wer-wyth f es damesels of honour i hure lif f ax-wiih mown lede, 
Til we haue other socour i of Charlis and is ferede. 

Better it is to For betere is ous f orto die i amonges our fos in fhte, 

die fighting 

hunger 01 " J> an her-mne clynge & drie f & daye for hunger ri3te." 2524 

Then says ^[ fan spak Flo[rippe] fat burde bri3t f to hymyn euerechone : 
" Ful litel ys 3our god of my^t \ fat vytailes ne sent 3ov none ; 
Had ye Hadde ae worschiped our godes free i as 30 3our han done, 

worshipped 

Qf vytailes had 36 had plente \ maugre al 3our fone." 2528 

^ Roland hure ansuerede & saide f . " damesele, were fat sof , 

We wolde f anne do be rayde f 36 f 03 fay ben ous lof . 

Damesele if 30 wolde ous lede f to f e godes of wham 36 spake 

f a?^ne scholde 366 seen in dede i what worship we wolde he[m] make." 



FLORIPAS EXHIBITS HER GODS, WHICH THE FRENCH BREAK IN PIECES. 83 



1F Of fat word was sche wel paid f & f e keys sone sche hente, 2533 

& wiih f is lordes fat buf for-said f to f e maumerye f o sche wente. 

To be Svnagose wan sche cam f be dore heo haueb ouwdo. leads them to 

the shrine, 

fan wei by-fore fan sche nam '. & fay come after fo. 2536 

11 Florrippel drow a ridel ban i bat stod be-fore be frount, draws a 

curtain and 

fan sawe fay far Sir Ternagan i & eke hure god Mahount : 

lubiter al-so & iouyn '. stode far hymew by-syde, 

& eke hure god appolyn '. araid wif grete pryde. 2540 am 

IT f e mametes f at f ai se^en fare '. bi-fore hure aldre si^t, 

Euerchone y-maked ware f of gold fat schon ful bri^t, Sd f ? ld 

y-poudred wif stones preciouse f fat wern f er-on i-pi3t. stones. 

fay schyne fer in tal fat house f so dof fe cande^t. 2544 

fan was far at hure fete f of encen$ a fair dentee, 

And of balme fat smyllef swete l . & spycery gret plentee. 

1F "Ihesu lord," quab Olyuere i "fro wan comeb al bis gold? [leaf 34] 

Oliver wishes 

now wold it god fat it were '. far as me self it wold." 2548 



IF ban hym spak sir Eichard ( . be duke of normaundie, Richard says 

one would 

" I kepte no more to my part i bot iouyn wyf -oute lye, satisfy him. 

y wolde do f ar-w/t/t to werche ( in Rowan my Citee, 

And make newe fe he^e cherche i in worschip of fe trynitee." 2552 

IF banne sayde Duk Roland '. " be tale to fulfille. Roland 

* thinks that if 

Char[lis] scholde haue fe remenant i mi^t it be at my wille, Sretthe* 

Tharwif mi^t he f anne an haste i restore Rome Cytee, 

fat f amyral Balan waste i somtyme wif ys meygnee ; 2556 

& do make vp Seynt petris churche i fat f e Sarsyn^ han yule arayd, rebuild > 

And othre gode werkes werche f fat god schold ben on apayd." 

IF Florippe to hymen saide fen f " $e spekef gret folye, Fioripas teiis 

If 30 dof as wyse men f mercy ^e hem crye, 2560 Jo th^idohf 

& prayef hem 3erne fat hy $ov spede f as fay buf gode and hende, 

& alfyng fanne what $e ha nede f to $ow wollef hy sende." 

IF "Damesel," saide duk Gyouw '. "my prayer ys now ido." 

" For gode," saide erld Ogerourc i " so ys myn al-so ; 2564 ogier says 

they are 

Ac fay slepef alle so vaste f fay mowe ous no3t y-here : asleep, so 

y wil f ar-for teche a caste ( . to a-wakye hem alle yfere." he>11 wake 

them. 

Ogier Deneys adrow is brond f & smot to sire Mahouwd, 

fat al to pieces he to-wond f & ful douw on fe grou[n]d. 2568 pieces> 



84 ROLAND SUPPORTS GUY'S PROPOSAL FOR A SALLY. 

Oliver Olyuei tok vp temagan f & caster a^e f e wal, 

Termagaunt, jj^ legges & armes brek him fram '. in-to peces smal. 

and Richard Richard, f e duk [of] normandye f a drow is swerd wel fyn, 

the other two. & al to-hew fe ofre twye i iubiter & appolyn. 2572 

Roland says ^[ " Parfay," fan saide duk Rolond i to fat maide 



those sods " f yne godes buf na3t in hond f Wel litel ys hure mijt, 



strong. f or now jj av k u f a _d oim afalle { . fay mowe no3t vp a^ene." 

conwrtedaud " ^ * S S ^'" Sa ^ 6 ^ ^"^ * n ^ a ^ e ' " ^ ^ * S n W WG * V ~ Sene ' 

If ich hem worschipie after fis c . maugre mot y haue. 2577 

for fay mowe no^t her y-wys ' he?ft-selue fram herme sane ; 

to&? pray ^ c y l>y- sec he fat god of mi^t f fat diede on J>e rode, 

Hwich of marie fat mayde bri^t f while tok flechs & blode, 2580 
Ase wisly as y lyue ri^t i a[nd] dayde for mannys gode : 
fat Sone sum socour to ous di3t f & helpe ous of Mode." 

but faints na( j S che \>er noat of hure bone f fulich y-mad an ende, 

with hunger. J 

Or heo for hunger had forgone f hir wit & ek hur mende. 2584 

[leaf 34, back] A so^enyng fanne ful hure oppone f & gan to wal we & wende. 

" Alas ! " saide jray euerechone f " wo is ous for f is hende ! " 
Roland lifts ^[ Ro[land] tok hure vp wel softe '. & conforted hure wat he maye, 

& for hure fanne sykede he ofte i & til f e of re gan to saye : 2588 
" In myn herte me ys wo i fat our frend gynt feynte ; 
Sche is so mat sche may no3t go f so huwger hur hauef enteynte, 
& if sche f us among ous here f for hunger daye scholde, 
For ous for euere repref hit were f for heo is trewe & holde. 2592 
Me were leuere, be swete iesus f beo iwourcded ne3 f e dede, 
fan to sen hure fare f us f for defaute of brede. 
& now is f e f ridde day a-gon i fat our vitaile gurcne to slake, 
& bred ne wyn ne haue we non i fat we hure mowe take, 2596 

and proposes Hure to conforty wif -in f is nede f ne non of f e burdes alle, 
SsVn dV o C ut f er -f r d we by Gy is rede f & vitailles ous schullef falle. 
food f IF Fare we out of f is castel her f vnto f e Sara3yns, 

Ous to gete vytailes ther f amonges our enymys. 2600 

& wan we comef hem among i somme schulle we haue, 

Ouf er elles fay schullef don ous wrong f al-so god me saue. 

What so fay be fat lettef ous 03t f our purchas for to make, 

for godes loue ne sparief no3t i hure crones fat 30 ne crake. 2604 



THE FRENCH ARM THEMSELVES AND PREPARE FOR A SALLY. 85 

& if y f ys day forf ward spare '. Sarasyn ouf er torke, 

for euere mot y fan for-fare f for my dayes werke. 

)jer-for, lordes, on f ys porpos f let ous now so by-gynne, 

fat we mowe far of our fos '. such vytailes ous y-wynne, 2608 

Wer-wM fis damesels & we f mowe oure lyues lede, 

Or we mowen bet y-socoured be I wif Charpis] & ys ferede." 

Alle be obre barouws free f assentieb to bat dede : AH the 

knights 



Now dure god in trynyte f grantye hem wel to spede ! 2612 

I One f awne were f es barouws di3t i in ful sykere wedes, 



S' 



m them 
In aketourcs, helmes, & brynyes bri^t f & on styfe stedes. mount. 



f e Castel $ate was opened f o f & f e dra^brigge lete adourc, 

& were in poynte for]? to go f fan spak Ropand] to Naymoun, 2616 Roland 

& prayde hym tabide fare f to kepe fat entree, 

f e wyle fay made fat ilke fare f & f yder wer comen a^e. 

1T Neymys answerede & sayde, " nay '. why wiltou me mysbede 1 

3ut am y bold in myn aray i to don a mannis dede." 2620 

" 36," quaf Rofland], " by my fay f f ou art wel god at nede, 

fow schalt forf wif me f is day \ f e betre fat ous may spede, 

And duk Terry her schal leue i for he ys dojty man." [leaf SBJ 

Then Roland 

Wan Terry hit herde, him gan greue i bot no^t ne saide he fan. 2624 JJ^JJ I ?' y 

Wan Ro[land] hit a-perceuede & 863 f fat he gan waxe wrof ; 

In is doynge he was ful sle^ '. & til him sone he gof . 

" Terry," saide he, " as f ou art me lef f ipraye f e on godes name 

fat fou ne take it no3t to gref f fo3 f ou be laft at hame. 2628 

Our on mot nedes leuen her f to kepe f is entree ; 

y pray fe kepet gode vere i til fat we comen a-3ee." 

Ounebe Terry wolde assente i to Abiden for bat nede : he agrees, 

but with 

Nofeles fis lordes buf for y-wente i crist of heuene him spede. 2632 reluctance. 

H Forf now prikeaf fis bolde barourcs i wif a wel hardy chere, 

Al so f ers as any lyouns f was euerech on is manere : The knights 

sally out. 



Wel y-armed on sikere stedes f hure armure schon ful 

Don fay f enkef do3ty dedes 5 longe or come f e ny3te. 2636 

Toward f e Sara3yn3 fay prykede faste f & f e sonne schon ful Ii3te. 

IF f e Afmyral] a-perceyuede hem fan an haste f & awondrede him of The Emir 

sees them, 



fat 
Til hi?tt fan clipede he Sortybran i and Bruillant of mouwtmyrrcej : 



86 THE SARACENS FLY, AS A LARK BEFORE THE HAWK. 

" Tellef me," qua]) f e Afmyral], "if 30 can f what maner men blip f 003, 
fat come]) hiderward so boldely i prykynge on'fis grene." 2641 

" Hit buf/' qua]) fay " ful sykerly f frenschemen wif-oute wene, 
fat buf now comen out of f e tour i & f enkef -with ous to fi^te, 
& for to do fe deshonour f or we ben fullych di3te." 2644 

the^Swy ^ " Let blowe oure homes," quaf f e A[myrel], y hote jow rijt a-non, 
fat myn host may come wit^-oute dwel ( . to fijte ajen my fon." 
fan mi^te men many homes here f of latouw y-mad, & bras : 

arm hfiSst" 8 ^ e * sore J 56 Sarysyns affraid were f wan fay herde fat bias. 2648 
Hure armes f ai toke to hew for fere i to aray hew in fat cas : 
A schrewed lessoura scholde fey lere i somme of ^am sone fas* 

Sdy r fo n r the ^ f us Barouws ^ll& on hem fill sone f or fay wern y-di3te : 

& Ro[land] cride " mont-ioye," anon i & smytef on wif mijte. 2652 
fay laid on f anne wif herte & wil f stwne strokes & grete ; 

more k thau & to new6 J* 6 Swasyns- bof e bok & bil i here herte blod mad fey swete. 

LOOO of them. w ^ j lure swer( j es & h er p y.g roun( i e < jai k u i(i h em & dude he? wo ; 

A f ousant fay aslowe wiik-irme a stou?zde f & jut y wene wel mo. 
IF Wel faujt f anne duk Eolande f wyf durendale ys swerd adrawe : 
He hew of heuedes, armes, & haunde^of fe Sarasyns fat were on rnawe. 
And so hym dude f e erld Olyuer f alle fat he mijte a-reche, 
A kulde hem douw afforn hi??* ther i & was hure laste leche. 2660 
& euerech of al f e frensche ferde i far fay bere him so 

[leaf 35, tack] fat euerech haf slawe wyf dent of swerde f an .C. w^t/i-oute mo, 
So fat f e furste schak was ouercome f of hure enymys. 

cjanon,king Ac fa?ine com frechs a ferly gome '. Ckriouw fe kyng of Gryej, 2664 

wTh e8 i5"S)o xv f ousant in-to f e feld f bro^te he of Sarsyn, 

en8 ' Wel araid wyf sper & scheld *. and in armure god & fyn. 
Cosyn was he to Balaan f ys soster sone a was, 
In paynye was fer fan no man f fat in wraffe ferst sen ys fas. 2668 

? J 1 !"? cries ^ Wan duk Ro[land] y-saw him come i vfit/i so many men of n^tes, 
To is felawes a cride al & some f " now helpef , hende knyjtes, 
Teche we now wat men we byf f & gete ous vytailes here, 
fat we mowe ous fede far- wyf ' & fe wymen fat buf our fere. "26 72 
With fat drow he ys gode swerd f and to Templer gan he ryde, 

cleaves his & f or} f e heued he him gerd '. wyf a strok fat tyde : 

A-nof er a srnot fat was him nej f & wel him gan a-rede, 



THE FRENCH CAPTURE A CONVOY, BUT ARE OBLIGED TO LEAVE IT. 87 

And gurd him fro fat heued an he$ f in-to fe gurdel-stede. 2676 

Jjan laid he on wif rni$t and mayn f in eche syde aboute ; 

So many he hauef of Sarsyns slayn f fat f e of ere by-giwne hem doute d puts MS 

& flo^e f anne out of is way i wan fay knewe ys mi^te ; 

So dof fe larke on someres day '. fe sperhauk fat is in fli^te. 2680 

IT tan asscriede duk Roland f sir Berard of mourcdisdier : Roland then 

perceives 

" Berard," said he, " let go f yn hand f & tech hew fat f ou art her, Swiiefiges d 

And by my trowf e fande y schel i to don al" my power, 

& ho-so wil no^t now do wel f for-sake he fys myster." 2684 

H f e speche fat Ro[land] to Berard made i gerte here hertes sprynge, 

fay laide on f e Sarsyns strokes sade f as herde as fay mi3t flynge. 

Paste fay fo^te f arcne euerechon ' & laide hure fon to groiwde, 

& to he we hem bofe flechs & bon ' & 3aue hem defes wounde. 2688 

So many of hem thar had for-heawed ' Roland & is route, 

fat al f e feldes f O3te y-strawed f of dede men al aboute. 

1T fan turde hymen fys bachelors I & 8636 cornynge there The French 

xxiiij* 1 of faire somers ' whiche f>at heuy bere, 2692 horses 

Wyf vytaylles bofe gode & fyne f icharged alle fay worne ; Kuki'nds, 

Bofe wif bred & wif wyne i wif flour & eke wif corne ; 

Wyf grys, & gees, & capouns i wyf vene3on & wyf oyle, 

Wif motouw, & bef & bakouws i and othre gode vytayle. 2696 

Kyng heruer of Goran f f e vitailes hadde y-sent 

To f e 11036 Amyral sir Balan '. fyder f awne to present, 

Be neaentene vitaillers i bat of fat syde were, driven by 

19 attendants. 

fat fa?me dryuen fey somers ' to fe A[miral] as y said ere. 2700 

1F Warane f e frenschemen y-se3e hem come i a3en hem hy toke f e waye, They slay the 

& by-trappede hem f anne al & some * to wyte what ladden f aye. 

Ac wanne fe barouns it i-knewe f . what fay in lode hadde, 2703 

f e Sarsyns f anne fay alto-hewe ' & f e vytailes with hem fay ladde. carry off the 

' r provisions. 

IT Wyf fat corne out f e Sarasyn[y]s '. fat rathere were no3t a-raid ; [leaf 36] 

xxx. f ousant of stoute paynymys i in armis wel a-said. Then come 

fey wern y-armed in-to f e tef < & araid wel for f e f^t. Saracens. 

Wan fis barourcs hymen seef i somdel fay wern afri3t. 2708 

To Duk naymes & Scot Gwylmer '. fan Rofland] gan to crye : Roland teiis 

" Dryuef forf f e vytailles ther ' [jond] to dure an hye, 1 d on ve o 0n thc 
1 to [}?e tour] an hye. 



88 



while he and 
Oliver 
protect them 



The Saracens 
rally and 
pursue them. 



The French 
are hard 
pressed. 



Basyn is 
killed. 



They begin 
to give way. 



Guy chal- 
lenges i 
Clarion. 

His horse is 

kilkd; 



he is taken 
prisoner. 



fie is bound, 



BASYN IS KILLED, AND GUY MADE PRISONER. 

And y me-self and Olyuer '. wy)> f ys ojjer part 

Wollef come be-hynde her i & kepe fe rereward. 2712 

now spede 3ow Jjat je were 1 as 30 loueaf }our honowr, 

Wyf hors & al fat like gere i wyf-inne fe 3onder tour." 

IT Alle f e Sarsyns fat were f anne i by-gunne hem to relye 

& after hem faste come renne i & by-gurane hem to ascrye ; 2716 

Ac Ropand] tok his companye '. & let J>e Somers pace, 

And tornef to hem-ward boldelye i to mete hem in Jjat place. 

Nov help hem f e he^ kyng of heuene i fat art of n^tes most ! 

Ne were fer f o bot kni3tes ne3ene \ to fi3te a3en fat host. 2720 

1F fey fulle to-gadre atte laste '. & by-gu?me a newe fi^t ; 

f e baroiws layde on hem vaste i wif swerd faire & bri3t , 

Of alle f e route was far non f fat f e frensche a-rajte ari3t, 

J>at f ai ne cloue hym flechs & bon i & dryuen hem doura vriih mijt : 

In a playn fat was ful fair & grene i fat lay far ne3 J>e tour, 2725 

fe frensche men to muche tene f was mad fat harde schour. 

IT fe Sarajyns f anne atte laste '. wan fey 8630 fat cas, 

Glayues scherpe f ai gurane caste f & dartes y-fef ered wif bras. 2728 

Duk 1 Basyn, a dof f eper of fraunce ( . f or3 f e heued i-gerd f er was, 

& ful douw ded far by chaunce '. fan saide f e frensche " alas ! " 

f Duk Ro[land] & erld Olyuer i fan fay bleynte a syde, 

& so he dude f e gode Ogeer ' & Gy wolde no^t abide, 2732 

For drede of the lancynge fat com ther i of speres fat fulle ouwryde 

f or3 fat so war-of f e frensche wer i dyscomfyted ne3 fat tyde. 

IT fan cam Clariouw fe sturne kyng * & loude hem gan ascrye : 2735 

" Fallef on hem f ai buf fleoyng i we schullef hem haue an hye." 

Gyourc turde til him hys stede i and sayde f o, " f ow schalt lye, 

Arst y schal fe make blede i her ri3t ich fe diffye." 

IT f e whyle fat Gyourc drow ys brond l . & fat word had spoke onef e, 

bar com a dart to hym fleand i & herte his hors to def e. 2740 

fe gode kny3t f arcne him ful a-non ' and eke ys stede of prys ; 

& wel sone f er fulle him vppon i an hundred of Sarsyns. 

fan was far fat stronge barou?* ( . among is fon y-take. 

fe Sarasyns dude his helm a-douw i & maked is hed al nake, 2744 

His handes f anne fay toke ri3t l . & layden him be-hynde, 

And ase faste as tweyne mi3t '. wif a corde fay dudo him bynde, 



PLORIPAS PAINTS ON HEARING OF GUY*S CAPTURE. 89 

And suffe fe schrewes toke a clout i to don him more tene, [icaf86,bk] 

& byndef ys ejene far-wif about '. for he ne schold no3t sene. 2748 a 1 l d i( b d lind ' 

1T f anne made sir Gy. a dulful mon '. & sayde, " welaway, 

A, Ihesu lord, wat schal y don i y am i-lost Jus day ! 

Alas '. Char[les] vncle myn '. & kyng i-crouned free, 

Now y knowe wel-a-ffyn i f y message schendef me." 2752 

Clarioun saide to f e kni^t '. " f ow syngest an ydel songe, 

Jjis day schaltou ben yuele y-dy^t '. & to morwe he3e an honge." 

IT Wan j>e of re barons it wyste i fat Gy was so y-take, 

Wat fay mi^te do fay nyste i bot gret sorwe fay gura make. 2756 The knights 

Alle f e vitaylles fay hauede nonie i fan fai lefce hem gon, 

& gadrede hem to-gadre alle & some f to help ech of er anon. let the con- 

Ac arst erld Olyuer him 1 bi-Jjo^te '. wan he hem leue schel, fhrow8 Ver 

Of a somer fan he cau^te '. of wyn a ful barel, 2760 a barrel of 

& of 2 bred loues three '. y-mad of flour of whete ; 8 loa 8 

& Capouws y-bake al-so tok he i foure in filke hete, four capons, 



& iij. pecokkes y-bake on past i & a syde of veny^ouw ; 

& fese vytailles ther haf he cast i in-to fe dych adouw, 2764 

& to his felaschipe hi??i is adrawe '. wif hymen for ta-byde, 

Hwich fe Sara^yns fat were ouwmawe i angryde in euery syde. The Saracens 

f e frensche men fai hadde y-dryue ; wel ne$ f e tour fat stourcde, back 

So hard batail fai hadde hem 3yue i with wepnes scherp y-grou?ide. 

1T Ac wan f ayne^ede sone^hure strengf ei hurehertes sprongevp ageyn, but they 

fay dryuen hem a3en an aker lengf e i f e Sara3yns in f e pleyn ; 



& in f e reculynge fat fay made * an hundred of hem wer sleyn, 

Wyf sturne strokes f e frensche hade '. 3yuen him in-to f e breyn. 2772 

f e Sarsyns fan lefte fat discoumtit * & to f e tour fay buf ago. 

Olyuer f e vitails no3t for-3yt f bot after wente f o. 

To f e tour bai come to-gadre an haste f & spedilich in bey wente, They retire 

inside the 

& After hymen made f e gate faste i & f e dra3brig vp fay bente. 2776 Jjfo,,, up 

Sory men fay ah^ten alle i of hure stedes fan adouw, the bridge ' 

For f e meschef fat was by-falle i on Basyn and Gyouw. 

11 Of f e paleys fan com adouw anon i Flo[rippe] fat burde bri3t, 

& to Eolond sche ys agon '. & askede of him ful rijt : 2780 

" War is he, myn owene spouse ,f Gyou?i, f e gode 

1 him [wel]. 2 of [bulted]. 






90 



ROLAND PROMISES TO RELEASE GUY THE NEXT MORNING. 



[leaf 37] 
hears of his 
capture, 
faints, and 



threatens, 
if Guy is not 



give up the 
castle. 



Now y sen hym no^t in pis house f a-gon ys al myn hi3t." 
and when she 1J Damesele," said he wip-oute faile i " to sayn sop of py make, 

Hit ne may beo no consail ' pe Sara3yns him habbep itake, 2784 
& Duk Basyn we han y-lore i among pe Sarsyn3 blake. 
& 3ut for Gy me greuep more i certis for py sake." 
IT Wan Flo[rippe] of ys takyng herde ' for sorwe sche saide, " alas ! " 
Sche wrong hur haundes & foule ferde i & sowened in pat plas : 2788 
And wan sche out of sowenyng ros ' loude sche gan to crie : 
" Alas '. ys Gyourc wip is fos f alas ! for sorwe y dye. 
Certis bot y haue Gy a3en i wip-inne pis dawes twye, 
pis ilke tour schal i3elde ben ' pe pridde day be Marye. 2792 

Alas f heo saide, & welawo ' to longe y lyue in londe, 
Now is he . fram me ago c . pat scholdbe myn hosbonde. 
Alas ! loue, wo dost pou me < pov sturest al my blod. 
Alas ! Gyourc pe loue of pe * wil do me waxe wod." 2796 

Wip pat ful sche pat burde bri3t i in sowenyng doun a3eyn, 
And wa?me pat maide speke my3t i wepynge sche gan to sayn : 
" Now ic certis ne3 for-^ete i pe Angwys pat i hadde 
thre dawes for defaute of mete '. so sorwe me hauep be-stade." 2800 
IT pan had Rofland] pe noble kni3t f gret pite of pat mayde, 
And confortede hure wip al is my3t i & tok hur op & sayde : 
" Now damesele, by god alnn^t '. so pow be wel a-paide, 
pow schalt him haue to-morwe or ni3t i pat pe cok hym graide." 2804 
5F To Rofland] pan sche gan abowe 1 almost doun til his fete, 
& pankede him wel faire i trowe i of is confort swete. 
panne him saide erld Olyuer i " we bup in yule aray, 
pat we ete any mete her i pis ys pe pridde day ; 2808 

& pus damesels for-wernep al f . pat me greuep werst : 
& we ous self bup feynt & pal i for hungre & for perst. 
Al 3our mornyng letep now ben i & murjhere let ous make, 
of pys vytailles pat 36 sen i whyche y haue y-take. 2812 

Her-of mo we we take our fille i pa wile pai wollep leste, 
& mo per-after gete we schulle f & take we her-of pe beste." 
pe othere him pankede panne anon '. for he was so hende, 
And toke pe damesels wip hem ecchon '. & in-to pe paleys guwne pay 
wende. 2816 



Roland 

promises to 

rescue Guy. 



Oliver pro- 






GUY TELLS BALAN WHO THE FRENCH KNIGHTS IN THE TOWER ARE. 91 

To f e mete fay set hem fere f & ete & dronke hure fille. 
Now torne we a3en far we were ' & of Gy y wil 30^ telle. 

PE Sarasyns ledef forf Gyoun ' harde & faste y-bounde, The Saracens 

To f e Amyralis pauyllou?^ '. f ei come wif-inne a stouwde ; 2820 
& by-vore Balan, f e Ameral i fay hym bro3te an haste, 
And Gyoun fa/me was teynt & paal '. so longe he hadde yuaste. 
Ac of body was he a seemly kni^t '. of fair schap & of free ; 
nas f er no war yfounde in sy3t i a fairer man fan hee. 2824 

fe Amerel het hym sone bere f to tel hi??^ al bat cas, 

' him his 

Of wat kyn come he were '. & wat ys name was. JJ aud 

IF And Gy Answerede wif -oute ensoyngne '. as he him stod alforn. [leaf 37, bk] 
" Ma calf me Gyoun of Borgoygne f . in f e contre fat y was born. bim - 
f e kyng of fraunce Charlemayn f he ys myn vncle ri3t, 2829 

Cosyn al-so y am Germayn '. to Eoland, f e gode kni3t." 
U fan f e Amyrel saide an haste '. " y knowe be wel ynow : Baian 

recognises 

Hit is twelmonth and more apaste f to Mafhoun] y make avow ! 2832 him 

fat my do3tre hure loue to f e caste i & euere suf f e hauef y-dow. 

Hure loue ys mored on f e ful vaste i & fat me semef now, 

By-cause of f e now haue y lore ' myn men of he3e kynne. the cause 

& f e 3ond tour me ys wers f er-fore f & al my tresour w^t/i-ynne : trouble, 

By fe haue y fat deshonour i tel me fer-for anon, 1 2837 and enquires 

Wat men buf fat buf on my kmr f & hure names euerechon." the " iers - 

IT " Sire," quaf Gyoun, " by myn hand f fat schel y f e telle fawe : Guy tells 

Ther ys ferst Duk Eoland i & Olyuer his felawe, 2840 

And ther ys Berard of mouwtdisdier f & Eichard of normandye, 

And Duk Naymys, & erld Ogier f & Alorys f e erld of Brye, 

& Geffray f e lord of langeuyn 1 & eke f e erld Aubry ; 

Ther ys al-so the Scot Gwylmyn f & of Ardan f e duk Tery, 2844 

Basyn was f e elleueff e '. fat 36 han slawe there, 

& y me self was f e twelf e '. y-take amonges 3ow here : 

Ac 3ut or come 03t longe f & Charlis may ride & gon, and threatens 

Abigge fow schalt fis wronge ' fat f ov ous hast y-don." 2848 vengeance. 

IT Wyf fat a Sarsyn cam forf sterte f fat sou3te is owene def, ASancen 

& wif ys fuste harde a gerte i Gyoun agayn f e tef , blow 

.. , t -, on the mouth. 

fat endelonges is berde r^fc < fan 2 ran adouw fat blod ; 

1 tel \>er-for [blif] anon. 2 [>at rede blode.] 



92 SORTYBRAN ADVISES BALAN TO PLACE AN AMBUSH ROUND THE TOWER. 

And fan him wax fat man of ini$t f for wraf fe wel ne^ wod, 2852 
far-fore to ben alto-hewe i to wreke him wolde he fonde ; 
Guy dashes By f e nekke hent he fan shrewe < & heuid vp ys honde, 
& f ar-wif an f e heued him duste '. & harde gan hit layn, 
with 1 !?!? a!? 8 ^ at a * a ^ oute i g 8 rete vuste f fan wend out al fat brayn. 2856 

hhli a tobe ers ^ J* 6 ^ mera l J 5 anne g an loude crye f wan he so$ hi?/i falle : 
bound, but if Byndef fan f ef," gan he seye '. " fat schamef f us ous alle." 
f e Sarsyns f anne on him fulle i alle wif herte grete, 
& shrewed-liche f ai dede hym kulle f bof e vfiih honde & fete ; 2860 
His cote armure fay alto-drowe '. fat he had him oppon, 
& dude him sorwe & schame ynow f f er ne spared him neuer on. 
51 f e Afmeral] f awne gan crie an haste \ " y hote 30 sle him no^t, 
wmnot 3 have ^ ote kyndef h vm ner de & faste f til y haue my consayl so3t." 2864 
him killed. j, e Sa^ynj a f ter ^{ a heste dide f J Sir Gwy 1 so harde bynde 

fat f e blod barst out far mide f at euery nayles ynde. 
Baian calls a 51 To hym ban clepede sir Balan f be Ameral of nubbee, 

council. 

Kyng Bruyllant and kyng Sortybran f ys courcseilers pryuee, 2868 
& of re ynowe he dude al-so f fat come to him wel sone 
By f e prysouw he askede f o f wat was best to done. 2 
1F " Sire," sayde kyng Sortybran i " hast f ou gode chere 
fy faire tour to gete a^an f wyf-oute any where, 28Y2 

And f e frensche distruye fat buf f er-aan f and fees fat is here 1 " 
" By Mahouw, 3ea," quaf balaan ' "fer-of wold y here." 
Sortybran 51 " bou schalt haue consail god " '. saide be Sarsvn bo ; 

advises him 

to take 20,000 Tak xx* 1 fousand men of mod f ate leste way or mo, 2876 

fat ben do^ty on hure dedes '. & y-di^t in god armure ; 
& loke fay haue faire stedes i fat ben gode & sure, 
and place f anne do fat f aye in-buched beo l . to-ni^t how so be-tyde, 
ambush J n f e wode fat f ow n^t see i ^ond her fast be-syde : 2880 

night. & jj an scholtou don f e forchys there f by-fore f e castel ri}t, 

So fat fay wyf-ynne there f y-sen hem vp y-py3t, 
Then in the fan wollaf bay wel vnderstonde f why fat bay buf dht 

morning ' 

front ?f u t y h n ^ n( ^ t- morwe ^ et f 68 ^ e f ar an non g e by-for hure alre si3t. 2884 



front fth e 

Y wot ful wel fay buf so prout ( & of hure dedes ouramawe, 

nf " e fat fay willef f anne come out f to rescuwy hure felawe. 

1 ' [J?e gode kni^t.] a [of hymen] wat was to done. 



E 



THE FRENCH SEE THE GALLOWS, AND GUESS ITS OBJECT. 93 

IT pan schullap our men of hem be-war f & breken out of pe bossche, 

& bov wvb bvne, & be-trappe hem bar ' & take hem at one russche. they win be 

J f rJ taken in the 

& pus schalt pov wreke pe of py fon f & gete py tour a3eyn." 2889 am ^u 8 h. 

" pus conseil is god & schal by don " f pe Amerel pan gan seyn. 

IT Wei sone dude be Amyrel '. after ys counseil rht : Baian follows 

r * the advice. 

xx pousand Sarsyns araide he wel f & to fat wode he hauep him di^t. 
Hure ledere dude he panne make i Cornyfer an he3ene kyng ; 2893 
& pay hit habbep vnder-take 1 i to parfornye wel pat pyng. 

Ely on pe morwetyde i after pat pay were there, in the 

pe Amyral wolde no leng abyde '. bot pe Galwys let arere ; erected^iV" 
By-fore pe tour y-set pay were '. a litel by-syde a cost, 2897 2?** 
fer fro pen buchyment pere f & ne$ to ys owera host. 
And panne ordeynde he for drede '. an hundred of Sarsyns stronge, 
pat scholde Gyoun pyder lede f sickerliche, 2 & hym an honge. 2900 
pay hundred Sarsym after his heste ' harde han him bounde, Qy is led 

bound 

And panne aboute ys nekke pay caste f a rop ful harde y-wounde. [leaf as, back] 

IT And wan pat aperceuede pe gode kni3t l . pat a scholde ben an honge, <? w?* 

^erne prayhede he to god Almi^t f scholde ys soule auonge. 2904 

pys schrewede Sarsyns pat wern oumvraste i pan ladde forp Gyoun, 

To pe Galwis-ward wel faste l . pay enchacede pan baroun ; 

& wyp sturne staues pay him bute '. as pay po dryuen him forp, The Saracens 

pat after euerech of hure strokes grute t ys body al swart y-worp. along with 

Ac wan Gy y-saw pe gal we tree '. pan gan he wepe stronge : 2909 

" Alas f " saide he, " pat y schold see f pat day to ben an honge. 

Alas ! myne felawes war bup ^ee i wy tariep 30 so longe ? 

Certis bot if 36 helpe me '. y her daye now wyp wronge." 2912 

1F Duk Eo[land] pat ys cosyn was f at a wyndowe out gan lye, Roland sees 

Sone saw he be-fore ys fas '. pe Galwys arered an hye, 

And many Sarsyns stonde aboute '. araid on hure gere ; 

Wel y-armed was al pe route f pan wondrede he wat hit were. 2916 

Sone clipede he erld Olyuer f & ys opre felawes wyate ; and calls ins 

companions. 

And prayed hem alle come neer '. to seen a 3 selcoup si^te. 
And parane of hymen he gan enquer f wat pat amounty my3te, 
And wham pay po3te an honge ther f on pe galwys pat per were di3te. 
IT paraie answerede duk Naymouw ' & saide on his entent : 2921 



guesses for 
MS. vnder-takake. 2 MS. sirkerliche. 3 a [wonder]. 



94 



THE FRENCH KNIGHTS PREPARE FOR A SORTIE. 



whom the 
gallows is 
prepared. 



Floripas begs 
Roland to 
rescue Sir 
Guy. 



Roland calls 
his com- 
panions to 
anus. 



Hastily they 
arm. 



[leaf 39] 
Roland warns 
them, as they 
are so few, 



to keep 
together. 



Floripas 
urges them 
to start, 



" fay wollef an honge far Gyouw f sone fay han y-ment. 

Ys clof ynge f ai han alle of i-don ( . & al naked far a stent, 

Bote we him f e rathere helpe mown '. thai he worth y-schent." 2924 

f Wan Duk Eo[land] fat sof e y-knew f fa/me sturede al ys blod, 

ys colour changed & ys hew l . for angre wax he ne} wod. 

Afforn him sone com knely fat may f Flofrippe] fat was so god, 

Hym to helpe sche gan him pray f for his loue fat daiede on rod : 

" & harneyscheaf ^ow w^t/i-oute lette f hastelich fat 36 be di^t, 2929 

And we wymmen willef ^ow fette c . ^our stedes araid ari^t." 

" Dof f a?ine, damesele, as 36 sede f " quaf Ro[land] fat was so wy^t, 

"& we nullef spare for no drede f to help him vfith al our mi^t." 

11 " Asarmes !" fa?zne cride Rolond '. "asarmes, euerechon ! 2933 

Gowe army ous wyf ayf er hond e . fat we wer far anon." 

Hasteliche buf fay wel y-di^t f in gode & syker wede, 1 syker [armure] 

hwych was clene & fayr of si^t f and fyn ynow at nede. 2936 

To ech of hem tok fat swete wijt ' sunderly fa?zne ys stede, 

And wan Ro[land] was on his aly3t f to is felawes f anne a sede : 

IT " Lordes vnderstondef 3ow f of wat y am be-tho3t ; 

We ne buf [but] ten her now f & mo ne beo we no3t. 2940 

And of fus Sarasyns f er nys no num-bre f fat ous hauef by-set, 

& hy ous wollef foule encombre f bote we ous bere f e bet. 

f er-for dof by counsayle < y pray 3ow in godes name, 

fat non of ous to of er faile f bot hold ous to-gadre y-same ; 

& fat ech of ous on his helue ' do al fat a may, 

To helpe ys felawe euene him-selue '. among our fon to day, 

& anpeyny we ous our felawe to fette f fat ys among ys fos. 

& slee we hymen fat willef ous lette '. to don far our pwrpos, 

For to ben far alto hewe f our non hi?7& fancy no3t. 

And egreliche y schal hem schewe f somclel of my f o^t. 

And euere drawef to-ward me f wanne 30 w nedef meste, 

And y wille 3our warant be f f e whyle my swerd wil leste. 

And whar any of 3ow be in stour i haue 36 f ar-of no doute, 

Y schal 3ow come to socour f maugre al f e route, 

And dof 36 al-so euery man ' helpef other att nede." 

So fey wolde '. fai say den fan '. " crist of heuene ous spede ! ' 

IT " Lordlynges," saide Floripe fo '. "30 dwellef her wel longe; 



2944 



2948 



2952 



2956 



THE SARACENS ARE PUT TO FLIGHT. THE AMBUSH BREAKS OUT. 95 

Bote 30 pe rathere ben a-go f my lemman worth an honge." 

In-to hure chambre sche rennep faste f & pat shryn sche bro^te adoiw, 

And openede hit bi-f or hem an haste f & tok out bat comlv croun and brings 

J down tlie 

pat was on cristes heued y-set i on his passyoun ; 2961 Thorns * 

& fay hit cussede wip-oute let f wip god deuocioun. kislf 1 thcy 

And suppe pay blessede per with hure face' & set hit hure helmes oppon. 

And pan pay hopede by godes grace f pe sykerloker pay n^te gon. 

pe 3eates wern y-oppened wyde '. pe dra^tbrigge pay lete falle, 2965 ami they 

Euerech pawne by oprys syde '. wentew 1 out fair with-alle. 

Floripe, pat maide bri3t & schene f pe 3eate pan made faste, 

& pe dra3t-brigge drow op a3ene f wan pay were apaste. 2968 

11 pus Frenschemen of douce fraunce f euene pay toke hure pas, 

pe Sara3yns po to yuele chaunce ( . par pat pe fourchys was. 

By pat was Gyouw vp a-sto3e f oppourc pe laddre an he3, Guy is on the 

& pe rop y-knyt pe tree abo3e f & he y-pult out wel ne3. 2972 han s ed . 

ac Ro[land] vrith pat cam pyder renne f sodeynliche on is stede, but Roland 

And criede 2 to pe Sarsyn3 penne i "a3eld 3ow, 30 bup dede !" 

Wa?zne pe Sarsyns y-sawe him come f ful sore pay were affi^t, 

be hardieste bat were of al be trome ( . polte hem to be flijt 2976 puts the 

Saracens to 



And pan was Gyourc par y-laft i in the ladre hi?ft-self al-one, i back] 



Al ys elopes were him by-raft f vrith Sarsyns pat bup a-gone. 

IF pe Sarasyns panne wftft yule grace f wel faste pey flo3e away, 

And our barouws hem guw chace i as harde as pay may. 2980 and8la y 

So harde hy hem pa?me qua3te '. fleoyng toward hure host, 

pat pe moste part of hem hy ca3te f & sone abatede hure bosfc. 

Somme of hem panne pay gerte f por3 pe heued in-to pe tonge, 

And summe of hymen pay wer herte '. porw lyure & por3 longe. 2984 

Alle pat po mi3te ben of-take i wyp-oute tales mo, 

Wel sone hur bred was y-bake f hure lif-dawes wern ago. 

Al pat company was so by-fraped l . among pes frenschemen, 

bat among hern alle bar ne ascaped f ounebe bote ten. 2988 a11 but ten. 

The others 

IT parcne pe Sara3yn3 at arst brek out < pat were on pe enbuchyme?it ; 
Kyng Cornyfer & al ys rout f a3en hem parane pay went. 
Corny fer hem gan ascrye f " cowardes, what hav 36 ment 1 
For 3our outrage & 30111' maystrye f 36 schulle beo now y-schent. 2992 
1 [>ay] went. 2 MS. And [ascriedej. 



96 ROLAND CUTS DOWN CORNTFER AND RESCUES GUT. 

Alle 36 schullef beo an honged hye '. wif him fat 3under stent, 
& hasteliclie 30 schul dye '. a^eldej? 3ow, 36 buf hent ! " 

Roland IT Wan duk Eo[land] yhurde hym speke '. for angre a wax ne$ wod, 
By-fore ys felawes he gan out-breke i & modyly til him rod, 2996 

smites at And with durendal ys gode swerd f a strok til him a sente. 

him, but the 

offhhheK! Ac Cornyfer is helm was herd ! & mad f e strok to glente ; 
fan Cornyfer to Roland werd f a sturne strok gan slente : 

cornyfer Ac Rofland] kepede hym fram ys berd f & with his scheld him hente ; 

8hieid d but kot f or 3 * s scne ^ )> e strok him sprong i and fe schild to-chon, 3001 
ac J s habryioun was ful strong ' it ne mi^te no ferrer gon. 
God f a?i f ankef duk Roland '. fat harm hauede he non. 
With fat heuede he an he} ys brand '. & sone a $af hym on ; 3004 
Oppon is heued with egre mod i a strok til him he ledde, 
^ n< ^ $1 * s ^ m were fy n & g 0( l forw-out is heuid it fledde. 
J >e ^^ nt was smert & fo r f hi m S^ ^ & endelong is chyne hym spedde : 
At ys breggurdle fat swerd a-stod f he ful adouw & bledde. 3008 

seizes his ys stede he saysej? sone fas '. & forf -wyf him awente, 

and gives it & til he cam far galwys was i neuere he ne astente. 

Gy of Borgoyngne far afond i y-blyndfalled, and by-bouwde, 
Hondes & e^ene he him ouwbond ' fawne with-mne a stou?*de. 3012 

Guy puts on His clof is leyen f er f aste by f fat Sarsys him hadde by-nome : 
[leaf 40] he shridde him fer-wtt/t 1 fan hastely '. & clofed him al & some 2 
Rofland] fan tok him wM-oute lak '. f e stede he hauef y-worcne, 

and mounts. And Gyouw sterte oppon ys bak i & faire fankedem faraie: 3016 
H " Cosyn," saide duk Roland i " hold f e by my syde, 
Til fow haue armys at hand i to defendy fe wif pryde." 
" Sir/' said he, " as ^e me beref f y wol do loude & stille." 
f e Sara3yns sone fat cry areref f in tal fat host ful schille, 3020 
And f a?me fay prykede 3 among our men f as fay were wode ; 
Ac hymen 4 duste douw on f e fon i wif swerdes & axes gode. 

A fierce banne comencede bat harde fiat i scharper nmte non bene ; 3023 

struggle 

ensues. Many was f e helm & brynye bri3t f fat far was cloue with tene ; 
& many a scheld was far y-cleued i & many a man was to-hewe. 

1 [Awd dudew oppon hiw.] 

7 Over this is written, & Ro[land] to hym ys come & tok hiw \>at stede. 
3 MS. prykedede. " 4 MS. by hymen. 



THE FRENCH ARE DRIVEN BACK, BUT RALLIED BY NAYMES. 97 

of legges & armes honde & heued i sone fan lay ful f e rewe. 

EoFlandl hente kyng Saladyn ' & dude^ a dede bolde, 3027 Roland 

dismounts 

for his armure was riche & fyn f on is lift arm he him gan volde Saiadin, 

& ply3te him of is sadel with mayn i & let go way fat hors : 

& wif is ri}t hond a-brak is necke a-twayn i & to Gy tok he fat cors : breaks his 

" Dispoille f is body," fan gan he saye f " & arme f e on ys wede, and teiis Guy 

& f anne hast f ou armes gode & gaye f to helpe f e on f is nede, 3032 arms - 

And y wil kepe f e if y maye i f e whyle f ov dost fy dede." 

fan was he sone in his araye f & a^en oppon ys stede. 

H Wa?ine Gy was armed & wel an horce i fan sprong vp is herte ; 

" Leggef on, Lordes," said he, " wyf force c . & smytef strokes smerte ; Guy declares 

And techef hem a lessoiw of our lay f for f ai buf ne^ be-vapid, 3037 

And y schal tech hem wel bis day f bat ych am askapid." he win teach 

the Saracens 

Wan fay herde what he spak f grete strokes to hymme fay rau^te, a lesson - 

With strengf e fay reculede fat host a-bak i more fan a bo^e-dra^te. 

So many of hem fay han for-hewed ( . as fay reculede a^eyn, 3041 

fat al f e feld semed y-strewed '. of Sar^yns fat f o were sleyn. 

Ac f e wyle fat f ys was don i of ere araid hem vaste, 

xx* 1 bousand of hure fon ' to fiste with hem. an haste. 3044 20,000 more 

come on. 

IT Now buf f us furste discoumfyt '. f e frenschemen dof abyde. 

Duk Naymes ban behuld a syt 1 f & saw war bav come rvde, Naymes 

* J advises his 

Al frechs out of hure pauylow^s i to hymen-ward wif pride. companions 

fan spak Naymes to f us barourcs '. & saide til hem fat tyde : 3048 

" Lorlynges, drawe toure strengf e bet f & lete we al thys ben, 

Oufer with ^us Sarsyns we worf y-let '. fat ^e her come y-sen. 

Were we a litel ner be tour ' t^ne nere we in none doute, [leaf 40, back] 

to retire 

far mi3te we take god socour '. & fe Sarsyns holde wM-oute." 3052 SJTSXte 

IF fan spak Eofland] f e werreour f wordes fat dude auaile : 

" What scholde we now don on be tour '. with-oute sum vytayle ? but Roland, 

asks what 

We ne laf te to day far wa?^ne we wende i neyf er wyn ne bred, 

Were we ther we wern y-schende f for hunger we scholde be ded. 

Betere ous ys to daye her '. worschiply agayn our fos, 3057 

fan schamly for to asterue f er f for huwgre on fat clos : 

& fer-for abyde we ase men i & fytz we with hem $eare, 

& vytaylles we wollaf maugre he?^ f gete ous or we fare." 3060 

1 sijt altered to syt. 
FERUMBRAS. FT 



98 



FLORIPAS FROM THE WINDOW ENCOURAGES GUY. 



They charge 

the Saracen's 

tents, 



and a fearful 



Guy slays aii 

round him. 



the battle 

Tower be 



and cheers op 



" Wei depardieux," qua]? pis barouws ( . " ouwpank habbe pat spare, 
& pat we ne prikie to pe pauillouws i to clialangie ous su?wme pare." 
^ ba?me bay sunns to pryke vaste i toward hure logyngse, 



And jj e Sarsyns a3en hem anhaste f as harde as fay may flynge 3064 

& pan pus doppepers of fraurcce 1 torndem to pat ferde, 

Bope wip swerd, axe, & laimce i pe[y] mette hem in the berde. 

Faste pay layde pe Sara3yns on f wip swerdes & axes grondo, 

& dussched a-dourc to depe hure fon '. a pousand w^'t/j-inne a stou?^de. 

par was cloue ful many a scheld f & many an helm to-Sent, 3069 

And many an haberke pat arst wel held i paw was per to-rent. 

5[ Gy of Borgoygiie ba^ne a droi i bat swerd bat Saladyn o^te ; 

Many a Sarsyn par-wit^ a slo^ i & is takyngge pa?^ne abo3te. 3072 

He leid on Sarsyns al aboute f strokes stype and sterke, 

Wham so he smytep of pe route i he 3yfp him depes merke. 

*f[ FloFrippel with hure damesels stoute i in be tour ban sche lav, 

_ * 

J ^ n( ^ a ^' a w y n( i we loked oute '. & al pis batail y-say. 3076 

Wan sche saw hure lef Gyou^ i pat paraie delyured was, 
And do3tyliche dynged ys foes adou^ '. amonges hem as a gas, 
Hure care was gon pawne euerydel i & toward him sche cryes : 



3080 



" Wel worp pat hand pat can so wel i chastye ys enymyes, 
Wer pou, leman, with me her f ri3t now y wolde pe kysse. 
Nopeles now y se pe ther i recuuered ys al my blysse. 
3iit schal my fader pe Amerel f in py donger falle y-wisse, 
& pan schalt pov him acquyte wel f of al ys shrewidnesse." 
1T " Gy/' said ogier pe Deneys f " herkne a lytel wy3t ; 
Hurst pou no3t what sche says '. Flofrippe] pat burde brijt 1 
Al hure herte on pe sche lays ( . Gyou??, by god aln^t, 
[leaf 41] Bote pov hure louye wel alweys '. certis pou dost ouwri^t." 

[[ " My herte," quap Gy, " gan vp-sprynge '. wanne ich herd hure speke, 
y wot it were hure lekynge '. mi$t y-me selue a-wreke. 
& so schal y or pe sonne go douw f haf at hem her an hye." 
pan saide iantail ogerourc i " smyt on & ich peh-vye." 3092 

With pat pay prikede forp on pe pleyn '. toward pe pauylloims. 
pe Sarsyns relied hymen ageyn '. & metep with our barouws. 
The fi??ht & panne be-gan pe furthe fi3t f a sherper was per non ; 

pe Sarsyns were to-hewe par ri3t '. bope poi*3 fleschs & bon. 3096 



3084 



3088 



THE FRENCH CAPTURE A CONVOY OF PROVISIONS. 99 

pe f rensche laid 1 on wip swerdis bri^t i & laidera a-douw hur f on, 

Alle pat pai pan alacche mi^t i per na ascapede?7& non. 

f Ko[land] laid on wyp herte god '. in euery syde aboute, 

And bapede is swerd in hure blod f pay gurane him sore doute. 3100 The saraceu 

Alle pai flo^en out of is way f by wich side so he wente, 

for non nas founde pat ilke day c . pat mi3te wzt7i-stonde is dente. 

IT Gy of Borgoygne to a Sarsyn rod '. pat hi^te Cursegreyn, 

& wyp ys swerd pat wel bot '. a gert him in-to pe brayn. 3104 

Anoper a slow sone on pe plas ( & pan pridde he smytep so, 

pat helm & heued & al pat par was '. he clef hit euene a-two. 

pan ferthe he smot pan on ys yre '. & set him with al ys mayn, 

pat ys hed fle^ perfro pe swyre '. ten fet on pe pleyn. 3108 

1F " Cosyn," sayde duk Kolond '. " now pou berst pe wel, 

y-blessid be py gode hond f & eke py Damesel. 

For suppe pe tyme fat hure 2 steuene f com to pyn ere ari^te, 

Hit was no ned, be god of heuene i to bidde pe for to fi^te." 3112 

Wel longe hap pys batail dured f & muche mwrdre of men per was, 

Al pat pay smytep wip ax or swerd '. sone to depe it gas. 

IT Flo[rippe] pat mayde fair & slegh f at a wyndowe per sche lay, Fioripas from 



To pys barourcs sche'gradde an hegh ' as ich $ow telle may. 3116 

" Of 3 opyng, lordes, beo $e war " f til hymerc gan she say, SSSTaw an 

" Newe vytaille to gete ^ou par i pe olde bup al away." 

1T Olyuer herde pe damesel '. & to his felawes he saide a-non : 

" Certis pat maide ous redep wel f our profyt for to don." 3120 

" Parfay," saide duk Eolond ( . " y hurde wel what sche saide. 

Go we per-for wip strengpe of hond '. we willen make a braide. 

Prike we Euene to pe pauylous f ne spare we no^t for fere, 

Vytailles for to gyten ous '. if par bup any pere." 3124: 

pawne pay prykede forp wt/i pride '. ]>is frensche men echone ; 

pe Sarsyn3 nold hem no3t abide '. bot duden hem for to gone. [leaf , back] 

Ac pus lordes hem gurme to chace i euene by-fore hire sy3t, The French 

& duste to depe ri3t on pe place i al pat pay atake mi3t. 3128 Saracens, 

p^' barons enchaeede hur fon so faste '. with swerdes igronde bri3t, 

Til pay kemen atte laste '. to Amyral ys pauylouw iut. as far as tjio 

Einir'e tenb 

H By pat wern pe feldes alle '. of pe Sarsyns y-vewdid wel, 

1 [hew] on. J* suj^e hure [murye], 3 [Byj?ynke|j] Of. 

H 2 



100 THE FRENCH RETIRE INTO THE TOWER. BALAN HOLDS A COUNCIL. 



when they 

see 32 pack- 



escorted by 

21 Saracens 



Roland bids 

Naymea and 



wtin the 

while 'he and 

Guy protect 

them; 



admits them. 



They have 
provision! 



aian holds 



[leaf 42] 



& were a-flo3en grete & smalle i and eke fe Amerel ; 3132 

In-to hure pauylons fay flo3e for fere < & f e barourcs f 03te after fare, 
& maugre hem alle fat far were i haue i-had vytailles thare. 
Bote faraie be-hulde f us bachelers f by-forn hem & se3en come 
Two & fyrty grete somers f y-charged alle & some 3136 

Wyf fair flour y-maked of whete f & wyf bred and flechs & wyn, 
& of re vytailles smale & grete '. fat were bothe god & fyn. 
xxiiij. Vytaylers f of Mantryble fat Sarsyns were, 
By-fore hymen dryue fay somers ' fat fanne come there. 3140 

11 Smertly wan fay sey3 hem come f a3en hem fay toke f e way, 
& by-trapd hem ther al & some f to wete what ladden fay. 
Ac wanne fay it wiste & knewe f what fay in lode hadde 
f e vytailers fay alto-hewe '. & f e vytailles with hymen f ai ladde. 
To duk ^"aymes & to duk Terry < fan Eo[land] spak & badde, 3145 
To dryuen hem by-fore him spedily f & nof yng fay ne adradde. 
fey twyne hit habbef vndernome f f e somers to brynge enclos, 
And fei othere to after come '. & to kep hem fram. hure fos. 3148 
To f e tour-ward fey dude hem drawe f fes lordes f a?zne with pride, 
& Basyn fay founde fat was a-slawe '. on f e way as fay gurc ryde. 
f e somers buf alle forth a-paste f & at f e tour 3eate a-stente. 
f us othere toke fat cors an haste '. & to f e tour 3eate f ar-wif buf wente. 
Flo[rippe] redely was thar-ate '. & let in fuse lordes gente, 3153 
And schutte faste a3en f e gate f & f e dra3brigge vp sche bente. 
~"\~T Ow habbaf ]>us lordes of honour i y-maked a fair iornee, 

\^ And habbef wyf hem far on f e tour '. of vytails gret plente. 
-1- i Mete and drynke fay han y-bro3t f . ynow for monf es thre, 
Jpan Amyral fanne ne dradde fay no3t '. for al is grete poste. 
f e castel fay f O3te fanne holde f boldelich with honour, 
Til Charlis wyf is barnye bolde f come hymen to socour. 3160 

11 To is pauillo^ y-flo3e was i fe A[miral] & huld hym there, 
& Til hym he clepede in fat cas ( . of ys conseyl fay fat were, 
& sayde, " lordes of muche honour '. what is 3our best corcsayle 
Of fes frenschemen on fe tour i fat habbef oure vytaille] 3164 
Bred & wyn fay haue y-now i & flour al-so y-bake, 
& fleschs al-so as y trow ' iij monf es hem mury to make. 
Wyste Charpis] fat ys her ny i by he?tt nov how it stent, 



BRUYLLANT SAYS THAT EACH FRENCH KNIGHT IS WORTH 100 SARACENS. 101 

Wei sone he wolde hem socoury f & banne were we sclient." 3168 

IT "Syre," saide kyng Sortybran i "assemble bow byii host, sortybran 

3onder to-ward be Barbygan i in bys nexte cost. 

by castel of tre bat hizt brysour i byder bou do him fette. the empioy- 

yj * mentofa 

& let bryng anon him by-fore be tour f wzt/i-oute.more lette ; 3172 JJJg r en 

& pote ber-on * vj hundred men f bat kuwne bobe launce & caste, 

& othre bat ku^ne 1 demayny hem '. wib bo^es & arbelaste, 

& let byn obre Sarasyns '. wan bou hast by-guwne so, 

beo be-nethe wyb byn engyns f & teche what bay kunne do. 3176 

& ban let bow byn hornys blowe '. a bousant at o blaste, 

& wanne be frensche men it knowe i bay wolle)? beo sore agaste. 

be tour schaltou bawne assaille f wyb schot & cast of gynne, 

& sone wynne him with-oute faille i maugre \\vtn al wyb-ynne, 3180 

& slen hem ther with strengbe of hant f & so of hem be wreke." 

H ban him answerde kyng Bruyllant ' " of folie dost bov speke. Bruyiiant 

Hit ne bub," he said, "none Vauasers f bat bub ber on be tour, them that the 

* * Trench are 

Ac it bub noble bachelors f of al france bay bereb bat flour : 3184 

bar is wM-inne duk Eolond ( on batail ])at is so wyjt, 

And Olyuer wyb be harde hond ' bat Fyrumbras ouercom in fy^t : 

Thar ys Duk Berard of mowdisdier '. on of J>e beste of fraunee, 

And Terry hys fader bat is wel fier i a man of gret bobaunce : 3188 

In his forest bat hatte ardane '. muche schame ofte he deb, 

He hab y-beo many a man ys bane i & a-strongled hem with ys teb. 

bar is Oger Deneys be hardy f & Naymes wib be lokkes hore, 

& Eichard be Duk of Normaundy '. bat ofte hab greued ous sore, 

& chacede sum tyme be Amerel i in rome by-fore be playn, 3193 

& herte him so ber on be chel f bat he was ne$ y-slayn. 

And Gy of Borgoyne he is ber i bat slow Corsebrayn, 

And ober bat bub no^t nempned her '. bat wolleb ous stonde agayn. 

Of be do^tynisse of bilke men i ech man ys a-wondred, 3197 

hwych bat ys be worste of hem f of ous ys worb an hundred. the worst of 

Eofland], Charlis suster sone ( . he vs a noble knht. worth 100 

Saracens. 

JNe douteb he non er[b]lich gome 1 ne be he no^t so wy^t : 3200 
Muche he hermeb be Ameral '. wib assautes he hym make). 
By oure it is 2 bai libbeb al '. & maugre our teb hit takeb. 
[ kuwne [wel]. 2 is [^t. 



102 THE SARACENS MAKE ANOTHER ASSAULT, BUT ARE AGAIN REPULSED. 

Were per such an hundred ther '. as pay bup now 1 to fonde, 
By Ma[houn] we ne derst no$t duelle her '. but ne we moste of londe ; 
their God Hure god dob euere helpe hem wel '. arad bat we sore auvnde ; 3205 

helps them, J 

[leaf 42, back] Ac cure ne helpe)) ous no del f pe sc[h]rewes bup wax al blynde. 
theirs are Wel y-fern pay holpe ous no^t '. y trowe pai slepe vchone, 

In al pe anger pat we bup bro^t i hylp on hem nys none." 3208 
The Emir is IT ban wax be Amyral wrob & sede '. " what ! traitowr art bou wod 1 

enraged, * ' 

Go out of my si^t anon y rede ' pow trechour, pow wykked blod ! " 
A strong staf tok he vp anon i & smyte hem pawne he po^te, 
but is Ac betwene hem wente kyng Sortybron i & a-paysede hem as he mo^to. 



Sortybran, ^ it gj-^" g^ J^, ^ ^en jj, j, ys ( ag j, ou l oues t me ; 3213 

& if per ys o}t spoken amys i yt may amended be : 
& by-penk how pyn assaut schal gon '. & of pyng pat may pe vaile. 
who Let blowe pyn homes, y rede anon '. pe tour we wollap a-saille :3216 

recommends 



the Si" n fy s f renscnemen ne anduriep' ous no^t i beo we y-bro3t per-to, 
Wel dulfulliche it worp abo^t f pe scapes pay han ous do." 
IT Sone per-after pay gu?^ne to blowe i homes y-mad of bras : 
The Saracens pe Sarasyns w^ f t/^-inne a litel prowe i come as pykke as gras : 3220 
twTs C uare ^ e ^ ^ wo ^-^ e * ^ -^ e aboute '. B, stryde voide per nas, 
pat of pat ilke hepenene route f . al ful was euery plas. 
IT pe Amyral made his engyneour i pe engyns to sette & bende, 
]>er-vrith to breke pe grete tour f & is fon w^-inne to schende. 3224 
The assault pawne by-guwne pay to- grede & houte i pe Sarsyn^ sherp & wikke, 
arrows 'and And to be-sette be tour aboute ( . & to schete bykke ; 

stones fly * fj 

And he pat was engyneour f stones to caste grete, 



pat foule verde wftft pe tour '. so harde pay guwne him mete. 3228 
The French Ac be frensche pat wip-inne ben * defendede hem for pe nones, 

cast trees and 

stones back. & cas t e O ut among hem grete tren f & wonder heuy stones ; 

& sk>3e of pe hepemen i twenty sum tyme at ones, 3231 

pat fullen dourc ded per on pe fen i to-broke bope body & bones. 
The maidens 5f pe dameseles were bope kynde & gode '. & armedem in syker wede, 

And at pe kernels be hymen stode i & holpe hem in pat nede ; 
throw stones & cast out stones gret & sade \ oppon hem pat wer wzt/i-oute, 3235 
battlements. & g^t sla^t of Sa^yns made f with pe help of pe lordes stoute. 

pan gan Flo[rippe] pat ientail maide i Gyon hure lef a-scrye ; 
1 now crossed through. 



casti e take the 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE SARACEN BATTERING TOWER. 

" Kys me, gode lef," farcne sche sayde '. " ones for al f ys nuye." 

Al y-armed as fay wer fan ' a kuste hure as a my^te : 

" Grant mercy," said sche, " swete lemman f now am y prest to fijte." 

IT fan at f e furste f e Assaut by-gan f sterk & strait to be : 

f engyneor cryde to Balan '. " Sir Amyral, lyst to me : J?" MB 

Let leue al f ys balaunsyng f & castynge of speres & stones : 

y-magened y haue a-nofer fyng f to conquery fe tour at ones. 3244 Deaf ] 

Vyfty f ousand of Sarasyns felle i raply to me f ow di3te, 

And loke fat fay be y-armed wel f & fat hy be sur & wy^te." 

" Hit schal be don," quaf Balaan < " anon her in f y srjte." Balan a s rees - 

Hastely het he kyng Sortybran '. to arayen hem as he spi^te. 3248 

1T f e Sara^yn dude ys heste son i no lengre nolde he duelle, 

So many Sarsyns ches he anon l . & bro^te hem f yder snelle. "Be picks out 

f e engyneour, yuele most he f eo i so narwe he him by-f o^te ! 

To f e castel fat was ymad of treo f al fat host he bro^te ; 3252 

bat haluendol ban dnte he '. wib-inne forb to stonde, half of whom 

are placed in 

& fat of er dol wyf-oute to be f to schute & caste with honde. tower dea 

IT In fat same tre castel i weren maked stages thre ; 

fe he3este hi^t mangurel f fe middel hi^t launcepre, 3256 

f e nyf emest was callid hagefray f a quynte fyng to se, 

& was di^t for ys owen aray i for f er-on wolde he be. 

ban be newest stage of al ' fulde he wib men of armes, The topmost 

story he fills 

To schelde hem by-nyf e wel f fram stones & othere harmes. 3260 with men; 

fat warme \e frensche f yderward ( . caste stones of er tre, 

fay scholde w^tft hure scheldes hard i kepe f e dent a$e ; 

& summe scholde schete to fe frensche rout i vrith guwnes & bo^es 

of brake, 

fat fay ne beo hardy to lokie out '. defense a^en hem to make. 3264 
And on bat ober stage amidde f ordeynt he guranes grete, on the second 

lie places 

And of er engyns y-hidde f wilde fyr to caste & schete. SIC f r 

f yder f a?me he putte y-nowe ', & tau3te hem hure labour, 

Wilde fyr to schete & fro we f a3en fe he^e tour. 3268 



In f e nyf emest stage f awne ( . schup he him selue to hove. on the lowest 

floor he goes 

To ordeyne hure fyr f ar-inne < & send hit to hem above. himself. 

To him-ward fawne tok he Sara^yns i an hundred atte leste, looareto 

attend to the 

To come & go to fe engyns f and seruy hew in f e besto : 3272 engines, 



104 THE CASTLE IS SET ON FIRE, BUT FLORIPAS EXTINGUISHES THE FLAMES. 

while the Al be rcmanant of be mmbre f he ordeyneb to schute & caste, 

others shoot. r 

pe grete tour fort encumbre i in pys wyse atte laste. 

II Now by-gynnep pay wip wrake e . glyues to casten wykke, 

And wyp bo^es eke of brake f for to schute pykke. 3276 

By-fore pat was mad a sterne schour f ac pe werste was comynge, 

pey schute wilde fyr to ))e tour f as faste as pay mi^t flynge. 

hoid fi on f akes ^ ^ n f e wa ^ f a * ^ ur ^ m h en ^ wip-inne a lytel space, 

pat he be-gan par-wip be atend f in an hundred place. 3280 

[leaf 43, back] pat fyr pat setlede so on pe walle f ^erne hit gan to brenne ; 
pe peces faste gurcne schaly & falle ' & pat fyr to renne. 

The French Wa^ne ]>is barons loked out \ & sawe pe wal brennynge 

Alle pay saide with-oute dout '. " her ys hard dwellynge, 3284 

Bote we pe rapere don ous henne ' & flen out of ])is tour, 
Sone ous tyd her for-brenne i wyp sor^e & deshonour." 

b h k rSem ^ f 8 " 11 sa ^ e f a * ma i ( l e : " letep of ^our pleynt i & nabbe ^e none drede, 
pys fyr wel sone schal be aqueynt f ^e schullep it sen in dede." 3288 

hot 6 axel's ^ Q ^ ^ f e camele me fette hur son f a damesel bro^t it hot, 

S'SlSar, ^ J 761 -^] 7 set 6 mellede vynegre anon 5 no lenger sche ne abod ; 

on the fire, par pat fyr was setled on pe walle f oueral Iper-wiih sche spreynte, 

and puts it & wel sone par-after pay se^e it alle f how pat fyr a-queynte. 3292 
IT Wa?^ pe Amyral a-perceuede pys '. how pat pe fyr ys fare, 
Al ys hope was agon y-wys '. ys herte was cast in care. 
" Certis, syre," quap Sortybraurct f " pys ys py do3ter dede ; 
In pat sche may sche ys vsaurct i to do pe yule to spede." 3296 

" Wel know y," quap pe Amyrel f "pat ofte sche dop me gyle, 
Y hope to Mahout pat ^ute y schel i ones a-quyte hur wyle." 

sortybrant ^[ " Sir," quap Sortybrant, " do by my red f & let pyn homes blewe, 1 

recommends TJ 



assaut ^ e n 3 t ^^ an( i ^ et t>y-gy nn e hit newe. 3300 
By-hold pe places on pe toure f war pat fyr hap hente, 
per ne wantep no^t enches foure f pat pay ne bup porw brente ; 
Sone he fallep me penkep wel ' & per-for go we per-to." 
" As pov wilt," quap pe Amyrel < " anon let it be do." 3304 

IT With pat pe same kyng Sortybran '. to pe walles hap him nonie, 
& panne he hotep every man f to pu assaut a^eward come. 
Sone pas men n^te y-here f homes loude blowe ; 
1 blowc altered to blcwe. 



THE FRENCH THROW BALAN*S GOLD AT THEIR BESIEGERS. 105 

L. pousand Sara^yns were f y-come wyp-inne a prowe, 3308 and 

pat surame to pe engyns wente f & caste stones sterke ; the aTsauiu 

And sumnie springols stipe bente f & schute gleyues scherpe ; 

And surame pay schuten arwes wykke ' as faste as pai n^t fle. 

& pe quarels flo^e out pikke i of arbelastes y-mad of tre. 3312 

Grete slabbes of styl & yre f to pe wattes po wern y-slente ; 

pe kernels pat arst wern strong & suyre '. })er-with wer broke & schente, The 

& pe brytasqes on pe tour an lie^e f dulf uly a-douw wer caste. are broken. 

Wan pay wztMnne hit perceuede & 8636 i dedlich pai were agaste. 

IT pan saiden hy pus lordes alle f "her ys no3t god to abide, 3317 [leaf 44] 

pys tour is now in poynt to falle f wyp-inne a litel tide." 

Floripe pat mayde fair and hende f to pys barouws sede : Fioripas 

" Ne drede 36 no^t, myn leue frende f 30 ne .schullep haue no nede ; 

My fader let make pis ilke tour f strong ynow to kepe ; 3321 

To putte par-inne hys tresour '. pat he wold leyn to hepe. 

On pys tour ys more gold f y wot ri3t wel to wisse, 

pan half pe kynges han in wold f pat bup in al hepenisse. 3324 



bys asaut wolde y-laste i bys forty dawes ry^t. There is 

enough, she 

her with-iiniG ys gold y-maced faste i to cast out day & ny3t ; SemforSf 

And suppe $e now pat sope y-knowep i on defaute 36 han of 1 stones, days ' 

Takep per-of ynowe and prowep ' & to-brekep hem body & bones." 

H "3ea, faire pe falle, my wete wy3t" f to hure Eo[land] saide. 3329 

Gyourc wente to hure ful ry3t '. & swetly kuste pat maide : - 

pa/me sche lad paym by pe hond i par pat tresour lay, 

& panne saide duk Eolond '. " her ys a ryche aray." 3332 

pay toke op slabbes grete & pykke '. of pe gold pat par lys, They take 

And caste among pe Sarsyns wykke f ne sparede pay no3t pat prys ; f, 

Many was pe Sara3yn prout '. pat par-with was affulled, 3335 

pe 2 opere drowew hem ferper out f for drede pat pay nere kulled. 

IF Wa?zne pe Sarasyn3 had aperceued ari3t i pat gold pat bri3te schon, 

To gadrie pat gold pay dude hure nmt f & leued be assaut anon : who give up 

the assault, 

On pe gadryngge pat pay made i pan pay by-gunne to fi^te 
And 3yue eche oper strokes sade '. wyp axes & swerdes b^te. 3340 
Ech on oper gan to hewen i & euerech other afulde, 
Mo pan a pousent of pe schrewen .' wel sone per were y-kulde. 
1 [in J?e] defaute of. 3 [&] );e. 



L*W U-.VJLJ.1A 

F 



106 AT NIGHT ROLAND PROPOSES A SALLY INTO BALAN's CAMP. 

Baian, in ^[ Wan pe Amyral pat 7-863 f on ys herte him gan to greue ; 

gold, "jo y s "b arons ne cryede an he^ ' & het hem pe assaut be-leue : 3344 

" And ellis schal her al my gold i & niy tresour Leo for-lore, 
pat y haue gadred in-to pat hold < long tyme her by-fore." 
pan wende pe 1 grete to wip pat f among pe communes alle, 

causes his And made hem cessen of hure debat i and fro be asseege falle. 3348 

men to retire. 

pe suwne by pat was ne$ a-doun '. pe Assege panne fay y-lafte. 
pe Amerel go]? to ys pauyllourc c . al nmrghe was him by-rafte. 
'Ow ys pe Amyral a^en y-wend i wyp ys baronye ; 
With sorwe was is herte be-trend ' wip care & eke anuye. 

The French JL_ 1 And pe barons of honour f murye gu?me he??i make, 3353 

[leaf 44, back] And ete & dronke on pe tour ' of pe vytailles pay han y-take ; 
For of vitailes pai hadden po plentee i & burdes bri^te & bolde, 
To ete & drynke & murie bee ' & to layky hem waw pay wolde. 

?w?Jdo5 m ^ At a w y ndowe ag2 Eopand] lay i lynynge & lokede out, 3357 
f 9111 Ameral atte is soper he of-say f sittynge vnder shrout. 
Wawne he hap aperceuede apertely f pan Amerel & his aray, 
To hem he clepede ys company f & pus he gan to say : 3360 

" Lordes, be-holdep pan Amerel f Bounder out on pe grene, 
At is soper ys he me semep wel f it dop myn herte tene. 
^^ were me pynkp a fair viage f to letten him of his pwrpos." 
pan saide pe other barnage i " fonde we to greue our fos." 3364 

Thcy^rm, f gone were pys noble barou/zs \ y-armed in sykere wedis, 
& as fers as any lyouns f pay sterte vp-on hure stedis. 
pe damesels duden vp pe 3eate f & pe dra^tbrigge lete adouw, 
And pay farep out per-ate ' stoutelich ech barouw. 3368 

Baian sees Balan hymen aperceyuep anan i as pai come on a mede ; 
of p e gj^te agrise he gan i and wax ne$ wod for drede. 



Aspayllard of nubbye clepede he pan i & pus til him he sede : 
" Do Cosyn anon pyn Arinys aan i & aray pe in syker wede. 3372 
Lo whar pay comep stout & bold f pe frensche men of pe tour ; 
pay penkep make our soper cold i pai castep hem to pat labour." 
" Al redy, sire," Aspaylard sede i and armede hym pawne anon, 
And sone hap he take ys stede ' & smertly he was oppon : 3376 
Ys scheld he takep in pat nede '. launce ne kepede he non, 
1 >ei (?). 2 Oanne] as. 



ROLAND SLATS ASPAYLLARD's HORSE AND TAKES HIM PRISONER. 107 



A dart takp he in his hond for drede f & for]) he ys a-gon. 

1T Eoland was pe f urste of alle '. pat rod afforeward, 

pe Sarsyn Jjo^te him for to quelle f & laurccep til him pe dart ; 3380 

pe dart was cast with such a mod ' pt porw ys scheld it schet, 

Ac ys haberke was fyn & god i & ellis he had be ded. 

Ko[land] brak pe schaft away f & smertliche to hym arod, 

And po3te him smyte on pe hed an hey '. ac fie dent a glod ; 3384 

On ys stede ful pe dent '. by-side pe for arsouw, 

porw pe necke pat swerd him went f & pe Sarsyn ful adouw. 

11 pe Sarsyn was do^ty ynow f sone he vp aros, 

& hasteliche ys swerd adrow f and a^e til him a gos. 3388 

To han i-broched Ro[land] porw '. a-caste po his porpos, 

Ac Ro[land] panne til hym a-bow3 i & fuld him on is armes clos. 

Wan he had him on is armes lau^t f wip-oute more a-do 

Vp a drawep at o drau^t f & set him by-for him po. 3392 

IT Roland tornd hym panne a^eyn '. & ys felawe dude al-so, 

Toward pe tour al on pe'pleyn f as harde as pe hors may go. 

"Wan pe Amyral pys of-se^ f his herte was cast in care, 

To is baronage he criede an he} i & prayede hymen after fare : 3396 

" If my neuewe gop pus a-way '. by Mahouw ^e bup to blame ; 

Helpep per-for now wat $e may f pat y ne take no schamo." 

Op a-sterte pe route anon 1 & hure stedes pai be-strydep, 

And as faste as pe hors may gon l . after hem pay rydep. 3400 

IT Ac wan pe frensche baronage '. y-saw hem after haste, 

pey turnde to hemen wip sturne vysage f & adrowe hure swerdes 

faste : 

& with hure fon pan pay fou^te i & ^eue hem strokes sare. 
pilke companye po ful dere abo^te f pat pay come pare ; 3404 

Mo pan .v. hundred par pay slo^o f of pat foule maynee, 
& pe remanant hem wip-dro^e f & for drede tornde a3ee. 
pus barons toke pan way ful ri}t l . a3enward to pe tour ; 
Ate 3eate fond hy pat burde bi^t f pat let hem in wyp honour : 3408 
pe 3eate parcne pay made faste '. pe dra3tbrigge vp dro3 sche. 
pe Sara3yns pay habbep sore agaste \ & pay bup in sauete. 



Aspayllard 

charges 

Roland. 



Roland aims 
a blow at 
him, 



which 
wounds his 
horse. 



Roland seizes 
him, 



sets him 
before him, 
[leaf 45] 
and rides 
back to the 
castle. 



The Saracens 
pursue them ; 



they turn 



and slay more 
than 500, 
and put the 
rest to flight. 



108 RICHARD PROPOSES TO SEND A MESSENGER TO CHARLES FOR AID. 

'Ow bup pus barou^s of honour y-come a3en in-to pe tour; 

Flo[rippe] pay gu?me calle, 3412 

Aspayllard is ^ 1 To hure pay by-toke Aspayllarde, And prayede hure kep him 

in syker warde For pyng pat n^t be-falle. 

To pe soper pan wente pay alle pen, pe lordes, & eke pe ientail wymew, 

And made hem murie pat ni3t. 3416 
A-morwe wanne pe sonne hure schon, To-gadre pay assemblede he??? 

euerechon, Lordes and burdes 2 bri3t. 

IT paraie spak Richard of ISTormaundy To pe barons pat stode hym by : 

" Herknyap for 3our honour ; 3420 
Wei 36 wytep we bup her enclos, Hard by-seged wyp our foes, 

& wyth strengpe & gret vygowr." 3 
of o pyng lordes 4 beo ous sure, Her mo we we no3t longe dure, 

Bot ous come socour. 3424 

Sende we ber-for to be Emperer, bat he come with his power 

advises to '*" 

& delyuery ous 01 pe tour. 



but Naymes IT Naymes ansuerede in his avys : " Hit nere bote folye, be seynt Dynys, 

impossible. A Messager til him to schape, 3428 

For al pe centre wyp-outen lys So ful by-gon wyp enymys, 

pat non ne schold hem scape. 
[leaf 45, back] per nys non her ich vndertake, pat pilke Message ne wil for-sake 

pat of ys lyf ys fayne, 3432 

& ho-so nolde a dude folye ; For neuere we ne scholde him sen wip ye 

Til ous come a3ayne." 
IT Til hymen banne bat mayde sede : " Of aour enymys haue ?e no drede, 



recommends 

them to enjoy bys tour vs strong & god : 3436 

themselves, 

And 30 han her bop day & ny3t, Fiftene damesels fayr & bri3t, 

And comen of kynges blod ; 

Euerech of 3ow chuse his owe, And lyue we our lyf on mrn^e aprowe, 

Wyle we bup her enclos." -3440 

and Roland banne saide Eoland to pat fry : " Damesele, pow spekest ful cortesly, 

agrees with __ , .... __ , 

her. Maugree habbe alle our fos ! ' 

1 In the MS. the lines are arranged thus : 

Now bu> >us barouns of honour j F lo[rippe] fry guwne calle. 

Y-corne a^en m-to ^e tour 

To hure fry by-toke Aspayllarde ) For ^ ^ . t be . fell6e 

And prayede hure kep him in syker warde \ 
2 [among ^ys] burdes. 3 & wyth [-outen any socour]. 4 [Ac] of o }?yng. 



ROLAND OFFERS TO GO, BUT NAYMES OBJECTS. 109 

11 Roland of hure gan asky pan. Of wat kyncle was comen pat like man 

pat on hure warde was, 3444 

Wham pay toke pe ni^t before & wat done (?) man pat a wore, 

To telle hym pat cas. 
IF " Sire," quap sc } iej y w ii j, e telle : ^63 sibbe is he to pe Amyrelle, rioripas 

Ys soster sone he ys ; 3448 [ a u r V^ p ( h, 

3if 30 my fader willep greue ari^t, Al to-hewep hym on ys si^t, 

& pan lest he ys blys." 
IT "Nay, nost so " f pan saide Naymourc, "So ne schal it nost be don. butNaymes 

says to keep 

no profyt to ous it nere : 3452 



He schal be kept, by swete iesous, For to a-quytye on of ous, 

If he wer take there." 
IT panne sayde pe 1 duk Terry : "To ligge ]pus her ys gret anuy, 

& be-seged as we bene ; 3456 

Sende we per-for, ich 3ow rede, To Charlis ase Ry chard sede, 

To help ous out of \>is tene." 
11 pa?me sayde Ogier pe Deneys : " Hit nys bote trufle pat jou seys, 

So god me mote auaw^ce, 3460 

For among ous alle her ys non, pat in pat message now darste gon 

for al pat gold of fraunce." 
1T "3us," quap Eoland, "y wil it do, If 36 rewardiep it shel be so, Roland is 

& take iny way or none. 3464 ^ s Y g e e to 

Y nel spare for no fere pat y ne schal pat erant bere Charles. 

& make hym come sone." 
U pan spak Nayrnes and sayde, "nay, Certis, syre, pov no3t f ne may [ieaf4G] 

Gon out of oure ferede : 3468 

And pe Sara3yn3 wern 2 y-ware pat pov were fro henne afare 

pey wolde ous no3t adrede." 
IT panne saide pe Scot Gwylmer : "y wolde fayn, by seynt Ry cheer, Gyimersays 

Wende on pat vyage." 3472 

" Nay," quap Berard, " verement, But letep me fare be 3our assent, nd the " 

& do pat ylke message." 
IT panne hymen bad pe duk Gyoun pat he moste wende to Charloun 

And beo hure messagere. 3476 

FloFrippe] aunswerede par-to anon, "nay '. letep anoper pat message don, Fioripas 

' refuses to 
2 wern [J>ar-of]. let Guy go 



RICHARD SAYS HE WILL GO HIMSELF. THE KNIGHTS AGREE. 

Eor he schal leue here." 

S L wm d g S o ayiJ ^ And J^ 11 s P ak Richa 1 ^ of Norniandie, & sayde f us to f e companye : 

" Sirs, 36 knowef wel 3480 



fat y am sumdel stryken on age, And haue a sone of my parage 

fat is bof e wys & fel : 

f 03 f e Sara^yn3 smyte of myn hed, He ys myn ayr after my ded 

To broke myn heritage. 3484 

& f erf or yf 36 assentiaf to, At al perils wil y go 

To Charlis in 3 our message. 

c?mries Bide *" ^ ^ eT y s a *~ so ano J 3er thyng War-for y scholde do f is doyng 

By-fore a-nother man : 3488 

had promised j) e furste tyme fat Charlys kyng Made me to hymward beo leuyng, 

Charlys be-het me fan, 

it ? heSuw m ^ at ^ me na PP e( le f orw anv . cas f at 7 wer Poisoned in any plas, 
bo takeu ' wyle ich wyf him were, 3492 

A sholde delyuery me out of prisons Wyf strenghf e of hand ouf er 

raunsouw, Coste hit no3t so dere. 

A?id therfor am y bold ynow, By f is two skyles fat y say 3ow, 

To faren on 3oure message : 3496 

For f 03 y be taken he schel me 3elde, And eke my sone ys ne3 of Elde 

To fonge myn herytage." 

They ail 51 Of Eichardis skyles fay toke reward, & alle f anne assontede at 
nessche & hard, fat Richard scholde wende, 3500 

Suf f e he hadde desyr f er-to ; No man betere rr^te it do, 

for he was triwe & hende. 

To him f awne saide Duk Roland : " Suf fen f ow wilt Ipus take an hand, 

fyn of fov schalt ous 1 make, 3504 
fat foil ne schalt spare ny3t ne day Til fov ha don fy iornay, 

Bot fov be ded or take." 

[leaf 46, bk] 1T Richard hit grauntef wM-oute let, And sone fe relyqes wern y-fet, 

& Rifchard] swer his of. 2 3508 

and consult fan fay be-speken how he my3t Sle^lych a-scape out of f e sy^t, 

J> at I 36 Sarsyns ne dud him lof. 3 
1T Richard hym-self sayde fan : " f e beste red ys fat y can, 

fat we be on armes di3te, 3512 

1 schalt [her] 2 [& he swor at hure deuys]. 3 [of hure enymys]. 



BALAN BESETS THE BRIDGE SO THAT THE KNIGHTS CANNOT COME OUT. Ill 

& to-mor^e on pe spryng 1 of pe day Euene to pe pauyllouws take pe way Richard 

As we wolde fiste, the others 

should make 



& wanne we come]) among hem pare, 366 schollep ^eue hem strokes sare, 

& sodeynlych falle hem on. 3516 

pe wyle pay entendiaj) to ^owward Y schal take out to anoper pard and mean - 

& prykie fro hem 2 anon : tK? 1 

And pe wile 30 fi^te]) with p&t host y schal ben a-passed al pat cost, direct10 "- 

& al out of hure si3te ; 3529 

& fan schal y holde my iornee, pe wayes y knowe of pe centre, 

bope be day and ni^te. 
And so pat god me graunty grace, pe brigge of Mantrible saf to pace, 

Wher-of ys most my drede, 3 3524 

pan schulle 36 be wel certayn pat y schel brynge }ov Charlemayn, 

To socwrry 3ow on fys nede." 
IT For pyte pan wepte 3ong & olde, J)e wyle pat Eic[hard] ys tale tolde, 

of hem pay wern wel fayne. 3528 

To ihesu crist pay gu?me to praye Scholde sped hym wel on his iornaye, 

An send him saf a3ayne. 

pan Bifchard] araid hem al pat day, On pe mo^enyng to wende is 
way, Wa?me pe day hym sprimge. 4 3532 

IF Duk Eoland & Erld Olyuer, pilke nijt kepte pe wacche \er 

Til pe larke suwge. 4 
By pat wern pay alle y-dy3t, And wel araid in armis bri^t, in the 

morning 

To horce ban wente bay bolde. 3536 they prepare 

to sally out, 

Bot wan pay wiste how it stod, Clene panne pay tw?*nde hure mod, 

hure pwrpos pay my3t no3t holde. 



For pe Amyral was y-come wz't/i-oute And had be-set pe brigge aboute *>ut find 

With strengpe and with gynne ; 3540 SjSJo"*** 

And had ordeynt him per to lyn Wip .xxx ti . pousant of Sara3yn Saracens. 

To holde hymen po with-inne. 

H Wan pay knewe al pat cas, Sory ynow hure euerech was, [leaf 471 

pan nyste pay wat do more ; 3544 

Bote stablede hure stedes vp a3eyn, And in-to pe paleys pan tornde 
ageyn & kepte hem-selue pore. 

1 & [erlich in] ^e spryng[gyng]. 2 [a- way fmm hymen]. 

[hwych ys wel inuche to drede]. 4 4 [spronge] $ [songe]. 



112 THE FRENCH ARE BESIEGED IN THE TOWER FOR EIGHT WEEKS. 

fa/me dude f us baroufts of honour Holde hem so wyf -inne f e tour, 

Y-armed as fai were. 3548 

They are kept Viij. wykes bofe ny^t & day fat host by-fore fe ^eate lay, 
8 weeks - & kept hem wit/^-inne fere, 

one day the H fan fel par-after as it be scholde, Oppon a fair day fat f e A[myral] 
hawking, wolde To f e ryuer an haukyng fare ; 3552 

He take]? wif him his grete barouns, fat host he lefte ate pauylloiws 

f e assege to kepe thare. 

He made him murie al f ilke day, For vilentyne he fond ynow & play 

On ryuer and on lake. 3556 

To ys host a dro3 hy?ft a^en f e ny3t, Glad in herte, & murye, and ly^t, 

for f e game he haf y-take. 
so that no hat nyst as it f ul by cas, be brierge-warde f or-aete was, 

watch is set. r 

f orw 1 mur^f e of ys play. 35 GO 

The French bys barons were ful sone i-cLat, & out ate seate bey rydef ryjt, 

seeing this, fj ' 

In f e sprynggyng of f e day ; 
By fat f e Amyrel was aryse, And cryede faste to alle hyse, 

fat fay scholde hern di^te, 3564 

& let hem spede for his honour, & go to f e briggewarde of f e tour 

fat was for-^yte fat nijte. 

IT Sone fer-after w^tA-inne a frowe, fe Sa^yns by-gu?me homes 
bio we, & dude on hur armes faste ; 3568 

attack the Ac er fay wern o$t helf y-dyjt, f us barons come oppon he??^ ryjt, 

SlU*UC6US 

who are & hymen ascryede an haste. 

unprepared, 

On hymen fay gurcne to falle anon, And delte strokes ful god won, 

Wyf swerdes sherpe ygronde. 3572 
and kill Wei iij. hundred fay habbef a-slawe, & y-bro3t of lyues dawe 

of sarsyns wyf-inne a stonde. 
IT Sone far come a3en hem route xxx. f ousant of Sarasyns proute, 

Araid fo for to fijte. 3576 

f e frensche f anne hem dro3e apart, And made a bekenynge to Eichard, 

To take ys way forf ri^te. 
[leaf 47, bk] H Eifchard] tok leue & rod a-way. ]S"ow god him helpe fat best may ! 

Richard n , , , . ^ , 

sei/es the bay by-tok mm god almyjte. 

opportunity * J J 

and starts, ft. gone ^ er . a ft e r fay gu?ine wM-dra^e, Lytel & lytel as fay mawe 



RICHARD ESCAPES, BUT HIS HORSE BREAKS DOWN. 113 

Of Bychard haue a si^te. 
]>e Sar^yns tome]? after repe 1 , Al so harde as J>ay mowe lepe, 

To slen hem J?ey wolde be fayn. 3584 
Ac a litel by-fore J>e castel ^eate, Wei ne} pe brigge Ipai lay Jjer-ate, 

Jjys lordes tornde a^ayn ; 

& fan J?ay by-guraie a}en he?ft fi^te, With sherpe swerdes y-bornsched 

bri^te, & mad hem many a wo/ide, 3588 

& layde hem an . bo])e bak & syde, & v?ith strengjje of strokes J)at 

wer ou?zride |jay slowe he?ft dou?i to gronde. 

par hadde ]?e Sara^yns yule grace, For of dede men lay fuld J)e place, 

& J)o])re 2 by-giwne to fle. 3592 

fan were )>e ^eates y-opened wyde, J>e frensche men hadde fe betre syde, The French 

& tornd hem to be towr a^e. castle and 

shut the gate, 

J>e 3eates shutte Duk Naymou/i, & Ogier let j)e brigge adoiw ; 

& wan al was faste y-sperde, 3596 

An hej ban wercte bus barouws stout, And at be wyndowe loked out and watch 

Richard from 

By Richard how it ferde. tfa e castle. 

II J?an se^en alle pys barouns J?at he was passed j)e pauyllows, 

By a fer contraye. 3600 

3 erne pan prayed hy to god Al on, Jjat day to kepe him fram ys ton 

& spede hym in is waye. 
1T Wan Ei[chard] was so fer a-past, jmn was he nojjyng agast 

Of J?at host be-hynde, 3604 

Ac sone J?er-after, as y schal rede, Sykerly wende he to han be dede, 

nad he non ojjer mynde. 
1T Eichard prykede forb an haste, Ase harde as he may braste, He rides as 

fast as he 

nowar he ne abide]) ; 3608 can 

Bot euere he prykej) on ys way, Ne spare]) he mourcteyne ne valay, 

Bot prykyng for]) 3 he ryde]>. 
1F As he was prykyng ouer an hul A wykked cas ber him byful, but his horse 

breaks down. 

ys sted wax al ateynte : 3612 

Wan J)e duk y-saw Jmt cas, A wrong his 4 handes & said, "alas ! " 

& to god he made is pleynte. 
" Ihesu lord," fan saide he, " J>at syttest on ])y maieste, r>af 48] 

And seest boj)e fer & hende ; 3616 

1 rape altered to repe. 2 & oj?re. 2 Bot [rewnyng so]. 4 MS. is his. 
FERUMBRAS. I 



114 CLARION ESPIES RICHARD AND PURSUES HIM. 

Saue me }if f y wille be, fat no Sara^yn haue poste 

f ys day me to schende. 

As wys as y nof yng her ne craue, Bote f ayne y wolde my f elawe saue, 

After our commun deuys. 3620 

As y am to hem treuf e ypli^t Char[les] to brynge f ider ri^t, 

To distruye f yn enymys." 

Wyf ys ri3t hond a blessid him fan, And prykef ys stede & for]) he 

nam Agayn f e hulle an he3e. 3624 

By tws time By fat f e Soraie hure bri^te schon, & Eichard was no3t so ferred ys fon, 

8hining fat hy hym f o ne 8636. 

and Bruyi- ^ Bruyllant, f e kyng of mow^tmyrre, Toward f e montaynes lokede he, 

him> & aparceuede hym sone fas. 3628 

To kyng Claryoiw fat stod him by, hwych was f e Amerel ys cosyn ny, 

f a?me he tolde fat cas : 

" Sire," said he, " be seynt Mahoiw, 3onder out rydef a bold barouw ; 

To Char[les] he ys y-sent 3632 

by f ys maufesours of f e tour hem to fette to hure socour, 

far for ys he went." 

IF WannQ f e kyng hym vnderstod, His herte wax angry & ful of mod, 

& was ful heghe y-py3t : 3636 

ciaryon arms His armes he askede anon vritk cry, & hy were bro3t wel hastely, 

himself^ 

& sone fan was he dy3t : 

& fan him was bro3t ys gode stede, f e beste fole fan man mi3t fede, 

& sone he him be-strod ; 3640 

On hym n^t he on somers day Prikea an hundred myle of way, 

Rennyng euery fot. 

and pursues Ys scheld fan heng he aboute ys swyre, And forf he prykede wiiJt 
gret yre After duk Ry chard. 3644 

with 30,000 After hym folwede & schoke bost xxx* 1 f owsant on an host, 

Saracens. 

y- Armed with scherp & hard. 
God of heuene Rychard kepe ! After him prykef al f e hepe, 

To slen him fay han hem ty3t. 3648 
Ac f e kyng hem passede wM-inne a wyle, Forn hem f e mouwtance 

of two myle, So he3e is herte was pi3t. 

Richard f Ki[chard] forthward prikede vaste Al the wyle fat hors nujt laste, 

Ne sparef he him no fyng. 3652 



CLARION OVERTAKES RICHARD AND WOUNDS HIM IN THE SIDE. 115 

11" Ac a torwdem with-inne a tyde, Awd farcne y-saw he. war com ride [leaf 48, bk] 






Clarvouw be stwrne kyng, Saracens P ur- 

J JO' suing him, 

& fer after hym f e grete route fat helede f e centre al aboute, 

So huge was fat meygny. 3656 

Ac f e . Afmerel] cosyn, Clariouw f e kyng, Come)) by-fore f aste brochyng, ciarion in 

front, 

On ys stede of Araby. 
Of quente entaile was is stede, Al y-fracled wyf whit & rede, stee a <i piebald 

ys tayl was blak so cole ; 3660 

ne saw he neuere be-fore bat day Hert ne hare so renne a- way, as speedy as 

a deer. 

So dude fat iantail fole. 
f e sadel fat f o was him oppon With gold was fret & pretious ston, His accoutre- 

& f e harneys was of golde. 3664 

Brydel & paytrel & al f e gere Wif fyn gold y-harneysed were, 

Purtreyd ri^t ase he wolde. 
11 J)e Sarasyn fat opon him set After Eichard prikede ket, 

Sittynge on fat stede ; 3668 

fat hors was swyf t & ran awaye, and faste gan neye and loude braye, 

Al-gate ase a ^ede : 
And no^t for fat a gof so fast fat Richard ys a-take ate last, 

& fe kyng him gan ascrye, 3672 

And saide " abid & torn to me, Ferber-more schalt bou noat fle. He calls on 

Richard to 

her ri^t schalt f ov dye. turn - 

What wendest f ou, false feloun, Bere f y message to Charloun, 

Socour of hym to hane ? 3676 

y make auow to seynt Mahouw, f ou bryngest neuer eft til him resourc, 

Me self schal be fy bane." 
1F Wan Eichard f e Sarasyn vnderstod, f orw-out ys body sturede ys blod, Richard 

pretends to 

& to him gan he saye : 3680 

" y praye f e, Sire, chaunge thy mod, y ne dude fe neuere herm ne god, 

let me no3t of my waye. 
Lef now, syre, as f ow art free, And let me han non harm of f e, 

& eft it schel be 3olde." 3684 

" By Mahourc," saide f e kyng a3ee, " y nolde f e lete lyues bee 

for a f ousend pouwd of golde." 
A ridef to Eichard wyf a spere, & f ynkef him f or$ fat body bere, 

& on f e scheld hym smot ; 3688 

I 2 



116 RICHARD KILLS CLARION AND MOUNTS HIS HORSE. 

clarion bor2-out vs scheld & is habreioutt, Plates, & iakke & ioupou?2. 

cuts through ' ' 

his shield porj-out al it jot. 

Deaf 49] By-Twene ys scherte & is syde Passe]? pe dent of pat sper oiw-ryde, 
"* Of ys skyn a litel hit nam. 3692 

Richard gan grope to pat gerse, And wan he felede hit was no werse, 

god he pankede pan. 
1F Ac wan pe duk y-sej ys blod, Egre he wax & he} of mod, 

& til pe kyng a wond, 3696 

Richard & smot hyw on be helm above. & bojt is hed han to-clove 

smites 

s de brond 



Ac pe helm was so hard y-wro^t, pat he mijt entamy him nojt, 

Wyp no dynt of swerde. 3700 

Ac wan Ric[h]ar<J pat vnderstent, Sone ajaf hym aiioper dent, 

And on pe nekke him gurde, 
He severs his And smot hem barc with such an yre, bat helm & heued wyb al be atyro 

head from his J * * J 

shoulder9 . In-to pe feld it flej. 3704 

dismounts, pat body a putte a-douw god spede, & lefte his hors and tok pat stede, 

U" Now ne dar he nopyng drede Of pat hyndere falurede, 

pat comep after gon ; 3708 

fbr conquered he hauep a stede, Ne saw he neuere no such at nede, 

To saue him fram ys fon. 
pan lokede he on hym pat was hys, For pat stede ful wo hym ys, 

and saide paraie on is speche : 3712 
" now Haue gode . my gode morel, On many a stour pou hast seruid 

me wel, Crist ich pe by-teche ! 

And god jut, if py wille beo, Send me grace pat y mote pe seo, 

On crysten ma^nes welde." 3716 

With pat he prykep forp on ys way, & pat host compp after with grot 

effray, To encombry hem on pe felde. 

The Saracens ^y Ac as bes Sarsyns prykede faste bay foimde hure lord par ate laste ; 

find the body 

His hed lay on a for we, 3720 



ys body was tornd ouer-thwart pe way, Fro pat heued ten vet fram hyt 

lay ; pan made pay muche sorwe. 

They lament "Wan bay sescn hym so by-stad Alle pay waxen sore of-drad, 

over him. 

An[d] gwrne him sore be-mene. 3724 



RICHARD'S OWN HORSE RETURNS, IN SPITE OF THE SARACENS, TO THE TOWER. 117 

Ferrer ne draste fay no^t for fere, Bote a-li3te & wronge hure liandes fere, 

And saide, "alas ! " for tene. 
" Alas," fay sayde, " why wolde he so Hym-self allone f us fonde ys fo, 

With-oute ous fat with hym were 1 " 
Richardis stede f anne fay saye Rennyngge a-streyey far on f e waye, They try to 

To take him fan f o^te fay fere. Seed"* 1 ' 8 

IF fan fay be-trappede hym alle aboute, Ac for npn hem wit/i-oute doute [leaf 49, back] 

ne wil he no^t be cau3te : 3732 

Wan any of hem fat hors cam ne}, A caste be-hynde & arered an he}, 

And fulde al fat a rau^te. 
Fyfty stedes a-douw a fulde, & ten f er-of to def e a kulde, but ie wiis 

On fat same out-rage. 3736 JgjS,."" 1 

f e stede fan tornde him as he cam To f e tour of Egrymoygne fan 

way a nam, Maugre hure vysage. 

H Wanne a cam be pauylons ne2, be Amyrel wel sone him of-ses, Baian seeing 

r l J J him, thinks 

& sayde fan on his sawe, 3740 gjJkufiL 

& swer til hem fat stode him by, fat Clarions his cosyn sykerly 

f e messages had a-slawe : 
" Wel certeyn am y f ar-of," he sede, " Lo ! whar }ond comef ys stede ; 

Let take hym ich 30 w praye." 3744 
f anne Sarsyns ru?ine aboute him faste, Ac wan fay se$e how he gan 1 

caste, fay let hym gon ys waye^; 

f orw-out fat host f e stede him ran Al rht to be tour bat he com f ram, The horse 

' comes to the 

& at fe }eate a stente. 3748 

f e lordes fat on f e toure were Wan fay 8636 hym fay hadden fere, 

& sone a-douw fay wente : 
fe brigge 2 was sone y-lete adowi, fe 3ate openede duk Neymouw, 

him in. 

Ogier tok in f e stede. 3752 

& wan fay had mad fast aboute & y-stablyd f e stede, fan al f e route 

Sore fay gurcne hem drede, 
For ech of hem wende on is part f e Sarsyns had sleyn duk Richart. The French 

fear that 

fey swere by Peter & paule f . 3756 
fat by hys stede fay knewe fat cas, Warfor fay prayde god kyng of gras 

haue mercy of is saule. 

II Wan fat Flo[rippe] y-saw hem wepe, Gy, hure lemman, & al f e hepe, 
1 gan [to] ; the to inserted, but crossed through. 2 JJG [jeate dra^t] brigge. 



11& BALAN MAKE3 GREAT LAMENTATION OVER CLARION. 

In herte hur gan to greue. 3760 

of wepyng ne mi^t sche abstene hur 1 no^t, Til euerech fayre sche pan 

by-so^t, pat nycete for to leue : 

Fioripas tries " Lordes," sche saide, "leuep al pys, Ther is non of $ow pat wot to 
them. wyg. Wather he ys quyke or ded. 1 3764 

per-for letep al 30111 mornyngs For 36 hyre betere tydyng, 

& per-to y leye myn hed." 2 

IF pus Floripe, pat may de of gret honour, Conf ortede pe barouws on pe tour 

With hure wordes gode : 3768 

[leaf so] Hure wordes lekedem euerchon, & fro pawne pay bup an-he3 agon 

& to a wyndowe pan pay 3eode ; 
From a If As bay were thar & loked out. bay sawe barme come at o rout 

window they * * 

^ e ns ' pe Sarsyns faste ride, 3772 

pat hadde y-chaced Eichard douw, Wan he aslow kyng Claryouw, 

pat was so ful of pryde. 

bearing pat body pay bro3te among hem po y & Sar3yns wente to & fro, 
clarion And made a wonder deel. 3776 

to Baian'g pat body forp pai bryngep so, & euene 3 to pe pauyllourcs pay guwne go, 

tcntt 

& metep with p e Amyrel. 

II " What how now/' saide he pan, " Hap Clariouw my cosyn aslawe 

p c man 1 pe messager ys he ded 1 " 3780 

" J^ay," quap on, " pe deuel him drawe, For he hap my lord a-slawe, 

lo, her ys body and hed ! " 
Wan pe Amyral hym ded y-se3, Sorwe jede ys herte ne$, 

& angry ynow he was : 3784 

T^ejEmir Four sithes he ful a-douw y-sowe, & opre dules made ynowe, 

&oftecryede, "Alas!" 
" Alas," said he, " my cosyn dere, Al my confort for-sop pow were, 

Wo ys me for py sake ! 3788 

For pow were Quere god & kende, Y praye to Mahouw, as he ys hende, 

pat he py saule take." 
pe Sara3yns pat pawne aboute hym were A gret dul pay made there, 

For pat kyngis dep. 3792 

1 Wather he ys ded [or quykc]. 

2 [Teller more sykerk*?]. (About 20 other lines in this page have been 
rewritten.) 3 MS. eueuene. 



BALAN DESPATCHES A MESSENGER TO MANTRIBLE. 119 

fan stode f us barourcs of honour, & lokede fyderward out of f e tour, 

& al f ys hyref & see]?. 
IT Rolond askede fan ful ri3t, Of fat burde fair & bri3t, Sks nlSpas 

Yf sche coufe hym telle, 3796 

Whar-for was mad fat gret mornyng Amonges f e Sara^yns olde & 3yng, what ifc 

As hy far herden alle. 
IF Florippe ansuerede & sayde, " ^ys, Y can 3ow sayn wel why it ys, sheteiishim. 

war-for y am wel fawe : 3800 

Certys al ys for Clariouw kyng, fat was my fadres owe derlyng, 

fat Rychard hauef a-slawe. 
He was a noble werreour, Of al hef enisse was he flour, 

Me nyste nowar ys pere. 3804 

Certis now waxef ^our honour, He was my fadres beste socour, 

& ys cosyn dere. 
1T Whar-for now buf alle glad, Kifchard] ys lyues, buf no3t a-drad, Deaf so, back] 

And haf y-don f ys dede ; 3808 

Conquerid haf he of kyng Claryouw, An hors fat is worf many a toun, 

No- war nys such a stede." 
Wanne sche hauef hure tale y-tolde, fan guwne f aye alle waxe bolde, 

fat wern fo on fe tour. 3812 

Olyuer sayde to f e company : " Now mowe we beo f e more hardy 

To by den her socour." 
And alle fan f ankede god aliny3t, fat Eychard was fat day so wy3t, They an 

fat do3ty kyng to slee, 3816 

And prayede god, f e he3e iustys, Scholde scheld him fram ys enymys, 

& send hym saf A3ee. 

RYchard hym prykef on ys way, Ne sparef he hulle ne valay, 
Bot al-way ry3d prikyng. 3820 

Conquered had he such a stede, fat of ys trauayl ne dof he 
drede How fer a-go rennyng. 

f e Ameral f anne ful angry was, He clepede til hym Malyngryas, Baian or,der 

Malyngryas, 

fat was ys Messager, 3824 "JJJ*, go 

And saide to hym, "beo wys & snel, And tak f e dromedary e fat gof wel, 

& grayf e f e on f y ger ; 
To Mantrible anon most f ou fare, Quikly loke fat f on be fare, 

As swyf e as he may gon. 3828 



120 MALYNGRTAS PASSES RICHARD AND ARRIVES AT THE BRIDGE OF MANTRIBLE. 

fyn spores loke fat f u ne spare, fe dromedary ys swifter fan f e hare, 

He bryngef f e far anon. 
^ ^ * ^g ^ 16 ' P e Briggeward, And aske of hym on my part, 

m y he dude s ille > 38 32 

To lete passye f e Messagers fat holdej) my tour & my do3tre fers, 

Al agayn my wille. 
' If y may lyue, by rnyn heued, Hym schel beo betre han y-leued, 

for fat was folye gret. 3836 

Tel hym al-so al fat cas Of Clarioiw fat my neuewe was, 

In wat manere he is ded, 

& how A Messager haf hym slayn fat 1 wendef to fecche 1 Charlemayn, 

if he may pasye there ; 3840 

2 & ys y-sent by fus glotouns Charlis to fecche & his barouns, 

To schewde ous alle here. 

[leaf si] For if he fe Messager 3 letef pace, 3 Charlis 4 wol me of londe chace, 4 

& brynge oits alle ful lowe. 3844 

not to let any Thar-for say him bat he be-war, And lete noman pacye thar, 

stranger pass J 

tbe brid e e - bote if he be knowe. 

5 And 5 if far comef any oiwknowed 6 man, Sone fat he ben take fan, 7 

& hyder to me y-send. 8 3848 

Say hym on payne of ys heued, fat f ys f yng beo no3t be-leued, 

As he ne wil be y-schend." 
IT " Syre," sayde f e Messager, " Sone certis y wil be ther, 

& speke wif agolofre, 3852 

Themes- & 2our erand to hym 9 abeode : Ac ride wil y no3t in thys neode, 

senger say 

he can run y bank 2ow oi ^our prolre. 

faster than 

To renne an .C. myle on my fete, Ne schal noman y-se me swete, 

On hulle ne in valay. 3856 

! ' [weude oute now to.] 
2 Added in the margin below : 
To socoury J?ys glotouws on my tour \>ai habe}? y-dow me deshono?^r 

& ous to schende here. 

3 3 over ' thar pase may.' *~ 4 over ' schal come on ous sum day.' 

5 - 5 altered to (?) ' if J^at.' 6 over ' stronge.' 

" over l War-for in myn half hat hym >an.' 

8 Over this line, crossed through, is ' >at he be sone y-take,' and under- 
neath is ' to passe J>at passage.' 

9 & [to hym] jour erand [wel], 



soon over- 



MALTNGRYAS GIVES THE ALARM AT MANTRIBLE OP THE ESCAPE OP RICHARD. 121 

Or f e dromedarye scliolde be di^t, Y schal gon on my fote ry^t, 

Wei ne^ half fe way." 
IF be Messager ys sone forb afare, & renneb swyf ter ban be hare ; He starts and 

- 

Eychard he ha]? of-take. 3860 

Malyngryas him drow a-part, & f us ascryede far duk Eichard, 

" f ow schelt no}t ous a-scape." 
& forf he rennef al so swyft, As foul fat flef on f e lift, 

Mantrib[l]e til he cam to. 3864 

& fan to f e brigge tok he ys pas, Strait to f e brigge-ward far a was, 

On f e brigge storcdy?ige f o. 
II Wawne he afforn him was y-come, Ys erande abed he al & some, and delivers 

J his message 

Ei}t as y schal 3ow saye 1 . 3868 to A s olafre - 

" f e Ameral me hauaf to f e y-sent, To wyte what was f yn entent 

To don hym such affray e, 2 
f e messagers for to leten f e brigge pace, 3 fat Charlys sente by manace, 4 

5 Hyderward hym 5 to scafe ; 3872 

fat han with strengthe conquerd is tour, And holdef ys do^tere wif 

deshonour, & hermyef hem late & rathe. 

1T And now compf on of hem prykyng, Fram f e othre y-sent to 
Charlie kyng, & ys by-stole awaye. 3876 

By Mahourc, pautener, fe tyd abigge, 6 For 7 fay passede so fe brigge 8 : 

He sent f e so to saye. 

For Clariourc 9 fe kyng 9 he hauef a-slawe And y-take ys stede a^en 
f e lawe, 10 hys better nys nowar non. 3880 

Toward Charl[es] wolde he wende, And bryng hym hider my lord to [leaf si, back] 

schende, And to distruye ous ecchon. 

Wharfor f e Amerel ys wonder wrof , & by Ma[houn] haf sworn ys of, 

& f ow him lete pace, 3884 

Whar f ov beo founde, fer or ne$, fat f ow schalt be an-honged he}, 

f e ty^d non of er grace." 
^F Wan A golafre haf herd hym speke, For angre fat he ne drast him wreke, Agoiafre is 

A skuntede als a bore : 3888 

1 over ' sigge '. a over To kepe betere ]pus brigge. 1 

* ' & whan fjou letest pace ' over. * over ' Charlfc messagers witA yule grace.' 

5 5 ' \>us Bonder day ' over. over ' ful wo.' 7 For [^u]. 

8 over ' for J?ou let hem pacy so.' 9 ' ' hys neuew ' over. 

10 Other lines added, but are too indistinct to make out. 



122 



RICHARD ARRIVES IN SIGHT OF MANTRIBLE AND OP THE RIVER. 



and threatens 
Malyngryas. 



20,000 

Saracens 

assemble. 



Richard from 
a hill sees the 
Saracens. 



He is in 
doubt what 
to do. 



[leaf 521 



" Go out of my si^t," to him he sede, "How dost pow, harlot, pyn erand 

bede ? & seo pou me no more. 

By Mahourc, my lord, pat sit in trone, Bute pou pe rathere ben agone, 

Myn axe pou schalt y-knowe." 3892 
Agolafre sone po l tok an horn, & quiklich in-to a tour he orn 

& loude pan gan he blowe. 
By pat he hauede y-blowe a blaste, On pe toun 2 pay bute tabours faste, 

& made noyse horryble. 3896 

To armes 3 Sarsyns ruwne an haste, & xx. pousant sone 4 per paste 

of pe Citee of Mantrible. 
IT pe dra^tbrigge was wel sone arered, Many a Sar^yn par was a-stered, 

pat Ryfchard] wente a3ene. 5 3900 

Now god of heuene helpe Rychard ! par mot he pace porw pe hard, 

for he not wyder flene. 

As Ri[chard] hym comep on an hulle an-he^, pat host of Sarasyns he 
of -863, Houynge on a mede, 3904 

In armes b^te & sykere wedes, Sittynge vcchone on faire stedes, 

& pan hym gan a-drede. 
"Lord,". he saide, "for py god-hed, What ys now my beste red? 

of blisse y am al bare : 3908 

If y come among pys fered, Wel y wot y lese myn hed ; 

Wyder-ward may y fare ? 
And if y me take to pe ryuer ward 6 pe strem ys so stil & hard, 7 

pat 8 per me tyd adrenche : 3912 

& if y to pe tour now torne agayn, 9 pe sara^yns me wollep sle certayn, 

y not now 10 wyder blenche. 
Ihe$u, my lord ful of my^t/pat al pyng canst hope dele & di^t, 

pyte of me pou haue 11 ! 3916 

Al pat pou dudest on me make, 12 In-to pyn hondes ich her 12 by-take 

Fram combrymerct pou me saue ! " 



1 MS. J?as, with ]>o over it. 
3 'armes [Jeanne].' 



8 [In JJG toune]. 
4 [of hew] sone. 

* J?at [come] Ky[chard] a^ene. 6 And y me take to \>e [wilde] ryuer. 

7 [Schamlich tyd me dye ther.] 8 [for] \>at. 

9 & if to J?e tour [wolde] torne agayn. 

10 no^t corrected to now. . 

1 Here follow 2 long and 2 short lines, almost illegible. 
12 12 over ' body & saule ich J?e.' 



A MILK-WHITE HART CONDUCTS RICHARD OVER THE RIVER. 123 

11 ban tornde him Richard al so hot, Toward be Ryuer bat Imt Flagot, He turns 

towards the 

& fyderward prikef faste. 3920 river ; 

f e Sara^yn^ of hym hadde si3t, And ryde after as foul on fli^t, the Saracens 

to taken hym fay }>ojt an haste. 1 him > 

Ac furst and afforeward alle Prykede a cosyn of f e Amyralle, SSSjysee 

Me calde Mandysee ; 3924 

Hys hors was Iy3t & faste 3ed 2 , And bar a sterre on his for-hed 2 , 

A noble sted was" hee. 
1T f e Sarsyn fat 3 was ryche & prout, By-fore alle othere he pry kef out, 

& 4 hauef of-take Richard, 4 3928 

& het hym abide & gan to crye, " Claryoura ys def f ov schalt abye, who calls on 

Torn to me coward. " 5 g and 

Richard tornde til hym anon, & adrow ys swerd, fat b^te schon, Richard 

& gurde him on f e heued ; 3932 gg^" 8 ' 6 

Such a strok fat dupe wod, f orw-out helm, heued & hod, 

Al he haf for-cleued. 
f e Sarsyn sone ful doun ded, & Rye [hard] By f e rayne tok fat sted, 

To haue him was hym lef. 3936 

Til be rvuer prikede Richarde, And be Sarsyns come prykynge after and hastens 

towards the 

harde, Cryynge-" tak fe fef ! '"> 

II Now y-come ys he to f e ryuere, By-syde a treo & a stod hi?w fere, 

fat water to by-holde, 3940 

& saw f e ryuer was dup & brod, And ran a-way as he were wod, 

ys herte gan waxe colde. 
1T Richard tok herte & benche gan, bat nedelich a most entrye ban He deter- 

mines to 

In & passe fat ryuere, 3944 Jjjj^ the 

Ouf er he moste turn a^ee, And fi^te agayn al fat maygne, 

fat after him come there, i 
To ihesu f a?me he bad a bone : " Lord, fat madest suwne, mone, 

Lond & water cler, 3948 

Kep me bys day iram my f one, & if y bys ryuer potte me one, and 

commends 

fat y ne a-drenche her : wmseifto 

& such grace f ow me'sende, fat y may saf to Charlis wende, 

& telle hym my porpos, 3952 

1 [& ban gan Richard haste.] 2 ^ede and hede marked for correction. 

3 [for] ^at. 4 ~ 4 [& a take Kichardouw.] 5 [feloim.] 

6 [wit A gret effray] (the line riming with this, altered.) . 



124 RICHARD, HAVING PASSED THE RIVER, RIDES ON TO MORYMOND. 

[ieaf52,back] So fat lie may come wyf socour, And delyuery ys barons of honowr, 

fat liggef among f j fos." 
A milk-white ^f Nad he nojt bat word ful speke, Er bat bar cam an liert forb reke, 

doe appears, 

As wyt ase melkys fom. 3956 

and swims Ry^t euene by-fore duk Ey chard fat best 1 hym wente to watre-ward, 

& fayre by-fore hym sworn. 
Wa??ne f e duk fat wonder y-se3, & f e sarsyns fat f o wer come wel ne$, 

With bost & noyse gret, 39 GO 

Richard Wyf is Ti^t hond fan blessede he hym, And f 03 f e ryuere were styf 
courage,^ & grym, Wyf bof e hors in a schet ; 

riJeVf ^ S ste( ^ e was an nors f P rvs > & kar P e kni3t at a l dyuys, 

Swy?ftmynge with ys felawe. 3964 

the deer he hert bat was so fair of sut Ouer be Ryuer swam ful rht, 

leading him. ' 7 r * 

& Ry [chard] dof after-drawe. 

11 Ys fon hym fo^ede to f e water cler, Ac wan fay come to f e dupe 
Ryuer, fat wilde was & thro, 3968 

The Saracens Entrye f arme ne darst hy no^t, For f e ryuer hi?ft ran so to^t ; 

Sory men were fay f o. 

and turn to To f e Citce f a?zne f ey prikede a^eyn, & fyndef mandisee fat was 
bridge. a-sleyn, As 30 hurde of are. 3972 

fat body fay lefte stille ligge, & prykede 3erne ouer f e brigge, 

To mete with Ry[chard] fare. 
1F Agolafre wax wonder wrof, To fe drau3tbrigge before 2 he gof , 

& quyclich let hur dou/i : 3976 

" Barouws," quaf he, " now prikeaf faste, f e Messager fat 36 hadde an 

haste, & slef fat foul feloun." 

They hurry fan nmte men many Sarsyn3 seen Ouer f e brigge an-horce fleen, 

over the n n _ 

bridge. prikyng as fay wer wod ; 39bO 

By fat was Richard f e ryuer past, And prykef hym fram ys fon an 

hast, As ys nede by-stod. 

Nad he no3t priked of fat contray, Fro f e ryuere a myle way, 

Er he a-li3te a-dou/i. 3984 

Richard sees fan saw he comynge on o valay fat host of Sa^yn} f e hoi aray 

them coining, . , 

To take hem 3 were fay bou?i. 

1 |}e hert.] 5 [sone.] 

3 hy altered to he ? 



CHARLES LAMENTS FOR HIS KNIGHTS. GWENYLON ADVISES A RETREAT. 125 

Hastelicli a^en on ys stede lie wond, pe sterrede he take]) on ys hond, 

& letep hem bope renne. 3988 

He prykep hem forp wyp such an eyr, pat at euery stape sprong out [leaf 53] 

pt fyr, pat pay made pa?me. 

pe Sara^yns prykede after faste, Ac al hure trauail a-way pay caste, but is soon 

For he passede hure si}! 3992 

& wan pay se^e it nolde no$t be, Wrop & sory pay tornde a^ee, 

As pay come ful ri^t. 

For]? panne ride]) Kychardoura, Stouteliche as a bold baroun, 
ne doutep he for no man, 3996 

Prykynge ouer hulle & pleyn, Til he cam to Charlemeyn. and never 

J J ' J ' stops till he 

neu^re ne astente he fan. 



L 



Ete we Eichard of Xormaundy Prykye forthward on ys wey, 
& of Charflis] y wol }ov telle, 4000 
])at lyj) at IMorymond w^t/i ys barons, Wei y-loged ther on 
pauyllouns ; now lyste]? to pis spelle. 



Muche hym awondrep Charlys kyng pat he ne hurep no tydyng Meanwhile 

of his baroun hende, 4004 J^J^jJ JJ* at 

hwyche he had to pe Ameral sent ; For hymen ys he in gret torment, kiigi^f his 

Sorwe hym gan betrende. - 
IT Charlys clypede ys barouns, And schewep til hymen ys resons and calls a 

On pis manere & sede : 4008 

"Lorcles," said he, " me ys ful wo pat my doppepers bup pus a-go, 

y drede lest pay be dede. 
If pay lyuede 1 y wot to wysse Of hem y scholde ha herd or pysse, 

& now y ha lost hem so. 4012 

Alas pat euere y saw pis day ! pe flour of chyualrye ys away, 

& my worschip is a-go ! 
fayne y wolde pe croune op-^elde, Her by-fore $ow on thys felde, 

ne kep y hure bere nomare." 4016 
Wyp pat A wepte wyp is e3en, & wan pe f rensche hit herde & se^en, They an 

._ . lament for 

W el sory ys f rendes ware. the knights 

IT Gweynes ys tray tour pat par was po, "Wanne he herde hym speke so save Gweny- 

lon, the 

On herte him leked pat cas : 4020 tri tor, 

1 If J?ay [were lyues], 



126 CHARLES CONSULTS HIS BARONS AS TO A RETREAT INTO FRANCE. 

Of ys sorwe a was ful fayn, And of f e baroims fat scholde be slayn, 

Glad ynow a was. 
chaii^to 68 Affore J> e k y n S i-come ys lie & sayde, " Charlis, 1 now herkne me, 

& do by my saying : 4024 

[leaf 53, back] ]>yn host lif her ful yuele araid, And holdef hym ful yule apaid 

Of f y longe bydyng. 
France "^ et awarn y e J>y n barouns fat fay don vp hure pauyllouns, 

Euerech on ys side, 4028 

because And trussyam ]>is day & aredy make, & to-morwe let ous our iorne 
X^SJ** 8 take Hamward a$en to ryde. 

^umbras, ^ ^ Q Amoral hauef y-gadred ys host In tal hef enys by euery cost, 

And f enkef ryde on f e ; 4032 

For ys sone, sir Fyrumbras, J>at among ous her conquered was, 

He fenkef Auenged be. 

]>ow ne hast no power now an-honde, His grete assemble to wij?-stonde, 

Wan fay comej) to fi^te. 4036 

And J)03 fow woldest a^en hym fonde, fay buj? on hure owene londe, 

fow gost to grounde ri^te. 

and Roland And nainliche suffe fat fay buf dede fat scholde ben our help at nede, 

Hardy ys he & feer, 4040 

And wol come hider & on ous falle, f e to slen & eke ous alle, 

fat he may fynde her. 
f er-for, sire, do by my rede, To-morwe erly a wel god spede 

Ham- ward let ous drawe. 4044 

And f enk eft-sones to auenged be of f e Amyral fat haf y-wref f ed f e, 

& fyne men a-slawe." 
Charles 5T Wan he hab told ys resoun Charflisl caste his heued adou/z, 



cannot 



So wo hym was on is f o$t fat he ne nry^t hem answerie 

for al f e worlde god. 
Gret deel hit was hym to seen, How he gan f o to wepe a^een, 

fat noble eonquerour. 4052 

Wan he by-gan to wtt/i-drawe ys mod, To him-self said he far a stod 

" now fallef al myn honour, 

1 & sayde [to] Charlis. 



GWENYLON'S FRIENDS SUPPORT HIS ADVICE, WHICH RAYNER OPPOSES. 127 
be whyle y hauede me aboute Myne dof f epers bold & stoute, but laments 

J J over his 

Olyuer & Eolond, 4056 kni s hts - 

In tal f e worlde men dude me doute : Whar fat y come wyf my route, 

y hadde f e heghere hond : 
f anne me dradde me fer & ner, 1 And was ycleped conquerer, 

In tal fe worlde aboute. 4060 

And now bu]> hy fro me gon, Whar-for waxef 2 bold my fon, [leaf 54] 

fat arst dude me doute : 
And yf y fuse viage leue f us, Men willef seyn, by swete iesus, 

My my^t ys me bereued ; 4064 

fan haue ich y-lost al my renourc : As lef me were her stope adouw, 

& lete gurd of myn heued." 
H f e Emperour stod & hym by-f 03te, How fat he answerye mo^te, 

& f us he sayde fo : 4068 

" What sigge 26, lordes of renoun, By f e conseyl of Gweneloun 1 Charles asks 

the advice of 

Wat rede 30 for-to do ? " nobles - 

If y me thus turne in-to fraunce, Wyf -oute takynge of vengeance, 

Hit is to me gret schame. 4072 

Men wollef sayn fat buf wyse fat it ys al my feyntyse 

& putte on me f e blame." 
IT ban hadde be traytour cosvns thare, Geffroun, Dautefuelle and Gwenyion's 

friends 

Malkare, Hardree and Alorys, 4076 support him. 

Gerard, Hugoun and Gwylmare, And mo fan hundred othre fat ware 

ys cosyns of er alyes, 
& alle were traytours to Charlemayn ; fay come forf & gwme to sayn 

Afforn hym far a stod : 4080 

" Leue Syr kyng, as f ow art free, Do- now as Gweynes redef fee, 

for it ys for f y god. 
Gweneloun ys bof e god & wys, And haf y-rad the at oure deuys, 

As it wil best auayle. 4084 

fer buf .xx. f ousent among ous her fat willef no ferf er wyf f e f is }er 

Putte hem to trauayle, 
And fat ys for f ov hast y-lost fylke fat scholde help ous most, 

Eo[land] and Olyueer, 4088 

1 [boj>e] fer & ner. 2 MS. waxex. 



128 ALORYS INSULTS RAYNER, WHO KNOCKS HIM DOWN. 

And byne obre barouns-stoute, To wliain alle we wern woned aloute, 

for fay were so feer." 

IT "By dure god," saide Charlys fan, "30 louea]) me lytel euery man, 

fat rede]? me in fis maner. 4092 

If y f us schamlich schal tome agayn, Luuere me were be ded certayn 

On f ys felde her." 

Rayner IT f e erld of Genyue, syre Rayner, Sayde f awne to f e Emperer : 
nouo trust " Syre, be my liegeance, 4096 

[leaf 54, back] f ou no dost iiojt ase f e wys If f ow y-lyuest sir Alorys, 

of er any of his lyaunce. 
Ys consail dude f e neuere god, Ne non fat y knowe of al is blod ; 

haue it wel in mynde. 4100 

Hy buf fals in dede & fo^t, Hure cowsail to f e nas neuere no3t, 

& fat f ou schal Avel vynde." 
Aiorys If ban hym spak sir alorys : " Rayner, bou spekest al amys, 

threatens 

By god omnipotent ; 4104 

And bat jww scholdest a-bigge sare, If be kyng hem-self ne ware 

Her now in present, 
and abuses What bow art ful wel we knowe ; Y-come bow art of kuwne lowe, 

Rayner. r 

And Garyn by fader also : 4108 

In be werld nad he lond ne rente, Saf bat bat he wib f alshcd hente, 

& dude men ber-for wo. 
JN'euere ne was he wM-oute strif, Bot ay wykke[d]liche lyuede ys lyf, 

On befbe & robberye : 4112 

And al ys lygnage in euery syde, For robbours bai were y-kud as wyde 

As any man my3te a-spye." 
Rayner is ^[ be duk ban wax al ful of o'rame, Wa7^ne he spak of is fader schame, 

enraged, 

aiHikriooka And strok til hym wttft yre ; 41 1C 

liiai down. 

&onbechekegurd hjmwiih ys hond, bat wyb be strok to grondeawond, 

And tomblede on be myre. 
" bow lyest, rybaud," saide he ban, " My fader was kud a trewe man ; 

god ^yue be yule chaunce ! 4120 

And alle bat bub of ys blode Trewe men bai ben i-holde & gode, 

bor3~out be realme of france." 
owenyion's ^[ Wan ys proutekyn y-sawe fat cas, Hautef uelle, hardre, & Sir Mai eras, 

& ofre a bousent ne3 ; 4124 



ALORTS IS COMPELLED BY CHARLES TO APOLOGISE TO RAYNER. 129 

What of alyaunce, wat of blod, fan fay ascry^de hy?ft as fay were wod, out for 

" Asarmes ! " swyf e an-he^. 
fat kunwas wykkede on him-selue&armede hymen blyueoneche helue, 

bofe 3onge & olde. 4128 

And so he dude eke f e duk Eayner, And al is frendes fat he liad ther, 

fat f o^te with hym to holde. 
Mykel was f e noyse fat fan aras : Ac Gweynes partye f e more was, Gwenyion's 

& 11113 tyer of power. 4132 tne larger, 

Ac wan bat hoi host y-saw fat cas, Hit ful to f e duk Eayner f orw gras, but ail the 

soldiers join 
For loue Of Olyuer. Rayner. 

IT fan fay f O3te to-gadre han set, ne hauede Fyrumbras hymen y-let, [leaf 55] 

., LI.L AT or* Ferumbraa 

fat hymen wente betwene ; 4136 andcimries 

* ' interfere. 

& f e kyng among hem went, & hoten hem by co?wmaundyment, 

fat fay lete it bene. 
IF Wan f ys noyse al cessed was f e kyng stod vp in the plas, 

& clypef til hym Eayner, 4140 

Gwenelourc, hardree & Alorys, And othre mo of f ys partys 

& sayde in f ys maner : 
' ' 30 dof me, lordes, wel muche ounri^t, fat buf hardy her on my si^t, Charles 

Do me fe vylonye, 4144 

Her on my presence to profry fi^.t. Bote it be amended, by god alnn^t, 

$our summe it schal abye. 
IF Alorys," said he, " bys was by werke, Cast of hasteliche byn hauberke, orders Aiorya 

7 to disarm and 

& fyn helm of fe fou take, 4148 

And by-fore Eayner sete fe on kne, And on hys mereye pote bou be, apologize 

- * * to Rayner. 

and is amendes make. 

U " Syre," quaf Gweynes, " it sehal be do, Sif f e 36 hotef fat hit 
beo so, We wollaf make ys pays." 4152 

" 3ea, be god," quaf hautefuelle, " Do now Alorys wif -oute duelle, 

Ei^t as fe kyng him says." 
IT Alorys ouwarmed him f a?zne an haste, And on is knes andressede Aioiys docs 

him vaste, Be-fore fe duk Eayner; 4156 ^ 

f e amendes a profrede him for-to make, At he3 & low what he wold take, and they are 

,& so fay acorded ther. 

IF fe kyng gan asky a3enward fo, Whafer fay hym radde a-byde or go 

A3enward in-to fraunce. 4160 

FEIIUMBKAS. K 



130 CHARLES ORDERS THE ARMY TO PREPARE FOR A RETREAT INTO FRANCE. 

"Ac wel y may wyte 1 if y do so y potte me-selue in sorwe & wo 

& to gret greuaunce." 

Hauteviiie fl" Hautefuelle hym answerede agayn : " Herkne, sire, what y schal sayn, 

y wil 3 OU ^ be-swyke. 4164 

s QC fa ^ jj a t euere y haue iloued ^ow wel, 

& Gweynes my sone do]) yke. 
Ho-so consaile }ow her to abide, He louef ^ow litel at f ys tyde : 

fenchesourc y wol ^ow say. 4168 

f y puple ys her enpayned stronge, For fay han y-laye her f us longe, 

y-armed bof e ni^t & day : 
[leaf 55, back] Al our bodyes waxef sore, So longe we habbef armes bore, 

And buf so heuy so led. 4172 

Do 2 as Gweynes redej) J>e, And faire let ous turne a3e, 

j?ys ys f e beste red. 

And wan we comej) in-to oure helue, 3 pan mowe we far reste ous selue, 

An ten $er ate leste. 4176 

and take time By pat willej) hy fat now buf 3onge Be ful waxe & be bold & stronge, 
arm y- To helpe fe in fe beste : 

Then he can & fan n^t f on gadry a-^en f yn host, And come ageyn in-to f ys cost, 

With nobleye & bobaimce, 4180 

& do wreche for duk Rolond, & for f yn of re barou^s strong, 

& take f y vengeance ; 

and recover & eke f yn relyques wynne a$ee, f e croune of thorn & f e nailes three, 
relic8 - fat buf away i-bore ; 4184 

& f e ofre relyqes al & some, Hwyche fay habbef f e be-nome, 

fat we buf trauaild fore." 

H fan was Char[lis] enchanted so With fees traytour, and othre mo, 

Gwenelouw & hardree, 4188 

Charles gives fat he hem grauntef ftffc same daye To trossy hur harneys & hem 
France* araye, To torn hem horn a^ee. 

f o were f ys traytours glad & blyf e, In tal fat host fay wente swyf c, 

And warnede mest & leste, 4192 

Euery man to makye hym $are, & trussye his harneys horn to fare, 

After f e kynges heste. 

1 'knowe' over 'may wyte.' 2 Do [now]. 

3 ' centre ' over ( helue.' 



CHARLES SEES RICHARD COMING AND ORDERS A HALT. 131 

11 ban waxe sory fe gode barou?is, frtt fay scholde don op hure 
pauillo[u]ns, By fe conseil of losengers: 4196 

& namliche f e gode duk Rayner Muche bemenej) . ys sone Olyuer, 

& alle f e dof f epers : 
Nobeles suf f e fat it was so, After f e kynge fay moste do, 

& gurme to trussye vaste. 4200 

fay fulde sakkes, & trossede males, To Charyotes fay drowen f e 

grete bales, & f ykke hwn in f am caste. 

IT Wan Jay were araid al & some, And an-horce wern be grete gome, AII are ready 

And f e kyng an-horse was, 4204: 

f arcne he be-f o^t hyra al aboute, & how he sente ys baroims stoute ; 

ofte he sayde, " Alas ! " 
& " Alas 1 ! " said he, by-forn hem bar, " bat 2 y euere y sut croune bar, Charles 

' J r J J 7 ' laments ovc-r 

fis is 3 a deeful fyng 3 ! 4208 gj^ ' 1118 

bat suf fen myn barourcs bub fus y-slayn, & y thus 4 wrecchedly schal [leaf 56] 

torne a-gayn, Wif-oute 5 wrech takyng 5 : 

bar as y ha be arst mykel of tolde, For a coward y worb y-holde, 

bofe in tour and bour 6 . 4212 

Alas '. alas ! cold ys my red ; Why lybbe y now fat bay bub ded, 

fat huld vp myn honour ? 
Alas ! for Roland, my Cosyn dere ; Were he lyues wif me here, 

A wolde no^t suffry fys, 4216 

bat y thus scholde me torne a3ene, Wib-oute ve[n]iaunce of my tene, 

Hit farf now al a-mys : 
For now y haue hym for-go, And myn of re barons al-so, 

forw 7 my folye dede 7 . 4220 

Whar-for certis me ys wo." Wib bat word sowenede he bo, He swoons 

J and nearly 

As he sat on ys stede ; ** his 

Of is hors had he falle adouw, Nadde y-ben be socow of his barouw, 

fat vp fer gu??ne him holde 4224 

ys trewe baronye be-mend him sore, & Rofland], & Olyuer wel mychele 

more, & be of re .barou?is bolde, 

11" Wan f e kyng of Sowenyng awoke, f e way to france fan he toke, They start. 

As he lay forf rijt. 4228 

1 & [fan.] 2 [Alas] fat. 3 - 3 [a foule meschance.] 4 y[now], 
- 5 [any vengeance.] 6 MS. tour. 7 - 7 [myn 030 fol dede.] 

K 2 



132 RICHARD INFORMS CHARLES OF THE DANGER OF THE DOUZEPERES. 

Richard f e kyng gan loke faiine a-syde, & saw whar Eic[hard] com a f at tydc, 1 

Prikynge by-fore his sy 3 t, 
And sat on fat noble stede, fat al so swyftlyche f anne ^ede, 

So swolwe dof on %3t. 4232 

f e sterrede on ys hand he ladde, fat he of Mandysee wan & haddc, 

fat 2 he hym slow in fy$t, 
^ ^ ar a na ^ e ^- swer( i an honde. f e kyng made ys stede a-stonde, 

And by-huld hym faste ; 4236 

Hym semede fan it was a kny$t, fat was y-eome out of fy^t, 

And swftdel was agaste. 

H fan . clypede he hemen fat were most Worthyest barons of al ys 

host, of lenyue 3 fe duk Eeyner, 4240 

Charles Eaol Moiifttferaiit, & duk howelle, And bad him a-wyle with liim 

orders a lialt. J 

duelle, & fat host a-reste ther : 

" For y seo Bunder comef a kny^t, Prykyng so dof f e foul on fly}t, 

On a ful iolif stede ; 4244 

Deaf 56, back] Lord fe stede fat he gof ly^t, Another a lede fan honde ri^t, 

fat semef god at nede. 
He recognizes By ys rydyng it 4 semef me, Ei chard of Normandy e it imjte be, 

fat berf fat swerd an hand. 4248 

Now ihesu, fat ert heuene kyng, f ys day seride me god tydyng 

Of my neuew Eoland, 
And of Olyuer, my derlyng, fat fay mote be ^ute lyuyng, 

& my othre barou??s wy3te." 4252 

By fat fat host arested was, Eychard cam prykande ne^ f e plas 

&' by-fore hym fa/me ali^te. 
Richard rides ^[ Anon, ^t as f e kyng hym 863, Quyklich f a?me a rod hym ne3, 

up to Cliurlt's, 

& sayde til hym 5 ful 3are 5 : 4256 

who asks " lantail knyat, comen of kynde free, Of Eoland my heuewe tel f ou me, 

him about 

ti^ other How ys it by b hym afare ; 

& of Gy of Borgoygne, & of Olyuer, And of al myn othre dof f eper, 

buth 3ut 7 on lyue." 4260 

"3ea, sire, wyf-inne fis f ridde day y lefte hymen murye & in god aray," 

Said Eifchard], so y thryue ; 

l - 1 [prikyng] \>at tyde. 2 [Wan.] 3 ' Alre furst ' over ' [&] of lenyue.' 
4 [as] it. " 5 -* [Jare.] 6 [of.] 7 [War ^ay beo.] 



CHARLES VOWS VENGEANCE AGAINST GWENYLON AND HIS FRIENDS. 133 

On f e stronge tour of Egremouwt, far buf f yn barourcs alle hoi & sond, Richard teiia 

Saf Basyn fat is aslaye 1 : 4264 

f e Ameral be-segef hymew f er-yn Wyf an hundred f ousant Sara3yn, 

Be ni^tes & be daye 2 . 
f e Amyrel ha]) sworn by ternagan fat neuere ne wil he departie fan, 

for no^t fat may betyde, 4268 

Til fay be-take in dispyt of f e, And an-honged he^e on f e galwetre, 

euerech by of res syde. 
far ys wz't/i-ynne wyf hymen there, Flofrippe] f e Amyralis do^tre dere, 

A burde on boure bri^t : 4272 ^ e her 

Sehe hauef f e relyqes on hure warde, For whyche fou hast y-trauaild 

harde, longe tyme day & ni^t. 

IT f yn barons fat buf of gret honour, fat so buf be-seged on fat tour, 

fey sendef fe word by me, 4276 

fat f ow scholdest come vfiih f yn host And 3 delyuery hem out of fat 

cost, As f ou art hende & fre ; 

& if fou wolt so f as god me saue, Al fyn relyqes fow my3t haue, [leaf 57] 

which 

bat v spak of eere : 4280 diaries can 

have. 

And discoum/itye fow schalt fan Amyrel, And al ys Sara^yns, y wot 

ful wel, fat now buf with him fere. 

And wan fou hauest so y-done, Conquere fou schalt after sone 

f e reame of hef ene Spaygne." 4284 
fan was glad Charlis kyng, Ne herde he neuere no tydyng ' Charles is 

delighted at 

W ar-for he was so fayne. the nevv s> 

NOw ys Charlis glad & blythe, And fonkef god an .C. sythe thanks God 
Of fat gode tydynge. 4288 

By seynt Dynys a swor ys ob, fat Gweynes & hyse scholde be wrob, and vows 

vengeance on 

for hure compassynge : Gwwykm. 

" Hit ys no f yng on hymen ylong fat y ne hadde y-lost Eolond, 

& myn barons 4 hende. 4292 

fay buf wel ful of felonye, & fat fay schullen eft-sone abye, 

bote fay hemen 5 amende. 

y f anke f e, Eifchard]," quaf Char[lis] kyng, " For certis fow hauest 
wif fy tydyng y-bro^t myn herte of care. 4296 

T [aslawe.] 2 [dawe.] 3 And [wij? strengf>e.j 

4 ' o)?re barouws ' written over. 5 bot [if] ^ay.. 



134 RICHARD DESCRIBES THE DANGERS OF THE PASSAGE OF MANTRI13LE 

He deter- Al nut we wolleb reste ous her, And to-morwe, wan be day ys clcr. 

mines in the 

morning to byderward wille we fare, 

start to <f I J . 

Egremont. ^ n( j y ma ] e auow to my lord SQjnt Ion, If y may lyue til moneday 
non, lyuerance wil y make ; 4300 

And be Amerel schal lese ys hed, & al his sarsyns schnlle be ded, 

bat y may of-take." 

Richard says IF " Sire," quab Kichard, " he ys ful strong, & hab be-set be centre long, 
over 12 .. Wyb Sarsym al aboute : 4304 

square miles, - 

four myle in lengbe spredreb is host, And thre on brede by euery cost, 

Wit/i-inne & wyb-oute. 
and that he And a thys syde Egrymoygne a iornee bar is a brigge of gret fertee, 

A Citee x ys set ber-bye 1 : 4308 

Mantj bi e be citee ys y-called, Wyb marbre fyn ys he walled, 

& abatayld vfith toures hye. 
Vnder be brigge ban net flagot, On him ne may durye schip ne bot, 

So sterneliche he him re?meb : 4312 
Of brede ys he a gret bo^e-schot, & thre spere-schaftes dep ech grot, 

As many man it wel keraieb. 
[leaf 57, back] A bys syde b c touft bat ryuer rend, 2 & be brigge 3 bar ouer 3 stent, 

Whar forb we moste pace. 4316 

Ober passage ne ys bar non bote by bat brigge y-mad of ston, 

nys ber non ober grace, 
amydde be brigge bar stent a tour y-bnld abo$e wyb gret honour, 

Wyb brytaskes many & fale : 4320 
which is kept In bar on dwelleb be brigge ward, A geant ys he of an yuel part, 

Many man he bryngb on bale. 
Ynder be tour bub ^eates two, Whar bor^ men mote nedes go, 

bat wolleb pacye bere : 4324 

bar stondeb algate an hundred knifes, bat passage to kepe by dayes 

& ny3tes, With b e geant bat ys portere : 

Asoiafre the Agolaf re hatte be proute geant, Fro hennes in-to Cyuyle grant, 

bridge-ward. 

nys bar anober swycn. 4oJo 

' * written over 'by-^onde \er stonde ' and under 'nas neucre Cyte strewgre 
walled ymad with mawnis howdes.' 

2 over ' J?e ryuer ys red & raply rend.' 
3 3 over 'ys peryllows >at.' 



CHARLES APPROVES OF RICHARD'S PLAN TO TAKE MANTR1BLE. 135 

He ys * a Sarsyn of wo?ider gret strengf e, 1 xv. fet he 2 hauef in lengf e, 2 

& ys as blak so pych : 
NQ saw y neuere non hym lyke, He seme]) ful wel f e deuels chyke, 

y-sprong of Y pyt of helle. 4332 

Alwey he hauej) on ys bay lye x. f ousant kny3tes ful hardye, under him 

To don al at ys wille. knights. 

Ac of o f yng, sire, by-f enk f e, 3 f ou passest no^t thar wyf no Charles must 

strengfe, Bote sle3fe helpe far-to. 4336 

For non assaut helpef no3t, f e brigge-warde ys so strong y-wro3t, 

Hit were no3t worf a slo. 
If we schullen pasye that ryuer, 36 mote leue with 3oure power 

On a-buchemerct as y schalsigge : 4340 
In a wode fat ys f er faste by, Half a myle it ys ful ny, 

by-twene him & f e brigge : 
And y schal take f e wey for]? ri3tes, And haue wyf me of 3our kny3tes 

.V. hundred gode y-kudde. 4344 

Ey3t as marchant3 wille we ryde, Wel y-armed an-vnder our gonels Richard 

wyde, & swerdes sherpe y-hudde. P lan 

Jie somers schulle]} by-forn ous gon, Wyj) grete pakkes euerechon, 

As it were marchauwdyse ; 4348 

And we wollef fayre after ryde, As marchauws scholde wM litel pryde, 

And pacye in tys gyse. 
& wan we buj) wyj? such a gynne J>e brigge^ates al wyjj-ynne, 

fan wol y blowe myn horn ; 4352 

J?an come 30 wiih 3our company, And take]? fe brigge with maystry, [leaf 58] 

& ]?e Citee \a\> stent afforn." 
1T " A ! lord," sayde Charlys fan, "fat Eichard ys a noble man, 

god 3yue hym gode chauwce ! 4356 
Ho mi3te our passage betere araye 1 No man f or-sof at my paye, 

by-twyne $is & fraunce. 
Of ys coiwsayl am y apayd : Hit schal be don as he hab sayd, with winch 

Charles is 

Be dere god aln^te," 4360 pleased. 

fan he het on f blowe an horn, And fat host abod be-hynde & forn, 

& logede hem far alny3te. 

l 1 over l myche in wonder strong.' 2 2 over ' ys long. 1 

3 [now] by-^enk \>Q. 



136 EICHARD AND HIS MEN DRESS THEMSELVES AS MERCHANTS. 

The army /~\ Pp<w f e val of Morymond Abydef fat host hoi & sond. 



/~\ 

I I 

\s 



Fayre oppon a grene. 4364 

A-morwe wan f e day was li^t, Charlys comandef fat Query wi^t 

Sone beo y-armed clene. 
in the morn- Wan bay wer y-armed alle at rhtes, Charles het Eichard chuse his 

ing Richard 

picks out 500 kny3tes fat he wolde lede ; 4368 

And Eichard dude as Char[lis] saide & ches.v. hundred, & hem a-raide 

On gonels oppo?i hur wede. 

Hyre sarplers dud he with hay be fild, & bonde hem to hure sadels 

gyld, To keuery hure 1 ryche araye. 4372 

Their arms Hure swerdes durnely so ben y-hid, & ase Marchans fat wern ou?^kyd, 



merchants, charlis take]? wyj) hym his host, And fo^ef after 2 wif-oute bost 

to mantrible-ward ful ri3t. 4376 

fat day $af Eichard or a $ede To duk Eayner f e sterrede stede, 

fat was so god & 



Richard rides 5T Eychard ry^d forf wyf ys kny^tes fat warn arayd after hure ry^tes, 

as marchaws scholde. 4380 



By-fore fe kyng 3 fay prykede fere, 3 Y wol $ow telle now what fay 

were, f e gretteste of fay bolde. 

with Duire f e furste was Eichard of wham y tel, f e securcde of Nauntes f e duk 
Rayner, and Howel, Duk Eayner b e bridde was; 4384 

Raoul of 

Amiens. ^ f ur jj e W as Eaol of Mans f f e stronge ; To seche al fraunce brod & 

longe, A betre kny3t f er nas. 

fuse prykeaf faste forf by-fore, V. hundred kny3tis in al fay wore, 

Hure somers lefte fay no3t. 4388 

[leaf 58, back] [fat fay ne dryue by-forn hem euerechon] 4 

Each drives fat ech of hem ne drof forf on, With pakkes y-charged euerechon, 

Wyf harneys y-fillid 



Now Agolafre beo hym wel y-war, Bote he kepe him f e betre far, 

At f e entree of f e brigge. 4392 

For f e trew fat he wol craue, An yuel torn tyd f e haue, 

Myn hed f er-to y legge. 

IT f ys kny3tes prikeaf forf on hure way, f e somers f ei dryue be-forn 
hem ay, & vaste forf fay wente, 4396 

1 To keuery [Jjat]. 2 after [hem]. 

3 3 [>an] prykede [)?ay] f?ere. 4 Crossed through. 



THEY ABE FRIGHTENED AT THE SIGHT OF THE RIVER. 137 

And beren f e pakkes on hure rig, Til fay come euene to f e bryg, 

nowar fay ne astente. 
And Charlis YS to be wode y-come, And enbuschede??^ 1 bar with ys Charles 

J places 100,000 

trome, An hiwdred f ousarit kni^tes. 4400 



f e of re were ate brigge fan & by-hulde how f e ryuer ran, 

And of re ferly sy^tes. 

IF And wan fay hadden al be-holde, f e sturne Ryuer, & f e brigge 
bolde, & f e toures fat stode oppon : 4404 

fey sayde fat terme of al hur age, ne hurde fay neuere of no passage, some arc 

So grysly to lokye on. S 

Saide Eichard " fat is sof , Ac loke on f e medwe war Sarsynj gof , 

A fousant 2 fer buf 2 & mo, 4408 

Wei y-armed on f e beste assyse, Hure pwrpos y can no3t deuyse, 

Ne wat fay f enkf do." 
IT fan saide howel " f ys ys hard, Parfay ich am ful sore affard, 

god of heuene ous lede ! " 4412 

" Lordes," quaf Eyfchard], " buf no3t agast, Ac holdef forf ^our way but are 

an hast, & boldelich dof ^our dede : fe y Riciiard, 

And wan we comef to f e brigge-gate, Hwat so fay beo fat buf f er-ate, 

Dof as y schal sayne. 4416 

Holdef 3ow stille, and spekef no^t, but letef me telle as y ha f o^t, who tells 



What so fay speke agayne. 
And 3if we mowe pacye so, f e dra3t-brigge & f e 3eates two, 

fan ys tyme to flyte. 4420 

f MI Castef 3our gonels 3 of anon, & drawe we to our wepnes euerechon. 

& let se ho can smyte." 
IT Eaol Delamans sayde fan : " Muche maugre mote he han, 

fat any of hem spare." 4424 

With fat fay gunne 4 hem for-to haste, And dryue forth f e somers faste [leaf 59] 

They arrive 

Ouer fe brygge thare. at the bridge. 

IT Agalofre, fe voule gome, Ful wel of-se3 f^s kny3tes come, 

Wyf hure somers fayre. 4428 

Out of f e tour fan cam he dourc, And set hym on an hey3 perouw, Agoiafre 

descends 

y-mad as a cnayre. from the 

tower. 

1 enbuschedew. [hew]. 2 2 [Sarsyns.] 

3 Caste)? 3our gonels [fa/me] . 4 MB. gunme. 



138 RICHARD TELLS THE BRIDGE- WARDEN THEY ARE MERCHANTS GOING TO BALAN. 

An Axe had he fan an-honde, A shrewedere 1 wepene for-to fonde, 

Was neuere non yfouwde. 4432 

Three fet of brede was f e blad, Of style y-tempred ful.wel y-inad, 

f e hylue wyf yre y-bou?ide. 
He is a be Sarsyn was an hudous man, By-twyne ys to browen was a span 

hideous man r 

largeliche of brede ; 4436 

with great Ys browes were bofe lowe and grete, & ys nose cammus, ys eaene 

eyebrows and 

deep-set eyes. depe, & glystryd as f e glede. 

Suf f e ])Q werlde furst by-gan, Nas neuer 3ut so lodly man, 

y-mad of flehs & felle. 4440 

He seems a "Was he nost a godes lielf 2 be deuel he semede al hym-self, 

devil come 

straight from y come J> r ^t ' of helle. 

f e Amyral hadde y-loued hym long, For he was so wonderly strong, 

And do}ty f er-to of dede. 4444 

Constable he mad hi?^ of ys lond, And tok hym f e briggewarde an 

hond, For al men schold hym drede. 

IT God sane f e crystene company ! Wan fay come f e Sarsyn ny 

Ey [chard] rod by-fore : 4448 

fan Agolafre stert vp-on ys fet, And askede of Ey [chard] al so ket, 

Wyder-ward Ipai fay 3 wore : 
Agolafre " & weben art bou f bov ladde prout 1 And wyderward schal Ipis grete 

demands 

b he in ss rou * of Somers wif f e ware? 4452 

And wawne buj) faye pat comej) 'her ryde, On he^e stedes & gonels 

wyde 1 Tel me what fay are." 

Richard tells ^[ Eyfchard] ansuerede be proute Sarsyn, On Arragoimneys speche god 



him they are 

cloth 

merchants, 



cloth & fy n . And saide, "we bnb Marchau??,d ; 4456 

; 



on their way Qf drapreye we ledej) gret fuysouw, And wollef fer-wyf to Agremouw, 

to f e Amyral of ])is lauwd. 
He penkf hold an huge ryot, Of Mahoim, & iubiter, & Margot, 

Wyf-inne ]>is forteni^t. 44GO 

[leaf 59, back] And clofye he fenkef ys barou?zs fre, For f e loue of oure godes thre, 

fat buf ful myche of my3te. 

And we han her scarletes & grene, & clof es of tarse, & of sulk ful 
schene, & clof es eke of golde. 4464 

1 MS. sherwedere. 2 a godes [of godes] helf. 3 ward [he]. 



THE BRIDGE- WARDEN DEMANDS TO SEE THEIR FACES. 139 

On al paynee bup rycchere non pan we han her & pat god won, 

bygge hem he so wolde. 
Of such chaffar as we haue, So pat we mowe come saue, 

fro heraie to pe Amyrel, 4468 

pa?me schal he on pe beste chuse, And po^ we a-boute hym schullen 

luse, he schal haue ys del. 

Tel me, sire, 1 perfor now, Of pys passage what ys pe trow, JSiiuofi has 

And how we mo3e ous quyte." 4472 to be ^ aid - 
Agolofre ansuerede hym agayn : " Of pys brigge y am wardayn, 

& TQceuour of myche & lyte : 
Ac her passede wyp-inne a wyle, Crystene men pat 2 dude me gyle, 

pat come fram Char[lis] kyng ; 4476 
To pe Amyral pay wente . on god aray, My trew pay sayde pay wolde CL 

pay At hure a3en comyng. 

pay schullep beo an-honge 3 on helle, For pay be-trayede pan Amerelle, 

& dryuen him of ys tour ; 4480 

And holdep hym 3ute a3en pe ri3t, & ys do3tre eke, a burde bry3t, 

And dop him deshonour. 
And now hap pe A[meral] by-leyn hem per, With an huwdred pousand ^? e a ^ e d n b ow 

of Sar3yns fier, Sherpe men at nede : 4484 the Erair > 

Ac on of hem pys 3under day, Ase a pef her be stal away, b " a n d had 

Oppon a noble stede. 
My Cosyn a-slow, a man of mod, And tok ys stede sur & god, 

And passede p e ryuere. 4488 

pe deuel him halp pat he nas dreynt ! By-f or pat was neuere non so Devil take 

queynt, pat passedera on pat manere. 

Wolde it, Mahout and ternagan, pat he were her pe same man ! 

ys blod scholde sone a-kele : 4492 

Wip myn axe y wolde f 3yue him on, And to-cleue hym por3 flechs [leaf GO] 

& bon, Dour* ri3t to pe hele. 

And now is pe A[myral] sore afry3t, For pe doynge of pilke kny3t, 

pat passed po pes ende, 4496 

Leste he go to pe Emperour, & brynge hym hyder to socour, 

Hym & hys to schende. 

1 me [luue] sire. 2 men [seuene] \>ai. * an-honge (jute]. 



140 EICHARD AND THREE OTHERS PRESS ON TO THE BRIDGE. 

And the Emir Whar-for he sente me er pan, pat y ne lete her no man 

Sr' Pacy J-ys P^sage, 4500 

Were he erld oper baroun, Bote if y se^e ys faciouw, 

Oper knewe him by vysage : 

Richard must & J jar - for schawe me pyn anon." "Gladly," quap Richard, "so mot y 
'wmSy 1 ,' 6 ' g n > haue pou none doute. 4504 

1 What do 36 felawes 1 comep neer & $our vysages schewyep heer, 

euerechone aboute." 

"With pat Richard preynte ys 636, Oppon ys feleschip pat was him 
ne^e, Hure pwrpos to by-gynne. 4508 

n 7 m ne y3 e f> ne er, So dude Howel, Roal, and Reyner 

f e dra3tbrigge ride mtfc-ynne. 
11 Wan Agopafre] hit 863 he sayde wM cry : " Drawef 3ow abak, 30 
do]? foly, ofer 36 schulla}) a-bigge. 4512 



rsdSesthe ^ W ^ n ^ ^ GI P aSS ^ e ^ 6r n m -" ^ ne to f 6 cne j ne Sterte he 



drawbridge, & vp a( J row J,e 

IF Now buf Jjay foure wM-inne ther ; Wit7-outen houede fe somer, 

& al hure 1 coinpanee. 4516 

Agolafre com forf wijj ys hache : "Ribaux," saide he, " ich 3ow attache, 
and calls on A^eld aow anow to me. 

them to 

surrender. Ho made 3ow so hardy men, J?e dra3tbrigge for-to come wy])-yn, 

& pe 3eates bothe, 4520 

Bot it were at myn assent 1 Jxsr-for to prysouw 36 schulle be send, 

NQ beo 3ow no3t so lope. 
& pay wyp-oute schulle be dede ; For 3our f olye pat ys hure mede, 

Or ich euere reste. 4524 

[leaf eo, back] And on pe morwenyng y wil 3ov 2 sende To Amyral balan pat ys my 

frende, to don with 3ou is beste. 

Dop of 3our govnes ech man a-sonder, & y wil se 3our wede an vnder, 

As Mafhoun] me helpe & rede. 4528 
Me semep 30 bup wel ful of wyles, And habbep by-po^t 3ow of sum 

gyles, to do sum wikked dede." 

He seizes To howel he sterte him pan w^ mod, & tok hym faste by 3 pe hod, 

per nas non oper bote ; 4532 

1 & [pat oper]. 2 [morpyng y schal 30 w.] 3 faste [panne]. 



RAOUL STRIKES AT THE WARDEN, BUT FAILS TO INJURE HIM. 141 

Bote thre syf es a bar hym fa/me aboute And al is liod to-taar to cloute, 

& cast hym to ys fote. 

1T " Certis," quaf Koald, " y sofFry to long, To se my cosyn haue f ys 
wrong, So mot y f e & fryue ! " 4536 

Hasteliche he adrow ys swerd, And agolofre on be heued a gerd, Raoui 

smites him 

As harde as he may dryue : on the head - 

Ac for fat strok had he non ho^e For he was fanne to-be-to^e 

body & heued y-same 4540 

With an hard crested serpentis fel, On which non eged tol ne may 

no del With no strok entame. 

IF Hure gonels bey cast of ban ecchon. & adrewe hure swerdes with They ail 

throw off 

fat anon raplych at o route : 4544 their cloaks 

And fan fay laid on fat foule wy^t Sturne strokes with al hure my^t, and attack 

In tal ys body aboute. 
Ac al hure strokes ne greu-ede him no}t, f e serpents skyn was so harde 

y-wro^t, fat no man my^t hit pers. 4548 

[fan hadde fay f erof wonder gret 1 ] 
& fa^ 2 fay awondrede of him ecchon, fat for al fe strokes fat fay 

gerde on, fat hym nas nost f e wers. 

^[ Agolafre ful egre gan 3 to waxe, & wel anhej he heuede ys axe, 4 Agoiafreaims 

at Raoulwitli 

& 5 to Eoal a smot with 5 mayne : 4552 his axe, but 

Ac he failede of ys stroke, & f e axe ful on a stilp of oke, misses Mm, 

fat bar 6 vp ther a chayne 6 ; 

be strok was so herd yset. bat borw bat treo & be cheyne gret. and cuts 

through one 

vj. fold y-layd a-boute, 4556 ;};; jjgj 

As Ii3tliche as hit had ibeo wax, ran f e strok f arcne. of ys ax 

Chayne & tie f or^oute. 7 
1T " A lord," sayde Eeyner fan, " fys ys a deuyl and no man, [leaf 01] 

Certis as y leue : 4560 

Ho scholde a-stonde ys sory strok, W&n he smyt her f or^ an ok, 

& no strok may him greue 1 " 

1 crossed through. z [Greteliche] . 3 [>an] gan. 

4 over 'to Ro[al] agerte with ys axe.' 5 ~ 5 over 'stroke wit/A al ys.' 

6 6 over ' an yre chayn.' 
7 Added in the mar y in : 

Wit/4 Jns on ys 0)7 re side he say A gret bar of yre. 



142 RICHARD BLOWS HIS HORN AND CHARLES COMES UP TO HIS ASSISTANCE. 

With bat 1 be-huld he faste bye, 1 A gret barre of yre sa^ lie lye, 2 

ne3 liym bar be-syde. 3 4564 

Rayner seizes Eevner bo 4 putte vp 4 hys broiid, And tok vp be barre with boben 

a great bar of 

iron ys 5 hond, & wente til hym bat tyde 

and knocks & gerd hy?# ber-Wyf 6 on be molde, bat ys legges gimne to volde, 

& bursten euene atwo. 4568 

The bridge bat deablet ful with bat strok 7 So harde bat al be brigge schok, 8 

quakes with 

hisfa11 - And b e ryuer dude al-so. 

1F Wei sone 9 was bys y-knowed wyde, 9 10 & be Sar^yns armede hem 

on emery syde, 10 Bobe with scharp & hard 11 ; 4572 

More than & wybinne a wyle ber wer y-dy^t, Mo ban ten bousant 12 of Sar^yns 

sacens W y^is fc (J rowe nem byderward. 

Richard IF Eychard tok barcne ys horn & blew, & CharQisl y-hurd hit & wel 

sounds the . 

chai a ies r y-knew b e auercture bat was bef alle : 4576 

whose men Of ys enbuschyment bara brak he out, And cryede " montioye ! " al 

break out of 

the ambush. aloud, & sone bai come out alle. 

Sone was ech man on ys stede, And prykede vaste to bat nede, 

be ri^t way as bay nome. 4580 

Richard lets Ri [chard] be brigge let falle ban adouw, 13 And hys falawes 14 beb entrede 

euerech one, 14 or bat gret host hym come. 

II J>an come be Sara^yns of be Citee route, And bo^te wyb force 
dryuen hem oute, & be brigge a^en vp-drawe : 4584 

Ac bay wyb-stode hem al wyb strengbe, And reculede hem bar an 

acres lengbe, & many bay habbeb aslawe. 

IF Wan 15 Charlys to be brigge ys 16 come, Wyb ys hoi host al and 
some, be brigge bay toke a-rank. 4588 

bat day Gweynes bar hym wel, And ys kynnesmen, swykel and fel, 

17 Of Char[lis] 17 to gete hem banke. 
fay were be furste men of my3t, bat potte be Sara3yns to be fly^t, 

Al jjo^ bay kome late. 18 4592 

l l over l lokede he vp a-syde J?aar.' 

2 over * & saw J?ar liggeng an yre wro^te (?) bar.' 3 over 'a gret on & oimryde. 
4 4 over 'dude yn.' 5 ys added. 6 [Wj^J? J?e barre a smot hi?;t.] 

7 ful [douw at J?at dra^te]. 8 brigge [qua^te]. 

9 9 over ' pe tydyng gan to sprynge.' I0 10 over ' In-to Cyte of J?ys doynggc. 

11 ever ' Touchyng f>e briggward.' la 12 [in armys bry^t.] 

13 [By }>at let Ry [chard] J?e brigge falle.] 

14 - 14 [entrede euery manes buj? alle.] 15 [By J>at], and [Now ys]. 

16 r-y-^ i7_i7 [for]. 18 crossed ' So harde )?ay gunne say le.' 






CHARLES KILLS THE GIANT, AND THE BRIDGE IS TAKEN. 143 

To fe Cite 3eate fey chacedem ri^t, Ac f er *f ey tornde & 1 3af hym fy^t, The Saracens 

A litel by-fore fe 3eate. tL^SL * 

[Ey3t to fe dra3t-brigge fat lay far-ate 2 ] 
IT Charlys 3 gan fi3te fo 3 wyf egre mod, And Gweynes al-so fat bi [leafei, bk] 

him stod, And sk>3e fe 4 Sarsyws kete. 4596 

fat day schewede fat traytour To Charpis] ys lord ful muche honour, 

for neuere a nolde hym lete. 
U Charpis] lokedem be-hynde ys bak 1 , And saw dele far many a knak, Charles finds 

& myche noyse make. 4600 ^^ re- 

covered, 

To fat doynge fan tornde he, What yt was he wolde y-se, 

& f yderward he gan take, 
fan was Agolafre no3t ded f e 3et, Ac on his knes he hadde him set, 

For his legges nere no3t sonde, 4604 
& had 5 wyb ys axe a-slawe An hep qf frenschemen bat leye arawe, and with his 

Jy J axe has killed 

Afforn hym on be gronde. ?u nu ^ lber u of 

* the French. 

H Char[lis] was wrof and angry so 6 , Wan he 863 what he had do, 

& f o$te on fis manere : 4608 

" My3te f ys fend aryse and go, Muche sorwe wolde he do 

Among 7 my mayne here 7 ;" 

"With bat Charflisl 8 to hym wond. And gurd him a strok wyb ys He strikes 

1 him with his 

brond, & on fe heued mm sette. 4612 sword, 

Ac for fat strok had he no dere, For 110 strok rny^t hym percy fere, but cannot 

9 fat sory skyn 9 dude him lette : 
11 And ban was CharFlis] wonder grym, And aseyn hym rewneb, & then he stabs 

him between 

stokef hym By-twene ys browes rowe : 4616 tiio eyes, and 

fan ran fat swerd in-to ys brayn, And whan he hauef him so a-slayn throws him 

into the 

to f e ryuer was he f rowe. river. 

H Now ys Agolafre 10 ded, & Charpis] twrnef a3e fe hed, 

& 3ede far he was aar. 4620 

Alle f e Sar3yns fat he wyf mette, Bytere & sore he hym grette, 

& for3 thar 11 body hem bar. 
f e paynymes fat were oppon f e brigge, far me im^te y-sen hem lygge, 

bledynge at an hepe ; 4624 

' ' [j?e Sara^yns.] 2 crossed through. 3 3 [fau^t |?anne.] 

4 MS. slo^e \>Q slo^e f?e. s & had [he]. 6 bo (?) Altered from bo to so? 

- 7 [ous \xxt buj? here.] 8 Char[lis] [Jjawne.] 9 - 9 [^e serpente]. 

10 Agolafre [J?e wardeyn]. " )?or^ [out] hur. 



144 CHARLES BESIEGES MANTRIBLE FOR TWO DATS. 

Summe were clone in-to f e tonge, And somme were styked f or} lyuro 

& longe, And many wer oner y-lepe : 

The Saracens Sone was voydede f e brigge fere Of alle f e of re fat lyues were, 
oit y- to f e citee faye guTzne flee : 4628 

f e }eates wern opened a^en hem wyde, & fay flo^e in f & nold no^t 

a-byde, & sperede he[m] faste a^ee. 

[ieafc2] [Bofe brigge and baly in-to fe touw-^eate, Now buf fay comen alle 

fer-ate 1 ] 
Charles 5F Charlys be Citee bo gan asayle, Two dawes hole wyb-oute fayle, 

besieges the 

dty tor two Wyf al ys grete route : 4632 

And fay wyf-inne defended hem wel, Wyf schutynge & castyng of 

stones fel, Many fay slowe wi't/z-oute. 

IT Sone . was . al f e contree war, xl. Myle 2 aboute thar, 

fat Mantrible be-seged was, 4636 

s.iracens & f e brygge conquered fat was stout : Sar^yn} f yder-ward fan giume 

rout, to helpe hem in fat cas. 

Ere to dawes ful ended ware Fyfty fousant Sar^yns 3 come tliare, 

And entrede in fat Citee. 4640 

Bot if god helpe now Charlemouw, "Wel late passef he f or} fat toun, 

To helpe ys barourcs fre. 
Round the And nowar myjte he passe be-syde, For be roche was hea an hundred 

city the rocks J:> 

are^ioo yards stryde, Stondyng by f e reuer, 4644 

And anclosed fat side so stronge & he^e, fat bute it were for f e foul 

fat fle3e, Passage was non saf f er. 

[1T fe Sar^ynen power gan waxe gret 4 ] 
And f e walles were of Marbreston, Wyf pykes of yre y-set f er-on, 

oppon fe crest ful fykke. 4648 

Muche was f e noise & fat cry fat f o was maked in fat Cyty, 

Among f e Sar^yns wykke. 
A great giant 5F fan was far a geant ful of pryde, And opeiiede f e water-gate wyde, 

named 



Ys name was enfachou^ : 46,52 

comes out, 

32 a A mayl of Ire he bar an honde, Ther-wyf fo^te he farcne to fowde 

The frensche to dynge adou?z. 

8 feet long, fat heued f er-offen was wonder gret, & f e hilues lengf e was viij fet 

of fat stwrne staue. 4656 

1 crossed through. * myle [amyle]. 3 [>er] come thare. 

4 crossed through. 



CHARLES SLAYS ENFACHOUN ; AND THE SARACENS ARE DRIVEN INTO THE CITY. 145 

Ys wyf was lyggynge on chylbedde For two chyldren pat sche po hedde His 2 

Wyp-inne per-on a kaue. 

pey were no^t pe ^ut four mo[n]pes old, [A]c seue fet of lengpe hur not 4 months 
ayper was told, & pre enchen more : 4660 gf h 3 inohes 

& twey large fet wyp-oute drede, Wei y-mete & more on brede, 

bope pe childrene wore. 
Amyote hure damme, a geautesse, Had y-kept hem wij) busynesse, [leaf 02, bk] 

Algate in-to pat day : 4664 

A lodluker damme pan sche was on, of hide & hywe, of fleche & bon, 

neuere no man ne y-say. 

1F Enfachowi ys to pe }eate y-come, And hauep pat mayl an-honde 
y-nome, & at pe barers he hym sette : 4668 

And sayde, "ChaiTlis], pou olde wrecche, Woldest pov oure relyqes Enfachoun 

threatens 

fecche 1 By Mohouw y wol p e lette : charie. 

And bote pou pe rathere beo agon, pou schelt beo ded & pat Anon, 

Her ri3t pou schalt baslawe. 4672 

And if Fyrumbras may beo taan, pat ilke false reneyed man, 

He worp honged & drawe." 
IT pan laid he on wyp my^t & mayn, And slow al pat hym com agayn, 

With pat mayl quarree. 4676 

Or Charlis tok o}t myche kepe, Of frenschemen had he slawe an hepe, 

pat tilde vp til ys knee : 
pawne come pe Sa^yn^ out And defendede p e barres al about, 

& smyte strokes ourayde, 4680 

& ^yue pe frensche hard batail Ful many par were wtt/i-oute fail ; 

A-slawe on ayper syde. 
^[ Charlys pawne of ys stede ali^te, & ioyous ys swerd out he twy^te, 



dismounts, 

& to pe geant sterte, 4684 

And smot hym an-hej on pe pan, pat wip pe dynt pat swerd him ran and cleaves 

the giant's 

Douft ry^t por^ ys herte ; iku11 - 

pe geant fel to grounde an haste, pan were pe Sara3yns sore agaste 

& lefte pe barrers clene, 4688 

& to pe ^eate paw pay wende, And hure 3eate guraie defende, The saraoens 

Wyp launces & gleues kene. 
IT be power of hem enpayrede faste, & b e frensche to bam shute 1 & C 1 award 

erased here.'] 

caste, & rebuked hem foule wM-ynne. 4692 

FERUMBRAS. L 



146 CHARLES AND FOUR OF HIS KNIGHTS ARE SHUT IN IN THE CITY. 



Four French 
knights drive 
them from 
the gate, 



but are 
themselves 
shut in 



[leaf 63] 
and sur- 
rounded. 



Charles is 
almost in 
ir, 



but Richard 
cheers him. 



Charles fights 
fiercely. 



pan cryede pe kyng wel an he] : " now helpep lordes, for we bup nej, 

our p?/.rpos her to wynne." 

IF Wawne kyng Char[lis] had y-cryed so, Ey chard and Eeyner & 
tweyne mo, Roald was on per-ate, 4696 

& pe furthe was p e duk Howelle, pat po reculede pe Sarsyns felle, 

A gret way fro pe ^eate. 

IT Now habbep pai y-dryue hem in wyp strengpe Wyp-inne pe 3eate 

an acres lengpe y p e kyng & pys barorcs foure. 4700 

bot god now helpe pis lordes fyue In gret drede bu)> pay of hure lyue, 

fi's lordes of honoure; 
For pay were be-set a-boute 1 With thre pousant at o route, 

fy}tyng men ful gode 2 ; 4704 

And an hundred to p e ^eate ]?an were y-di^t To schutten it faste bote 

pay ne my^t, So hard J> e frenche w^t/z-stode. 3 

Ful myche was fawne'to done J?ere or fay mo^te fe barre arere, 

|)e 3ate to make faste. 4708 

Ac Ate laste 4 wy]) myche wo, fe ^eate )?ay 5 closede & barred hit Jjo, 5 

& pan Char[lis] wax agaste. 

11 To god kyng Char[lis] pmyde ]?o, Scholde hy??i saue . & his felawes 

al-so fram combryment of ]?o f elouws, 4712 

& sende hym grace fayre to ascape, To do J>e viage ]>at [he] ha]j schape 

On helpynge of his barons. 

IT Wan duk Rychard y-herde hys fare : " Sir Emperour," said he, " lef 
]?y care, & tak ]?yn herte to J?e : 4716 

We buj? now her foule be-sterte, Bote if we ben fe betere of 6 herte, 

We buj? bot ded for sojje. 
^T Teche we now wat men we ben, For wel 36 see]) we mo^e no^t flen : 

^eld ous we mote or fi^te. 4720 

& ho-so \is day let take him quycke, In helle habbe he pynes wycke, 

Ay per to brenne li^te." 
1F pat confort dude Charlis god, & gan to fi^te as he were wod, 

& sone hap sleyn a hundred, 4724 

So dude pe foure as men of mod, Nas no Sarsyn pat hymen a-stod, 

pat nas to-hewe asounder. 

1 [al] a-boute. 2 [>at schute til hymen & caste]. 3 [it praste'J. 

4 Ate laste [no^eles]. 5 ~ 5 'barrede & wente per fro.' 

6 ben [of] J?e betere. 



ALORY8 PROPOSES TO GWENYLON TO LEAVE CHARLES TO HIS FATE. 147 

IT " Montioye ! " pan Chaiiis gan to crye With ys voys wel an hye, He utters uis 

pat al men mi^te yt here. 4728 

Gweynes wzt/*-oute y-herde pat cry, And of ys lord pan tok pyty, winch ^ 

Ys treytour 03 a were, hears 

& hasteliche he^ede lie him to pe ^eate } Ys kynrede him fo^ede & 
stode per-ate, A pousand ate leste ; 4732 

Wel harde pat $at pay gurme assayle, And pay wip-inne 'with-ont& and attacks 

fayle, defended 1 hem in p e beste, 

And cast out trees & stones wikke, & pay fulle on hur heuedes 
pikke 2 , & dust hew to pe erpe adourc. 4736 

Wan Alorys pe traytour pat y-see$ Anger ^eode ys herte ne^, 

And sayde to Gwenelourc : 
" Cosyn we dop gret folye her, To lete ous slen in pys maner, Deaf 63, bk] 

A-niong our fon ou^wreste; 4740 

IT And per-for y rede go we hen, & tak we wyp ous our kynnesmen, Alorys pro- 

& let pe othre don hur beste. retire 

Our kyng ys now wzt/i-inne pe walle, And Eeyner of genyue, pat and leave 
yuel hi?rc falle ! & al pat 3 falerede. 4744 "** 

Now schulle we of hymen haue vengeaurcce, Ne comep pay neuere no 

more in fraunce, bote par pay schulle be dede. 

& beo we delyuerd of hymen pus, y wot ful wel, be swete iesus, 

of pe opre we bup awreke, 4748 

pat liggep at Egremoyne on pe tour ; for sorwe her-of and dolour 

hure hertes wollep breke ; 
& pan mowe we wyp-oute distauwce Habben al pe realme of fraunce 

At oure comaundyment." 4752 

" Godes for-bode " Gweynes sede, "bat ich assentede to such a dede, 'God forbid/ 

' ' says 

To don hym such traysement ; Gwnyion. 

for parcne wer y wers pan any qued, If ich assentede to oure kynges 

ded, Whar pat y n^t hym saue. 4 4756 

for Of hym we holdep al our fees, We mote hym helpe in werre & 

pees, 5 Wit/i pe power pat we haue. 5 " 

IF l< Certis," said Alorys, " bow dost no^ftl wel, Bote if bou do as y be Alorys tries 

to persuade ; 

tel, & herkne penchesoun : 4760 him 

' [&] defended. 2 MS. )>ilke. 3 over l >ay.' 4 [f^at ys my lord in lend]. 

5 [On al J>yng \>a,t ] 

L 2 



148 THE FRENCH BEGIN TO GIVE WAY, BUT ARE RALLIED BY FERUMBRAS. 



but Gweny- 
lon refuses. 



If Cliarpis] J be now Jjar 1 a-slawe, fe othre ]?a?me y-worfe be don of 

dawe, fat liggej) at Egryinou?z ; 

& Jjawne bu}> our enymys 2 alle dede 2 : & jjar-for lef J>ys assaut y-rede, 

& twne we a3en to fraunce," 4764 
" y wil no3t," quaj? Gweynes, " be seynt Rycher, y wol hym helpe by 



my power, 



As god me 3yue god chaimce. 



As lef me were my lied for-go, As in Jjys cas to fondye hy?7i fro, 

to wha?^ we buj? y-swore." 4768 

Alorys ys s herte ne$ brak atwo Wa?zne Guenelou?i had ansuerede 

him so, So wo him was ]?ar-fore. 

J>e kynnerede of hem to-gadres go]?, And euerech to ojjerward waxe]> 
wrojj, & made disturbaunce. 4772 

The French Wawne ]?e frensche y-se3e fys, J?e sege J>ey lefte al clene y-wys 

hure fol distaimce. 



Ferumbras 
with 



rallies the 
French, . 



and they 
force their 
way into the 
city. 



Then the 
traitors join 
them. 



IT Wan sir Fyrumbras y saw J?at cas 

(A leaf being lost here from the Ashmole MS. the missing lines 
are supplied as before from the original French, II. 5006 5068.) 



[Atant es Fierabras, qui f u moult bien armes ; 
A hautes vois escrie : * Ou est Karles ales 1 " 
Et respont Aloris : ' Jamais ne le venre's ; 
Enclos est Karlemaines entre ces grans fosses/ 
Et respont Fierabras : ' Et vous ci c'atendes 1 ' 
C'est moult grant mauvaist^ que vous nel secourez ; 
Encore en pores estre de traison retes.' 
II escria : ' Monjoie ! baron, or i venes.* 
Quant Fran9ois Tentendirent, e les ravigores, 
Entresci au berfroi ne s'e sont arest^s : 
La troevent Guenelon, qui moult estoit navre"s. 
Fierabras fu moult lies quant li pons n'est leves. 
A 1'asalir s'est bien il et Guenes prouves, 
Et li autre Fra^ois que il i ot mene's. 
As haces et as mans ont les portaus f remez ; 
E les vous en Mantrible par vive poete"s. 
Quant li traitor voient que prise est la cite"s, 
-i [wyjj-inne now ys]. ^- 2 [ded ecchon]. 



4776 



4780 



4784 



4788 



4792 
3 ys[his]. 






CHARLES SLAYS AMYOTE, THE GIANTESS. 149 

Apre"s aus s'en entrerent, les gonfanons love's ; 

Communaument i fierent o les brans aceres. 

Du sane qui 1st des cors i est moult grans li gues. 

Paien orient et "braient et ullent par ces pro's, 4796 

Lors maisonz ont guerpies et lor rices cit4s. 

En plus de .C. parties fu Mahom reclames,. 

Et 1'amirans Balans hucies et regretes : Mantribie 

is tukcn, 

' Sire, c'or venes tost, et si nous secoure's ! ' 4800 

.1. Sarrazins s'en est de .i. grant estour enbles : 

Desci a Aigremore n'est ses regnes tires : 

A 1'Amirant sera cis afaires contes. A messenger 

takes the 

Humais ore's cha^on, s'entendre le vole's. 4804 

Au prendre de Mantribie fu moult grans la mellee ; 

Maint cop i ot donne et de lance et d'espee. 

Quant Amiete oi le cri et la merlee, Amyote, 

. . . the giantess, 

Ivi gist de .11. enfans sous une cneminee, 4808 

(Ce est une gaiande plus noire que pevree ; 

Grant ot la fourceure, et la geule avoit lee, 

Et si avoit de haut une lance levee, 

Les ex avoit plus rouges que n'est flambe ajurnee ; 4812 

Moult est de tout en tout laide et deffiguree). 

De ses enfans se crient, dout ele est effraee ; 

Se gesine avoit f aite, nouvele ert relevee. hearing of 

. her husband's 

Uns Sarrazins li a la nouvelle contee, 4816 death 

Que ses sires ert mors, qui 1'avoit espousee, 

Et li fiers Karlemaines a la ville peuplee. 

Quant Amiote Tot, si est d'ire embrasee ; 

Ele saut de son lit trestoute escevelee ; 4820 seizes a 

Sa crigne li couvroit trestoute Tesquinee. 3 km* 

several of the 

Devant lui esgarda, s'a une fauc trouvee. French. 

Ja, taut com ele ert vive, n'est prinse cele entree ; 

De la gent qu'ele ocist a fait grant aiinee. 4824 

' He ! Diex, dist Karlemaines, sainte Virge honiieree, 

La voi une diable plus noire que pevree. Charles with 

De mes hommes ocist et fait grant lapidee : cros-bow 

kills her. 



150 CHARLES DIVIDES THE TREASURES OF MANTRIBLE AMONGST HIS MEN. 



The French 
enter the 
city. 



[leaf 61] 



Charles 
remains in 
the city two 
days. 



In it he finds 
a large 
treasure, 



which he 
divides 
amongst his 
knights. 



Grant damage i arai se longues a duree. 

Ki a nule arbalestre, tost me soit aportee.' 

Li dus Hoel de Nantes Ten a une livree 

Et Karles 1'a tendue, si 1'a bien avisee ; 

Entre les .ii. sourcis a feru la dervee, 

Que parmi la cervele en est la fleke entre*e. 

La gaiande versa, la fleke est tronchonne'e \ 

Par la geule geta mervelleuse fumee. 

Et Francois ont desus mainte piere gete*e. 

Ains puis n'i ot pasage ne porte deveee, 

Ains s'en entra dedens la compaigne honnere'e.] ! 



4828 



4832 



4836 



NOw haf Charpis] 2 fe citee y-take 2 & sleyra echon 3 bof whit & 
blake 4 , fat 5 noble was & feer. 5 4840 

To dawes soiourned he & two ny^te, fe Citee 6 for to araye & dy^te 6 , 

After ys owe maner. 
Alle fay habbef far-ynne aslawe 7 fat lyued on fe hefene lawe 8 , 

fat fay mo3te of -take 9 : 4844 

Muche was f e tresour fat fay founde fan, of gold & syluer & ryche 

stan, & monaye whyt & blake. 

IF A tour far was of a gret Array, In whych f e Amyral ys tresour lay, 

Gold wyf-oute nombre. 4848 

Char[lis] hit delede wyth ys hond Among ys barons al fat a fond, 

Abo^en erthe and vndre. 

10 To alle men he delde 10 ynow plentee n to euery man after hys degre 11 

12 On fe tonn and there 12 . 4852 

13 & fanne fay so3te fe toura 13 aboute, fay 14 founde fe Caue 15 far- 
witAoute 15 far fe childrene were, 

1 On the top crossed through is : 

In-to ryuer ful JPO J?at qued J?e remaynant of e Sar^yns ded 

Delyured of gret & smal. 

2 - 2 originally <ytake fat Citee.' 3 [& dryuen out alle]. 

4 [WyJ? J?e hilpe of ys baronee] ' >arane reste he J?er & to refresschie his 
barouw.' 55 over ' erst were yn J?e toun.' 

6 - 6 over ' to ri^te in his maner.' 7 over * fan Charlis het to hys route.' 
8 over ' \>Q Citee to pyle al aboute.' 9 over ' & \>Q pylage to hem take/ 

io_io j- A | j, ay hadde], "_n pQ |, e tresour )?at founden hee.'] 

i2_i2 over t * j n . to j, e leste * a knam(?).' l3 - 13 [)?an as >ay wente J?at tour]. 
14 [And]. 15 ~ 15 witA-oute [doute]. 

*_* [he lefte no3t]. 



THE GIANT'S CHILDREN ARE BAPTISED AND NAMED ROLAND AND OLIVER. 151 

Whyche fat o^te f e geauntesse, fat Charflis] aslow in distresse, 

& schet hure f or^ f c molde. 4856 

f e chyldren fat were bof e gret & tou^t, By-fore f e kynge fay were They bring 
y-bro^t, to don with hem what a wolde. focSes 

11 Wan fay come to Charlis syjt, A blessede hym-selue anon ry^t, 

As he to batail scholde ; 4860 

& sayde f anne on ys sawe, He nolde no^t fay were a-slawe, 
. for a somers ohargfe] of golde : 
f e kyng het anon ri3t fan, To an archebisschop fat hi^t Herman, They aro 

y-f oiled fat fay were. 4864 

f o Archebysschop fullede bof e anon, & Eoland f anne he het fat on, ""tier the 

& fat other Olyuere. J |^ 

IF f ys was don on f e monef of May, Wan f e f oules syngef on f e spray, AH tins 

& erbes waxef grene : 4868 

after f e $er . fat our lord was bore, JSTy^en hondred & four score, u 2oth of 

f e twentyf e day y wene. 

fat fe toura of Mant?ible conquerid was, And fe brigge 1 y-wonne 
forwe his 1 gras. & fa/me fe fridde day, 4872 

After fe kyng had take ys reste, 2 Of ys barons clepede he fe beste, [leaf ei, back] 

& f us til hem gan say : 
1T " Lordes, & frendes, what redeb 2ee ? Wham schal y leue 3 bys Citee on the third 

J yj day Charles 

to kepe i of al myn host, 4876 proposes to 

f e whyle y wende on my vyage To socoury myn othre baronage, 

fat lyf on f e ^ondre cost 1 " 
" Sire," quaf Richard, " be seynt Ion, fay buf rewarded ri3t anon, 

Hy fat schullaf duelle. 4880 

Eoald Delamans bat on schal bee, And howel of Nauntes anober vs he, leave Raoui 

' and Hwel at 

Certys by my wylle." 
1T Charflis] sayde, " by god almy^t, f ow it hauest dyuysed ari^t, 

After IRJH owe lykyng. 4884 

f us barourcs buf gode and suffysaurat For-to take such f yng an hant, 

god yue f e his blessyng ! " 
Sayde fay f anne to f e kyng : " If we her schullef beo leuyng, 

more folk moste we haue, 4888 



[al-so Jjorw godes]. J 14 lines added very indistinctly in the margin. 
3 leue [in], 



152 CHARLES WITH HIS ARMY START TO THE RESCUE OF THE DOUZEPERES. 



with 700 
knights and 



all the 
wounded. 



The army 
prepares to 
start; they 

take pro- 
visions, but 



[leaf 65] 



Balan has 
gathered over 
100,000 men 
from 15 
different 
countries. 



of }our baronage & ^our gret power For-to leue wip ous hoer, 

pe Cite for-to saue." 

"3e schul haue," quap Charlemayn. Vij. C. he 1 delyuerede to hem 
payn, Til hem wip-ynne a-stonde. 2 4892 

And eke pe wondede men al-so, To soiourny there wyp hem tho, 

Til 3 pay were hoi & sounde. 3 
IF pe Emperour panne het an haste 4 pat ys host were arayd faste 5 . . 

To 6 wende on ys iornee 6 . 4896 

pan were pe tabours faste y-bete, 7 As pat host him lay in euery strete 8 

of pat faire Citee 9 . 

Hure harneys pay guwne to trossye pan 10 , Barouw, & kny3t, & euery 

man 11 : bote no^t with hem pay nadde 12 4900 

Bot bred, & wyn, & flechs, and oten, per-of pay toke as pay wer hoten, 

god plente per-of pay ladde. 
Ac al hure harneys leuede pay per, Clopys, & pauylourcs, and oper ger, 

And armedem 13 on hure wede. 13 4904 
And fayre pay ryde out of pe toun: Oppora blanchard rod 14 Charloura, 

15 pat was ful god at nede. 15 
H pan Char[lis] gan to loke aboute, And be-holdep'al ys fayre route, 

pat spradde po al pat cost : 4908 

On ys herte god 16 pankep hee, pat sent hym on erthe such postee, 

To gouerny such an host. 
" Glad," hym po^te, " may ich bee, Suppen y haue al pys barnee, 

At my commandyment." 4912 

17 pan pankep he god eft of ys sond, & croycede ys fysage 'with ys hond, 

& rod forp in pat entent. 

NOw hap pe Amyral gadrid ys host On fyftene londes of dyuers 
cost, To C. pousant and mo. 18 4916 



1 vij. C. [kny3tes]. 
3 3 over 'he come a^ene.' 
over 



2 over ' til hew of kny^tes gode & kene.' 
4 over ' Charlis het bio we hys bugle )>en.' 
forto awarny Jjer-wyj? ys men/ 6 ~ 6 over ' remuwe )?an an haste.' 

7 over ' Sone J?an were his homes blowe.' 8 over ' puple he^e & lowe.' 

9 under 'gwme to dbt hem faste' over [Araid hem f or J) ward faste]. 

10 over * For]? ward }?ay diat hem \>o with hete.' 
11 over ' In hure viage smale and gret.' [ladde]. I3 ' 3 [hymen at rijtes]. 

14 [ys stede] and [}>e stede]. I5 15 [Amidde-ward alle ys km'^tes]. 
16 [^ane] god. l7 over '& euere he jjewede to blowe bost, and [Jp&n by-gan he]. 

Til he hadde tydyng.' 
18 over ' to hundred pousant *of Sar^yns wel fytyng ' and (' *of dyu<?rse cost* '). 






BALAN, FURIOUS AT THE CAPTURE OF MANTRIBLE, SMASHES MAHOUN. 153 

And Charlys wyf f e hore berde An hundred f ousant hadde on herde, And diaries 

f anne with hym to go. men> 

Duk Richard f e Auawntwarde ladde, And Reyner of Genyue fat of er 

hadde, As f e kyng it wolde. 4920 

Richard f e contree y-knew ech del, fat host he ledef & gyef hit wel, 

f yderward fat fay scholde 
1F *A Sara^yn fer was & to fe Amerel 1 ys he come & tellef 2 fys 

doynge al & some, & saide on his resoun, 3 4924 

In Mantryble how Charlys haf by guraie Agolafre aslawe and wif 

strengf e y-wowne f e brygge & eke f e toun. 

IT Wan be Amyral y-herde of bat cas Almost for sorwe wod a was, Baian, in a 

rage at the 

& wep gan to crye, 4928 gjjjjjjj 

And sayde, " Mahouw, f ow art myswent, for now am y vndon and 

schent, fou art no3t worf a flye. 

Wyckede god, fou dost amys, Suf f e f ow wilt suffrye fys, 

My worschip to wyf drawe. 4932 

Fyrumbras my sone dude ful wel Wan he for-sok f e euery del, 

f er-of may he beo fawe. 
f ow schalt abye, so mot y go, For f ow woldest consentye to 

to do me fat vylonye." 4936 

An axe a sea afforn hym stonde And tok hur anon on vs honde, smashes his 

idols. 

And gof to f e Maumerye : 

f e ymage of Mahouw y-mad of golde Wif f e axe smot he oppon f e 

molde, fat al fat heued to-flente. 4940 

Sortybran of Combles com wyf f aat, " Let of," sayd he, " fou oundost 

f y stat ; " & of hym f e Axe he herate. 

" Sire," he said, " f ow dost folye, To do Mahouw such vylonye Sortibrant 
Ase fou dadest here ; 4944 reproaches 

For fou hauest y-schent ys face, Do makye hym betere fan a wace, 

& amendem in fat manere." 
Saide f e Amyrel, " me f enkef ille fat he suffref my worschip spille 

in tal fys courctre wyde, 4948 

& suffrede Charflis] f e brigge to pace, Mantrible to take & myn men 
to chace, & to slen hem be euery syde." 

' ' over [ban to hym }>er cam]. 2 [bat] tolde [hym]. 

3 & saide [hym] on his [sawe]. 



154: BALAN REPENTS AND PREPARES FOR ANOTHER ATTACK ON THE TOWER. 

[leaf 65, back] If Sorfcybran sayde to fe Ameral fan : " Hastelyche, syre, let sende a 

Sortibrant 

advises Baian man bat sobe for-to aspye, 4952 

to send a spy 
if 



zk f ow mowe come wyf f yn host, 

& fi3te with he?ft an-hye. 
f arc schal f ov f y worschip gete a^e, And slen f e beste of fat meygne, 

& take fe Empej-our, 4956 

& lete don hym f anne an-honge/ & wyf hym f us f eues stronge 

fat lyggef on f y tour. 
And yf Fyruwbras may be take, fat haf ys fayf & ous for-sake, 

let hym fat bed for-gon. 4960 

& Florippe f y do3tre fat ys ouwkynde, To a stake fan let hure bynde, 

And bren hure farcne anon." 
1T fan fe Amyral hym vnderstod fat ilke consayl f o^t hy??i god, 

& saide it scholde be don. 4964 

Toward Mahourc he humblede hi?ft fan, And after fe conseyl of 

Sortybran An aspye he sent anon. 

Rafter to Xo f Q A[myral] Sortibran f o cam&sede "Let assembly fyn host, y rede, 

attempt on -jnnrJ VIP fnrp TIP tnnr 4-QfiS 

the tower AWHIA UC--LVMG L/O ULJU.I y Trt/uo 

& we schul fonde wyf strengf e & gyne, If we mowe f e tour y-wynne, 

or f aym come socour. 
And if hit 2 fallef so by cas, for} Mapiouns] help . & ys gras 3 , 

fat we mowe hi?^ wynne f 4972 

Or f e comyng of Charlemayn f e traytows f er schulle be sleyn, 

& we be-leue wzt/i-ynne. 
And beo f ov on f y tour a3ee Of Charpis] schalt f ov no3t 3yue a stre, 

for no3t fat he may do." 4976 

" By Ma[houn]," saide he, " f on sayst ful wel, Arcd by f y courcsail do 

y schal, How so it euere go." 

Baian orders ^[ be Ameral het his homes blowe, 4 & barcne wente to armes he^e & 

another ' 

fssauTt lowe, Sarsyn^ & persaunt ; 

& f yder fan fette f e grete engyns Wel two hundred of Sarsyns, 

by heste of f e Amerant. 

A gret saut fay 5 gurcne to make, Surame far schute wyf bo3es of 
brake, & suwme wyf guranes grete ; 4984 

1 [heje] an-honge. 2 [yt] hit. 

\>Q help of Ma[houn] & j>oi3 ys gras]. 4 [J^awne] blowe. 
5 [|?anne] J?ay. 



THE SARACENS MAKE A FIERCE ATTACK ON THE TOWER. 155 

& with f engyns simme caste stones, Mo fan twenty su.m tynie at ones 

n02e OUt at One hepe. The Saracens 

make a 

So harde fay f rewe a^en f e wal fat f e stones percede for^-out al, ^ ch in the 

forty wi't/i-inne a stonde, 4988 

And succh a gappe fay made fer-on fat a cart onlade my3t yn gon, [leaf 66] 

had it beo nee^ f e grouwde. 

1T Ate be wvndewes banne stod Eolond & ys felawes by-syde him on The French 

begin to fear 



eyf er hond, Wei y-armed at o rout ; 4992 

& fay 8636 Sa[r]3yns myne f e wal, Wyf pykoys & howes gret & smal, 

& wern al-most f o^-out. 
f us barouws by-guwne hym f anne to doute, And. casten to-gadre al 

aboute, To kepe hem wyle fay mouw. 4996 

I Stones & trees fan out fay caste & f e Sarsyns fer-wyf quellede vaste, 

& made hem tumbly adou?i 
1F f e Ameral gan to crye fan : " Help now, Mahouw & Ternagan, 

fat buf my godes of my3te ! 5000 

And lordes," a sayde, " now helpef 366, And sone we shullef han god Baian ch*n^ 

entree, As 36 schul sen wyf si3te. the assault< 

3yf we mowe now f e tour conquere 3our worschip 36 wymief & me 
2 for ere To be 3our frend at nede. 5004 

& fay fat dof me f ys deshonoure Hy schullef be an-honged or da3es 
four, & fat schal be hire mede." 

II fay assaillede hem f anne wyf many a gynne, & wyf strengfe fay 

f O3te f e tour y-wynne, of castynge & mynyng eke. 5008 

And faye fat f arto hardy were Laddres to f e walle bere, i S a dders lace 

for al f e dupe deke, Jgjnst the 

And sette f e laddres vp by f e walle fat was so broken & to-f alle, 

As ich 3ou rafer tolde, 5012 

Wyf f e dyntes of f e stones : & far fay gwme gon op at ones 

Two hundred of hem y-tolde ; 

Ac f us lordes defendede hem welle, And huld hem out with strokes 
felle, y~3yue with swerd & launce. 5016 

fan nyst fay no3t what ys f e best for f c Sarsyns wer euere y-lyche 
prest, to dourc hem al greuarcce. 

1 [And caste out stones & heuy trees], crossed through, 
2 [& iny loue]. 



156 FLORIPAS PROPOSES TO BRING OUT THE SACRED RELICS, 

Oliver pro- 1f " What wille we don, my gode f elawes ? " Said Olyuer Jeanne on ys 

SHally. SaW6S > " We bu > n g rete drede : 502 

We bup her felawes tene, pat bup do3ty men & kene, 

to don al mannes dede. 

Wende we out of pys clos, 1 & go we fi^te wyjj our foos, 

3onder out on p e felde. 5024 

[leaf ee, back] More worschip ous ys to daye pare, pan her by-twene pis walles bare 

With deshonowr ous a^elde." 

scale the Cens ^ ^ ^ WQIQ s t3 en V P w yp v yg ur An hundred Sarsyns oppon pe 

walls tour, pat pay ne mi^te no^t flitte. 5028 

par pe wal was broke pay stode affrouwte, And laide to frensche strokes 

rounde, pat hure haberkes ritte. 

Ac pis barons hymen gurcne mete, Wyp scharpe swerdes & axes grete, 

& $euen hem depes worcde ; 5032 

but arc \>er was non of hemen alle bat sone nas fulled dou?^ of be walle, 

thrown down ' 

Ded ri^t to pe gronde. 
IF Florippe, pat fayre mayde of prys, Clepede Neymes for he was wys, 

And Geffray of Lauwgeuyne, 5036 

And Terry of Ardane sche dude also, & to hymen sayde pat burde po : 

" Herknyap, frendes myne : 
Wolle jc lordes," sayde sche, " be ryche relyqes eft-sones y-se, 

advises them ' J r J 

the a Sac?ed f ttt J 3 OW scnew e de O nes - 5040 

KellC8f pe betere y hope $ow may spede, & pe sykerer ben on al ^our dede, 

Hab 36 hem 8636 eft-sones." 

IT " 3ea, for gode," sayde pay pan, " Faire pe falle for alle wyraman 

For py gode profre ! " 5044 

and fetches pawne hure tornde pat mayde bri3t par as pat schryn hym was ful ri3t, 

& tok it out of a cofre : 

and shows v-come sche vs aaen wel sone, & afforn hem ber sche hit hab ou/idone, 

them to the J J ' 

kni g h t 8 - & schewed hymen Aparenly. 5048 

They kneel Wan pe barouws had y-se3en hew alle, On hure knes pay duden falle, 
pray for help. & cryde god mercy. 

1T pat burde bry3t parcne tok "hem out, & knelyng pay kussede alle about 

p e relyqwes with gret honow?* ; 5052 

1 [peryllous] clos. 



THE FRENCH REPEL THE SARACENS WITH THE SACRED RELICS. 157 

& p?-ayede god borw vertue of hem Scliold sauye hem thai fro he]) e 

men, 1 & sende hem sone socour. 

IT And y-herde hure orysouns : b e wyle bay were on deuociouws, 

Sare3yns wer vp a-sty^e, 5056 

Wei two . C. at o trome, & an-hes to b e wyndowes wer y-come, some 200 

Saracens 

& in y-lepe wel ny3e : Salute 

b c tour fay hauede y-take J>o Nadde duk Naymes y-lope hew to, the windows > 

As hit ful borw grace, 5060 

With be releq?^es bat he bo bar Ki3t to wyndowes [b]er bay war, 

& schewede hem on hur face. 
borw b e vertue of bat sy3t be Sarsyns ba/me giwne waxe affri3t, [leaf 67] 

bat abide bay ne durste, 5064 at sight of 

* * J the relics 

Bote fullen a-douw of be walle, & so he3e bay fallen alle, heSffg and 

bat hure bodies al to-burste. 5 e e C es. shed to 

" Lordly nges," quab neymes, "now mowe we knowe, bat bys bub 
crystes relyqes owe, by \is myracle here : 5068 

bat day we seeb bys tresour fyn ne dar ous adrede of no Sarsyn 

to don ous any dere." 

1T bys lordes were banne conforted 2 wel, ne dradde bay nobyng ban 
Amerel ne non of al be hepe j 5072 

For be relyques bat bay haue Hem J?o3te bay were ban al saue, 

Hem-selue fram hew to kepe. 

Duk naymys bys relyqwes custe a3ene, & bitok hern bat mayde [brijt 3 ] Naymes 
& schene, & sche he?w gan vp volde 5076 J^jf * 

On a clob of tarse, ryche & fyn, & sube sche polte he?ra on be schryn, who replaces 

them in the 

& bar hem vp an-holde ; casket. 



And ban sche twrnd a3e ful ry3t, Y-clobed in golde bat schon ful 

To Jws lordes cam sche there, 5080 
And Gyouw tok sche by be myddel ban, & oust hym, & saide, " my 

dure lemman, beo now of gode chere." 

1T At be wyndowes as bay lokede out, 4 be Amyral bat stod among his 

rout. 5 be-hulde hire 6 bat mayde fel. 5084 

Wan he hur saw wel sore hym nuyde, 7 And sone bvderward 8 bus he Baiansees 

Floripas at 

cryde, 8 " Do3tre, y-se be wel ; 

1 MS. for hej^emen men. 2 MS. corforted. 3 crossed through. 

4 [barane lokede bay]. 5 [& by-hulde ban Amyral and al ys rout]. 

6 [So dudeft]. 7 [Wan be Ameral hui-e se} hym gan annuye], 

8 - 8 [he cryde anhye]. 



158 BALAN SEES FLORIPAS AT THE WINDOW AND THREATENS HER. 

Certys y dude gret folye, Wan ich me dude on pe affye 

To kepe my prysouws. 5088 

andTireatens ^ e ^ oue -^v-twene 3 OU schal y breke, And of pe y sclial beo a-wreke 

& of alle Y ^ond glotons : 

For py dede pou schalt beo brent, And pay traytours schullep be schent, 

Demembred lyme & lyp." 5092 

abui p s a him Florippe a sta f on nur h n( i scne tok, & hym a^en hure fader schoke, 
;Ta d ff S at a him. a J^yng hym fan par-wyp. 

11" pe Amyral hys homes let blowe fan, And fe assaut al nywe by-gan, 

Sherply ]?a?ine an-haste. 5096 

Ey^te & fourty Sara^yns Made he go po to fengyns, 

Stones J?er-wyth to caste. 
A^en ]j c tour pay prewe stones, Mo pan twenty flo^e out at ones 

of pen-gyns as we rede : 5100 

Deaf 67, back] Wyp such an ayr fulle pay pan pat of p e tour pay affulde a pan 

The Saracens 

make a tour febeme on len^b e & brede. 

breach 24 feet 

square. ^[ j e barou^s pa?^ne guwne waxe a-gaste, To p e maumerye Eo[land] 
wende an-haste, And Olyuer, and Ogeer, 5104 

& to pe mamettes pay bup a-gon, Of golde y-maked and ryche ston, 

pat was bri3t & cler 

The French With pe ymages grete & pykke Slen pay penkep p e Sar3yns wykke : 
fSgst their Eo[land] tok vp Mahoiw, 5108 

enemies. ^^ Qiy Uer ^jj V p temagan, & Ogier Margot tok vp pan, 

& bere hem to caste adouw. 

IT To hure defense pay bup a-gon, & eue?*ech him dressede to caste anon, 

& eymede parto ymone : 5112 

On pe pyckeste presse pat parcne was pere, pay cast out pe mamettes 

alle yfere, & a-filde perwip hure fone. 

The Emir ^f Wan be AFmvraL] y-saw vs godes to-flend, For sorwe was he ful 

faints at the 

8i s ht - ne$ y-schend, Sykynges a made ynowe : 5116 

And sow3nede, & wep, & ys hondes wrong, " Alas ! " & " welaway ! " 

was ys song, & ful a-doura ofte y-sowe. 

H Sortybrant 1 confortede him pan, 2 And bad hym stonde vp as 
a man, & lete of care and wo. 5120 

1 Sortybrant [of Combles]. 
8 under, partly crossed through; ' J?an hym contorted kyng Sortibran.' 



THE DEVIL, UNDER THE FORM OF MAHOUN, ENCOURAGES BALAN. 15 

Tho 1 was fe assaut y-leuyd clene, for fe Amyral was so fol of tene, The assault 

And ne mijt no3t tendy f er-to. 

"Ay* Mahouw," qua]) fe A[myral] "whar ys fy my3t? Why wolt 
fou suffry fys ounri^t, fat fay dof fe fis 2 day ? 5124 

f yne fon me schendej) & f e al-so, And fou ne takest no kepe f er-to, 

f y mi3te ys al away." 
IT fan hym spak syre Sortybrant : " Wyt fat f e selue, syr Amyrant, 

y schal fe saye why : 5128 

Bred & wyn, & com plentee, & gold, & syluer ha]) he send 3 fe, 

lordlyche to lyue f ar-by ; 
Ac fou hym hauest foule myssayd, Whar-for he ne ys no^t wel apayd, Sortybrant 

of 4 fyng fat he f e y& 5132 jSho is 

And 3ut nast ])ou no3t amended his harm, Of J>at fat pou breke hi??i 

heued & arm 3esterday wyj? a staf : 

Suffre far-fore til ate laste, fat ys malencolye ben apaste, 

fat he berf to fe. 5 5136 

6 fan schal fou 6 haue al fy wille Of hymen fat hauef i-don fe ille, 

& fat fou schalt wel see. 7 " 
IT f e whyle fay speke of f ys matere, Com f e deuel amonges hem there, [leaf 68 j 

On lyknysse of Mahoura fere 8 ; 5140 th/formof" 
& sayde fawne 9 to fe Amerel 9 Wordes fat wern 10 y-her[d] ful wel 10 

to alle fat 11 far were 12 
IT " Balaan, beo now glad & blythe, & tak fyn host to the swythe, Baiantoiead 

his men again 

& assayle a3en fe tour; 5144 to the assault. 

For fay wyf-inne buf ne3 of-f raste : f e tour fou schalt y-wynne an- 

haste, & come to fyn honour." 

fan wax he glad & dude al-so 13 & his homes het he bio we fo 14 Baiandoesso. 

And so fay dude anon. 5148 

An hard assaut f o by-gan, non scherpere y-saw f er neuere man, 

y-mad of flesche & bon. 

11 Hure grete engyns fan fay bende, And grete stones f ar-wyf fay sende 

to f e he3e tour : 5152 

1 On]. 2 >e [nyjt &]. 3 [y-]send. 4 of [al] J>yng. 

5 [& J?an schalt ]pou wel see]. 6 6 [J?at )?ov schalt]. 

7 [What so J?ay eucre be]. 8 [)je] lyknysse of Mahouw. 

9 - 9 [al aloud]. 10 - 10 [y-lust about]. " MS. to alle J>at al )?at. 

12 [to J>e A[merel] in his resoun]. I3 [J>an wax Balant glad ynowe]. 

14 [& het me scholde ys homes bio we]. 



160 THE SARACENS MAKE ANOTHER DESPERATE ASSAULT ON THE TOWER. 



Some try to 
mine the 
walls; others 
bring up 
ladders. 



Some 300 
Saracens 
scale the 
walls, but 



are thrown 
down and 
dashed to 
pieces. 



[leaf 68, back] 



f e 1 walles to-breke, & al to-crusschede, Oueral far f e stones dusschede, 

comynge wiih vygour : 
Mynowrs 2 3ude & mynede fe wal, fe 3 he^e tour to maky hym fal, 

& surame laddres bere, 5156 

& aboute f e wal f e laddres lede. God of heuene f e barou?is spede ! 

In gret peril fan fay were. 
IT f e assaut was huge and perillous, And f e cry oryble and hydous, 

fat fe Sar^yns made. 5160 

Sixtene pieces 4 wer fulled to ground Of fe walles fat er were sond 4 

Wyf stones & slabbes 5 sade. 
Sar3yns on laddres 6 guwne vp ste3e, 6 Wei thre hundred 7 f an an lie^e, 7 

To fe 8 gappes buf fay 8 come, 5164 
& eastern to entry in-to f e tour. Ac f ys barons of gret honour 

A3eyn hem buf ynome ; 

With swerdes & axes scherp y-grounde fay affuldem 9 -with defes 

wonde, far-to were fay bourc 10 : 5168 

Ech on of er fan gan douw falle, & breke hure nekkes to peces smalle, 

So dupe fay fulle adourc. 

1T " Lordes," sayde f awne f e gode Ogyer, " We ne buf bot ten 11 al- 
one heer, to defendye al If is flette : 5172 
Ac of al fraunce her ys f e flour, Do we fat no man in deshonour 

of cowardyse ous mo3e 12 arette. 
By-holdef fys tour, fat er strong was, To-broken ys now in twenty plas, 

wyf gorcnes & cast of gynne. 13 5176 
Ac by hym fat flechs of Marie tok, f e wyle fat lyf syt on my bok, 

ne comef ]>er none w't/i-mne : 

f e whyle y may wylde with myn hond Corteyn my swerd, fat gode 
brond, so Sarsyns 14 schal y 14 so cloute, 5180 

fat a cartful y schal sle me-self ; And. dof 36 al-so on 3oure be-helf, 

& holde we hymen w?'t7z-oute." 
1FEo[land] ys swerd fan gan be-holde, And Olyuer hys fat was so bolde, 

fat bofe blody ware. 5184 

1 Dt] >e. 2 [And f e] Mynowrs, &c. 3 [Of] |>e. 

4 4 [of J?e walle \>Q engynncmrs hadde afilled al] . 
5 [Wy> hure stones]. 6 6 [wern vp a-sto^e]. 7 - 7 [oun y-lo^e]. 

8 8 ' holes were y-.' 9 atfuldem [& jyue]. 

10 over < fay laid \>o on >er helmes rouwde.' n ne bot ten [men]. 

12 [eft]. 13 [& sone ]?ay fewkej? hym wywne]. 14 ~ 14 [vvol y]. 



NAYMES DISCOVERS CHARLES AND HIS ARMY COMING TO THEIR AID. 161 

fan was far non of al f e wacclie fat ys herte ne by-gan to cacche, 

& to fi^te mad hem ^eare. 

By fat were Sara^yns stolen vp al frechs, And wer come inward at 

hard & neychs At a pan fat was broken ; 5188 

Ac f ys lordes hymen potte a-gayn, And habbef hem sone fylled & slayn 

& fat hole a^ayii y-stoken. 
H "A lord," sayde Florippe ban, " Sone worth .ych a lost wowman, Fioripas 

begins to 

Wei ne} fe tour ys take. 5192 lament, 

Wo worth f e tyme he was arerd, Of my deth y am afferd, 

Lordes, for 30111' sake." 
IT Gwy of Borgoygne sayde fan : " Ne say f on so no more, lemman, but is com- 

Y pray f e for fyn honour." 5196 G y- 

" Syre," sche saide, " y drede stronge For we dwellef her so longe, 

& 1 far compf ous no socour. 1 
Y hopede lemrnan, by my lyf, To han y-beo f y weddid wyf, 

& be cristned for fy sake. 5200 

fan scholdest f ow of al f is lond be kyng, And y f y quene, my swete 

fyng, & fy woiidy make." 

Tharwyth sche made a long sykyng, And hadde fan y-falle in sowen- 
yng, Nad olyuer hure vp y-take. 5204 

fan was non fat mornynge nas Wanne fay hurde fat fay re of fas, 

How dulfully sche spake. 
Duk Naymes f o gan loky out, 2 & saw comyng f e grete rout Naymes sees 

of Charl[is] wit/i his host 5208 ^ n Hft^ ith 

On a mou?iteyne wyf grefc bobance; fe baner knew 3 he ful wel of 

. frau?ice fat drowe toward f t cost. 

f " lordlynges," sayde Naymes fan, u blife bef & glade euery man, 

& lustnef god tydynge : 4 5212 

fat host of fraunce y seo her come Ful wel y haue it vndernome, an-i teiis the 

be f e baner fat y seo brynge. 
f e baner ys yborn be-fore f e ferde, & fat host hym cometh afterwerde, 

Al armed on armes bri^te. 5216 

fay spedef faste on hure maner, Wel fayne fay wolde fat fay wer her, [leaf 69] 

yt semef me be sy^te. 

- 1 over ' socotir come)? er non.' 2 [As] Duk Naymes \>Q loky[d] out. 

4 [god tydyrig i wil ^ow schewe] 



FERUMBRA8, 



102 THE SPY REPORTS THE APPROACH OF CHARLES TO BALAN. 

Of fat cost al f e feldes fay buf al fcld vrith spers & scheldes, 

And wyf men of my^te. 5220 

f e Sara^yns schiillef to-morwe haue A earful iornee, as god me sane, 

Longe or come f e ny^te." 
IT fan hur spak 1 ]?at made 3yng 1 : " y f onke god of fys tydyng 2 , 

& marie jjy 3 moder dere 4 ." 5224 

Gwy tok sche be f e middel fan & custe hym f & sayde, " gode le??mian, 

now am ich hoi & fere." 
11 Now buf fys barons alle blythe, & to f e wyndowes fay wente swythe, 

& fyderward gun be-holde. 5228 

Charflis] and ys host come 5 fay se^e, fe baner of france y-bore 

an-he^e, fan waxen hy ful bolde. 

1[ To fe A[merel] fe aspye a3en ys went, 7 0f warn y tolde 7 fat was 
y-sent To aspy en how it ware, 5232 

And tellef hym how fat Charlemayn Wyf ys host hym comef agayn 

With hym to fi^te ^eare. 8 
IT f anne hym askede f e Amerel : " Wyf how many comef f e fauterel 

Wyf f e hore berde 1 " 5236 

with 100,000 " Sir," quaf he, " far buf y-tolde An hondred f ousand of kny^tas bolde 

nicii* 

Comyng on ys ferde." 
sortibrant ^[ Sortybrant sayde, " fer-of no drede, f ow hast f e doble on fy ferede, 



Ay 9 tweyne a3en hem one, 5240 

And fay habbef f e wrong & we f e ri}t ; To-morwe we schulle wyf 

hym fi^t, & discomfytye hymen echone." 

Charles halts />jHarlys rod forth wyf ys host, Til he cam negh^ fe cost, 
the saracen I Thar be Ameral lay : 5244 

camp, 11 J > 

Vy & wanne a saw ys pauyllouns Abide bad he hys barouns, 

No ferf er nolde he fat day. 

The ny3t was come, f e day was gon, f e Emperour him li^t a-douw anon, 

Vnder an Aychs y wene, 5248 

ana they pass jj a t stod fe same playn oppon, fer fat fe Amerel his 10 host lay on, 
under arms. y-loged on a grene. 

' ! [Florippe >e free]. 
2 [^ea '. ihcsu god, now J?ank y thee] . 
3 [ys]. 4 [of^ystydynghere]. 

6 |>au] come. 6 [And] j?e. 7 - 7 [J?at 30 hurde er]. 

"[J>arc]. 9 [euere], 10 [&] his. 






CHARLES HALTS FOR THE NIGHT IN SIGHT OP BALAN's CAMP. 163 

1F Thar herborghede pe kyng & ys barouws, "Wyp-oute tentes oper 
pauyllou?zs, Al pat like ny^te. 5252 

For at Mantrible pay hadde y-laft Tentes, pauyllons, & al pat craft, 

pat per-to scholde be di^te. 1 
1T Ne dude no man par of ys gere, Bot al ny}t leyen y-armed ther [leaf 69, back] 

On armes of god entaile. 5256 

Hure stedes pai fedde wM otes & bred, & hym-self dronke whit wyn 

& red, & eten of hure vytaile. 

IT On pe mor^nyng wan pe day him sprong, Charlis ^eode ys host in the mom- 

among, & het pay scholde^ di^te, 5260 

Bope man & hors on such aray As pay wende at al asay 

beo syker ynow to fi^te ; 
& pan behuld he aboute pe plas, & clepede til him sire Fyrumbras, 

& pus he spak him tille : 5264 

" Fyrumbras, y loue pe for-pan pat pou art bycome a criste-man Charles 

by py gode wille : St." 1 " 

Wolde py fader cristendom take y Wolde him kepe for py sake, 



lost-les on euery syde : 5268 sengers win 

be over- 

Harm ne schold he haue non, On body ne catel, by seynt ion, looked, 

for al pe worlde wyde, 

Notheles he hauep y-do me wrong, My messagers i-holde in prysouw 
strong, pat y sent hym yore ; 5272 

Eo[land] and othere pat bup me luf ; & po$ y now do hym gref, 

Beo no3t wrop perfore." 

1T panne hym ansuerede Sir Fyrumbras : " Send to my fader in pys 
cas, Ys wille to wyte & knowe, 5276 

If he wolde assenty par-to ; Leuere me were hit my^t be so, 

pan al pat god y owe." 

IT " Y grante wel," qwap p e Emperer ; With pat he clypede duk 
Eeyner, & Eychard of Normauwdye, 5280 

1 In a faint hand at the bottom : 

Wan \>Q Amyral hym ha}? y-herd 
Of ys tydynges he wax afferd 

J?e assaut he lefte sone. 
& gon a^en to hir lougyng * 
Til J?ay hadde f of \\jrn warnyng 

What J^ay scholde done 
& het ys host go to hure logyng. f [herde]. 



164 CHARLES DETERMINES TO SEND A MESSENGER TO BALAN. 

And askcde of hem wham pay wil rede pat he schold sende on pat 

nede, To pe Amerel of nubbye : 

Swenvioifto " ^ 3 6 ^ or< ^ es willef assenty par-to, Gweynes schal myii eraurat do, 
jS^fto for he ys fers and fel ; 5284 

At pe takyng of Mantrible tou He bar hym as a bold barouw, 

& prouede him par ful wel." 

IF Gweynes iherde pe Kynges sawe, And sayde a wolde wende fa we, 

& perfornye wel pat nede : 5288 

to which ail & paye 1 assentede on hym ^eare pat Gwenes schudde to Amoral 

fare, pat erand for-to bede. 

[leaf 70] 1T To hym 2 panne saide pe kyng of fraunce : " Arme pe wel for alle 
chaunce, pyderward er pou wende ; 5292 

Gwen es ioi?hS 3 -^ or f3 J^ 3 Aniyral 4 be our fo, Til hym pe message pou most do, 

* 8 



Say hym pat he his lay for-sake, & to cristendom him-silue take, 

& lyue on god Almi^te ; 5296 

& pat he delyuery me my barouws bolde pat he hap kept on ys holde, 

long tyme a^e pe ri^te, 
And 5 delyuery me vp on god aray pe Eelyqes pat he bar away, 

In Rome my Citee gret ; 5300 

pe nayles three, & pe croune, pat perschede cryst on ys passyou?ze, 

On hefd, honde, and fet : 
And if he wil assenty par-to, non harm paraie ne wyl y do 

To hym ne non of hys. 5304 

And yf a wil no3t f as god me saue, Vengeaunce of hym wil y haue, 

& loke pou say hym thys." 

H To Charlis pawne saide Gweneloura : " py message schal be wel 
y-don, Sone with-oute drecche." 5308 

Ys helm on is hed sone he caste, And let him lacye wel & faste, 

arms himself, ITT f i 

& ys swerd me dude hym fecche. 

A lep vp parme on ys hors of werre, And takep til hym scheld & 
sperre, Strong & god at nede. 5312 

and goes on Qber felaschip ne takep he non, Bot rydep forp hym-self al-on, 

the message r 

alone. To do pat hardy dede. 

e] >aye. 2 [Gweynes], 3 ~ 3 [To] pe. 

4 Amyral [Balan]. 5 And [al-so]. 



GWENYLON DRIVERS CHARLES* MESSAGE TO BALAN. 165 

1T As Gweynes hym prikede 1 over f e feldes, He mete]} 2 Sarsyns with 
speres & scheldes, ft kepte f e wacche fan: 5316 

fay askede of hem f anne an-haste, Why he prykede so wonder faste, 

& wyder he jjo^te gan. 

1T " Y am a Messager," qua}) Gweneloun, "Y-send to 3 fe Afmeral] 

by Charloun ;" & fa?^ne fay lete hym fare. 5320 

N euere ne astente he after fan, Bote prykef hym forth be-fore Balan, 

yn-to ys pauylloim 



Gweynes was bof e hardy & wys, To be Ameral spak he his avys, when he. 

J arrives at 

ne sparede he for no doute. 5324 Baton's tent 

" Balan," 5 said he, "to me entende. Charlis kyng tpjje me sende, ie d[jvers 

to wham f ou most aloute. 
Mahouw he hotej? Jjat )?ow for-sake, And amw ri3t to follo^t take, 

& by-lyue on god almi^te. 5328 

Ys barorcs als fou scholdist him ^elde, And fe relyqes fat J?ou dost [leaf 70, bk] 

helde, Al agayn fe ri^te. 

& if foil assentist to fys sonde, He ne wol no j? yng of fy londc, 

bote lete fe in pes & reste ; 5332 

& euere he wol the worschip do, & Fyrumbras f y sone wol al-so, 

fe wyle ys lyf wil leste. 
& bot fou her-of make fy fyn, He diffief fe and alle fyn, 

for with fe wil he 63 te, 5336 

& discoumfity fe her & fy ferede, & putte fy body to schentful dede, 

for fy grete onri^te." 
IF Wawne fe Ameral hym vnderstod, A clew ys heued, and ri^te ys Baian stamps 

and fumes 

hod, & starede with ys e^ene wronge, 5340 with rage, 

& prauwcede & blew as he were wod, & mi^t no3t speke for his 11036 

mod, or was after longe. 

And fan saide he to Gweneylloiw : " How wer f mi so hardy, stronge and asks 

felouw, come armed on fy stede, 5344 JJJSJ 1 ^jJ nM 

By-fore mo her on my pauyllouw, & fus vylayn[i]che on fy resou^ 

f y message to me abede ? a message, 

By Mahouw, on wham my be-lyue ys an, f ou ne comest neuere," saide 

Balan, " to Charlemayn a3ene." 5348 

1 prickede [fan]. 2 mete}? [wyf]. 3 y-send [be] to. 

4 [^are]. 6 Balan [spak]. 



166 BALAN IN A RAGE ORDERS GWENYLON TO BE SEIZED. 

and orders To his barou?is pan cride he loud " To-hewep pes messager pat ys 
km him. so proud, Wyp swerdes scherpe & kene." 

1T Gweynes parcne hym gaii to doute, Wanne he saw to hym-ward 

route Sara^yns stronge & smerte ; 5352 

Gwenyion A drow ys swerd & smot Bruyllant, fiat was kyng of Mountmyrrant, 

InTslays 6Uene in ' t0 J 56 herte ; 

Bruyiiant, ^ Q Sara^yn pat was of gret renouw At pe Amyral is fet hym fel adou^ ; 

& Gweynes t^rnde hym pa?me, 5356 
a "uo th s e awa ^ n( ^ ro( ^ ou ^ ^ P e P au yll u?i porw al ]?at host with gret rendou/i, 



11 j?e Amyral ran after hym on ys fet, And cryde to ys host w^ herte 
gret " Take]? Jjan fef an-haste." 5360 

pursued by To horse Jjawne wente at o trome Fyfty Jjousant of armede gome, 
Saracens. & after hym prykede vaste. 

Naymesseea 1f At a wyndowe of J>e tour stod 1 Neymouw, And saw how pay 
enchacede Gwenelouw, To slen him if pay my3te ; 5364 

S-mdand ^P an( l] f 9 - 11 (J lyP e J ) ne & Olyuer i " Sirs," quaj) Neymes, " come)) ner, 

And seep a propre si^te ; 

[leaf 71] Fro pe ^ond pauyllons prykej? a kny^t, An-horse, y-armed, & weel 

y-dy$t, Wyjj a drawe swerd an-honde ; 5368 

& hym chacyej) Sarsyns, by god almi^t, Wei fifty Jjousant y-armed 

bri3t, To slen him do]> pay fonde. 

They Me symej) it ys a Messageer, And Gweynes 2 hit semep 2 be si^te her, 

8j, at ridep far 3 al-one." 5372 

"Prfay," quap Eo[land], "pow saist pat sope, pat knowe 4 hym wel 

& ys stede bope, god kep hym f ram ys fone ! " 

Alle pay gu?^ne pan god to praye, pat scholde hym couradye on ys 
waye, & saflyche a^eii hym sende. 5376 

Ac for pay wern for hym in doute, pey by-hulden him $erne & lokede 
oute, Wyte pay wolde pan ende. 

[Orth hym prykep sir Gweneloura Opon ys stede Chacebroun, 

To-ward ys strengp 6 an hye ; 5380 

And pe Sara^yn} after him prikede . pawne Ase harde as hure 
hors mi^t renne, With noyse & eke with crye, 

1 [lokede out]. 2 - 8 [as]. 3 - 3 [asheryjd]. 

* [seo by.J 



\j 

F 



THE FRENCH WATCH .GWENYLON FROM THE WINDOW. 167 

Gweynes 6*03 for)) so wynd and rayn Til he cam ne^ amydde f e playn, 

& wi3tliche he twrnd him fa?me, 5384 
And smot a Sarsyn of Agrymouw, f 01-3 ys hed he clef hym douw, 

In-to ys brest a sparane. 

WyJ) tenebre he mete]) & suf f e anof er, fat on was cosyn, fat of er 

was brother To fe Imyral Balarcne. 5388 

Tenebre gurde he por^ fe brayn, fat of er in f e herte with mi^t & 

mayn, And forf he prykef f arcne. 

f Gweynes was bof strong and feer, And ofte he tornde hym in f -is 
maner, & slow al fat he ra3te. 5392 

& eft he prikede on ys way, And wan 01[yuer] fat al fys cas y-say 

Y-saw how wel he fa3te, 
To Eoland said he f anne ry3t : " How f eynt f e, felawe, be f is kny3t ojj 

fat berf hym ^m wel al-one? 5396 
~NG saw y neuere o man with my sy$t, Saf f e ' bere hym betere in fyjt, 

by god fat sit in trone. 
Now wold it god on fys nede, fat y were by hym on my stede, 

Baucyn of Melaunt. 5400 im - 

fan schold y make hure sydes blede, An hundred of hem f er scholde 

be dede, Of Sarsyns & persaimt." 

IT Of hys 1 do3tynisse myche fay speke, Ac euere fe Sara3yns after when the 

hym reke, To slen hym was hure mod : 540-4 

Ac wan fay fat frensch host of-scyn, fay wern agast & tornde a$eyn, [foi. 71, bk] 

sec the 

prykynge as bay were wod : French 

army, they 

To f e Ameral fay come sone fas, & tolde fat sof e how it was, 

of f e Messager & of fat host ; 5408 

And fat Char[lis] hadde on his ferede An hundred f ousant on 2 a niede, 

fat lay thar ne3 f e cost. 

" Let ordeyn fyn host far-for anon, fat fay beo 3 araid euerechon 

In armes for-to 31*}." 5412 

f e Ameral het f a?me his homes blowe, & fat alle wer y-armed in a 
throwe, & to batayl y-redy hem 



IT farme com be-fore fe Amerel ther, Fro ys brober a Messager, A messenger 

tells Balaii 

& told hym fys tydynge, 5416 

1 Of bys [grete]. 3 on [ys] 

3 [araid] beo. 



168 



BALAN'S BROTHER COMES WITH AN ARMY TO HIS ASSISTANCE. 



that his 
brother is 
coming 

with 100,000 
men. 



Balan goes 
to meet him. 



Their united 
armies 
amount to 
over 300,000. 



Gwenylon 
tells the 
result of his 
mission. 



[leaf 72] 



pat ys broper, sir Bruyllauwt, pat was kyng of he^ persauwt, 

Wyp y s host was comynge, 

Wyp an hondred pousent persaunc^, To helpc him a$en pe kyng of 

fraiwc}, And eke a^eyn ys host. 5420 

paft wax pe Amyral glad & blythe, And pankede Mahourc an hundred 

sype, & gan to blowe bost. 

His stede tok he panne an haste, & a$en ys broper wende he faste, 

With opre pat he gan baraie. 5424 
& wan pay were to-gadre y-met, Spillyng of speche par was gret 

y-mad bytwene hem paraie. 

For Char[lis] pay saiden scholde be slawe, And Fyrimbras ys sone 

an-honged & drawe, & Flo[rippe] schold be for-brent, 5428 

And Charpis] host discoumfyted & slayn ; Thus pay talkede be-twene 

hem tweyn, As pay to-gadre went. 

IT Warcne hire hostes were to-gadre y-come, parcne was ther an huge 
trome, iij hundred pousent & mo. 5432 

Four dyuers tonges of Sara^yns, Persans, torkys, and Arrabyns, 

And Affrycans al-so : 
Ful huge was paraie passemblee. On thyrty partyes to-delede he 

Ys Sara^yns pe Amerel. 5436 

now god to pe cristene take kepe, For pay ne habbep on hure hepe, 

bote pe pridde del ! 

"Ik ""T"0w ys Gweynes come a^eyn. & tellep 1 ys lord, kyng Charlemeyn, 

\ to-gadre betre & werse, 5440 

-1- i pat pe Amerel ne dredep hym no}^ Nouper in dede ne in po^t, 

pe value of a kerse. 

& pat wa?^ne he spak of crystendom, How he spatte & fyede par-on, 

& wolde hym hab y-sleyne. 2 5444 

3 And how he slow kyng Bruyllant, pat was kyng of mourct-myrrant 

1 tellep [to]. 2 y-slayne corrected. 

3 In a faint hand at the bottom : 
Jjrtt host of Sara^yns )?an he beheld 
\>a? J?o by-spradde }?e large feld, 

iij myle yn leng^e & brede. 
Al a-loud said he f>en : 
" Her ys gret puple of hej^ene men, 

god of heuene ous spede ! 
A1J?O2 J?ay beo mo >an we yn numbre, 
Hure false fayth schal licw, encombre, 

& ek hir false dede. 



ay haue ^e wrong & we e ri^t, 
We schullej? sle alle hem yn fy^t, 
Haue ^e none drede. 
*& if \}OM wilt ny . . . >at . . . 
Com out j?e self y \>e pray 

j?a?me kepe ^e neuere 
Bote i c bere body . . . 
* at the top of leaf 72. 



JHARLES AND BALAN PREPARE THEIR FORCES FOR THE BATTLE. 169 

A-f orn ys owen eyne l : 
& bor} ys host al how he passede, & how be Sara^yns hym ba?zne 

chacede, & how he away ward rende ; 5448 

& how 2 ofte he 2 twnde a3eyn, & slow of be Sara^yns bat chacede 

hym beyn, xxx 11 as he wende. 

IF Charlis swer by 3 Milde marye, 3 bat be Afmyral] & hyse 4 bus chariesvows 

vengeance on 

scholde abye, 4 or be sorcne hure fulle. 5452 the Emir - 

& barane he clepede ys conseyl, And departede his host on .v. batail, 

to-Ei^t as y wil $ow telle : 
Eichard he takeb on to lede, Anober to Eeyner, god of rede, He S lle8 

5 toG[weneloun]tokhebatbridde 5 ; 5456 Jjjjj^ 
Geffray Hautefuelle he tok be furbe, be fifbe to hira-selue bat most 

was werbe, 6 & held hem bar amydde. 6 

If be Amyral ban spak to bat kyng 7 : " Brober, said he, bow most do 
byng, bat y schal be saye. 5460 

bow schalt beo fe furste bat schal gon Wyb byn host a3en our fon, BaUmteiis 

Ac o byng y be praye : 

Ac if bou metest wyb Charlemayn, Loke for nobyng bat he be slayn, 

As bou louest myn honour. 5464 

For in-to Aufryke schal he be lad, 8 Wyb be obre 9 bat me habbej) 

sory mad, 9 bat liggeb her on my tour." 

1F ]?ay ensemblede ba?zne to-gadre anon, be Sarsyns blewe hure homes 
ecchon, to batail or bay paste. 5468 

10 Ac by-fore alle prikede 10 Bruyllant, For prude & for-to make auaunt, Bruyiiant 

Wei a stones caste j 
And baraie he cryde and gan to sayn : " Whar art bow, Charpis], bow challenges 

vylayn? n Wat dost bov yn bis lond. 11 5472 

In yuel tyme dudest bow pace Mantrible brigge, & oure men chace, 

bou abiest it with myn hond. 
byn host bys day schal beo ded, And bow schal luse byn hore hed 

for by fol outrage. 5476 

1 Aforn ys eyne [tweyne]. 2 2 [he many tymes]. 

3 3 [ys croune of golde]. 4 4 [abigge scholde]. 

3 5 [be }>ridde to Gweneloim]. 6 6 [J?an takej? Charlemouw]. 

7 [^e Amyral spak to Bruyllant kyng]. 8 [send]. 

- 9 over ( y haue yment [y-send].' 
j, awne by.fore alle p?-iked out], 
- j,y lond]. 



170 BRUYLLANT INSULTINGLY CHALLENGES CHARLES AND IS SLAIN BY HIM. 

& suf f e schiille we with strengf e of hond, Wende in-to frau?zce & 

cowqwere fy lond, & al fyn heritage 1 ; 

for3-out fy lond schal beo no page fat ys xij 2 $er y-holde 2 of age, 

So Mapioun] me mote amende, 5480 
fat he ne schel ^elde til ous truwage, Four floryrcs of gold of god 

coygnage Euery ^er to rente." 3 

[leaf 72, back j ^[ Wan Charlis y-herde how he sayd, 4 He tok (?) as him ful wel arayd, 4 
S hfs OUgh Blanchard he made sterte, 5484 

spear, And prykede to hym wyf a spere ; & f orw f e scheld & armwre he hym 

gan here, & f orw hys body him gerte. 

f e schaft was god & witft-oute lak, And huld forf styf, and no^t ne 
brak, & he hit drow out with strengf e : 5488 

And rydef a3en f e kyng lustyn, Of Torkye was he a strong Sarsyn, 



Turkey' ad An5 hu S e man f 

slays him, gg^^ ne haberke ne halp hym no^t fat ys sper ys herte ne 7 

f or3 ys body and al : 5492 

f e kyng ful ded of ys sadel y-gylt, And with fat strok fat sper was 

spylt, & brak to peces smal. 

and after him & hanne drow he vs swerd of Steel, & meteb wyb Gamayn & hit 

Gargayn. 

hym weel On fe nekke with mayn. 8 5496 

f 03 ys auentaille were strong & god, He smot f o of bof e hefd & hod, 

fat al ful on f e playn. 9 

Roland hears 11 Eychard ys horn 10 f a?^ne herde blew, 10 Roland hyt hurde, fat n soun 
horn blow. 12 he knew, 12 & gan to busky hy??z fewne. 13 5500 

1 MS. heritate. 2 - 2 [3er old]. 

3 At bottom, in a faint hand : 

J?an Bruyllant brak hm out afforn, 
& To clypy host he blew an horn, 

& J?an bay come an-haste. 
"Go we J7r-for to J?am affront, 
& li^ te we wit/t }?o he)pene hond, 

& maugre habben ]>ai spare." 
" Amen," saide J?ay euerechon ; 
Wit/t \>a\> hert was vp anon 

& layn fjay wel be J?are. 
Jjan Char [Us] J?at host haj? y-nome 
& esyly ryde)? at o trome 

& ajen J>e Sarsyns . . 

*-* [He ne huld him no^t J>ar-of apayd]. 5 [&] an. b of [brede]. 

7 [ground] ne. 8 [Al ys] mayne. 9 [playne]. 10 - 10 [gan to blowe]. 
11 [&] |?t. 12 ia [gan kuowc]. 13 .[In )?e tour >ar he was yniiej. 



A FIERCE BATTLE ENSUES: ROLAND AND THE OTHERS JOIN CHARLES. 171 

Ful wel wiste lie by pat soun Jjat ys vncle kyng Charloun 

Ys batayl x had by-guraie. 1 

Glad was Rolond panne and blythe, Ys felawes clepede he tyl bym 
swythe, & tellep hem so 2 anon. 5504 

pan waxe 3 payre hertes lytfe, 3 & sone fay bup yn armes dy3te, 4 

Sykyr ynow euerechon. 5 

CHarlys & hyse pat were wyp-oute pe Sara^yns 3erne pay guwne 
to cloute, er pay come of pe tour. 5508 

Al pat Charlis wyp ys swerd araujte Hit ful doura ded at o drai^te, 

So gret was his vygour. 
pawne by-gan muche 6 noyse & cry, 7 pe frercsch fyjte to-gadre egrely 7 

Alle pat par were, 8 5512 

Bope of Sarsyns and frensche men, Alle pey wende to-gadre pen, 

& fo^te y-same pere. 
IF pat batayl po by-gan wonder 9 fel, Ac 10 pat frenchs host bar hym wel, A fierce battle 

Wyp speres & swerdes y-grownde. 5516 
To Sarsyns habbep pay 3yue anon 11 Of sturne strokes wel god won, 

& mad hem grysly wounde. 

Gret slajt was par on hure syde, In 12 pe feld leye pay . wft/t wondes 
wyde, pat arst wer prout on pres. 5520 

Moche was pe blod pat par was schad, And many a wydewe par was [leaf 73] 

and great 

mad, And many child faderles. slaughter. 

IT "With pat corns 13 in a Sara3yn fier, Tenebre, pat was kyng of Byer, Tenebre, 

On ys helm he bar pe croun, 14 5524 
& dude pe frensche host gret damage, Why hys puple pat was sauage, makes great 

ful many bay 15 fulde adourc. 15 amongst the 

French. 

1-1 [dude JJQ by-gynne]. 2 [Jjcr-of], 

3-3 [& J?an waxe )?ay glad an sone hem di^te], 

4 [And in fyn armure araid hem, ryate]. 5 [}?ys lordes] and [wel ynow]. 

6 [bo|>e]. 7 - 7 [And J>e batailles en-semblede hastely]. 

8 At the bottom, in a faint hand : 

j?e tweyn hostis assemblede J?an 
& ech til ojjer \>&n layd an, 

& farsly gaw to fy^te. 
)?ay }>ai wern a myle Iperivo 
My^te y-hure J?e strokes }?o, 

Y-iouen on helmes bryite. 

9 [smert&]. 19 [And]. " [)awne] anon. 12 In [tal]. 

13 [smotin(?)]. MS. cons. u [& com for]} with ys fereede]. 

15 - 15 [sloje to dede]. 



172 THE DOUZEPERES MAKE GREAT SLAUGHTER OF THE SARACENS. 

Oure cristen men hadde fay put abak Nadde fay comen fat y of spak, 

f e 1 barou^s fat wer so presto 1 ; 5528 
Roland and Rolond, 2 Olyuer and ISTaymou^ 2 3 And alle fe doff epers fan come 

their com- irlrmw 3 Al v flrrnprl^ in h e Vp=;fp 

panions saiiy auouft, ji y-arn este , 

Sic! 116 Stedes ne toke fay wif hem non, For ynowe fay founde 5 withoute 
gon, A-strayey on fe grene. 5532 

fan out of f e tour fay gof echon, 6 And euerech of hem 7 hap tak 7 on, 

& sone werp 8 vp y wene. 

To pys barou?^s of grot honour Florippe, pat panne lefte on pe tour, 
Cryinge gan to sayne ! 5536 

" 30 lordes of fraunce pat bup pe flour, Kepep wel Gyoun my paramour, 

& bryngep him me a^eyne." 

9 To batayl faste fan 9 giuzne fonde, "With scheldes enbraced, & spers 
an-honde, 10 fay dude her hors to gone, 10 5540 

11 Wan fay ynto fe batayl 11 entred were, Sone pus 12 habbep porw 

gon 12 there p e scheldtromes of paire fone : 

13 And alle pe Sarsyn^ pat pay gwzne mete l4 To gronde pay laid he?7i 
with dentes grete, y-^yuen with spers kene. 5544 

par was non of hure helue pat nadde a-slawe mo pan twelue, 

pat leyen per on the grene. 
They make 1F "Wan hure speres by-gu?zne to faile, Hure swerdes pay drowe of god 

great slaugh- 
ter of the entaile, & laid on ban with mayne ; 5548 

Saracens. 

Wyth strokes pat fullen as a foper pay laid dou/i 15 Sara^yns ech on oper, 

Ded ry^t on pat playne. 

pe Sar^yn^ flo^en hem 16 for hure prow, Suche pat arst were hardy ynow 

to abide er pay come : 5552 

For hure strokes fulle 17 so sare, pat Alle pat pay ra^te, 18 lasse & mare, * 

Hure dep pan 19 pay nome. 



' l over ' [lordes] raj^er yn my spelle.' 
2 2 over ' wyj? ys company.' 



3 - r3 In tlie margin ' )pat J^yderward come hastely [how] as y schal ^ow telle. ' 
4 y-armed [alle]. 5 [se^en]. 6 [anon]. 7 ~ 7 [^ar-of tok] . 

8 [hip]. - 9 [pus barouws faste forp]. 

1010 J- TO j, e b a tayl >a?ine, pay* goes]. " " [And wan }>ay arnonges he?/t]. 
121-2 [Barons j^oiiede]. * j^ay above the line. 

13 under is ' Sone j?ay made hem lefe J?at swete, of J?am alle was )?ar non 
J?at nad y-sleyn an hundred fon \>&n witA-ynne wyle.' 

14 This line, crossed through. 15 [adoW|, 16 [flo^c hymen]. 

17 [were]. 18 [smyte]. 19 [of hem]. 






13 ALAN IN DESPAIR CHARGES INTO THE MIDDLE OF THE FRENCH. 173 

1 Al-so flo3e fe Sa^yns Rolond 1 Wan fay aparceuede ys heuy hond, TI^ Saracens 

So 2 sperhauk f dof fe larke. 5556 them! * 

For al fat f orw his hondes crep To def e lie dyngede hem doim to hep, [leaf 73, back] 

'With strokes sterne & sterke. 
Alle f e feldes fan wern y-fuld Wyf fe Sarsyns fat 3 werii y-kuld 

In fat batayl wykke ; 5560 

f orw-out al f e feldes wyde fat blod ran douw in euery syde, 

In stremes grete & f ykke. 
Discoumfyt flowe be remaynant, & after hem prikede duk Eolant, Roland and 

J J Oliver pursue 

& Olyuer his felawe ; 5564 ffififtff* 

Ac or fay afferrede he?ft o}t myche fen Mo fan an .C. of fe hefemen them - 

Had hy tweyne a-slawe. 
IT Wan f e Amerel fat cas y-se^ Sorwe 3eode ys herte ne$, 

To Ma[houn] he gan to mene : 5568 
" Ay i " saide he, " syre Mahonet, Lyte loue schewest f on me ^et, 

f ow hast for-^ete me clene." 
He saw ys folk faste fleoynge, & frensche men after he?ft f aste prykynge, 

fat with swerdes layde he?ft dou.5572 
Ys swerd adrow he ano?z ri^t fa/me, & prikede ys stede '. & he gan uaian charges 

at Howel, 

renne To howel of seynt Milouw. 

f e Sar^yn, fat was fers & smert, howel oppon f e helm he gert 

4 With his swerd with* mayne ; 5576 
f orw helm, & coyphe, & bacynet, f e swerd gof forf wyf -oute let, and cuts him 

& sank in-to ys brayne ; 
He ful dou?z ded bar al-so hot. & to Gauter beaufyb baraie a smot then cleaves 

Gauter's 

A strok fat was ys def, 5580 skull 

Ei^t on f e heued anoneward, & clef ys helm f 03 he war hard, 

& ys hed in-to f e tef . 
Geffrey of Parys smot 5 he als, And gurde his heued fro be hals, and slays 

Geffrey and 

& Fourcheere slo^ he fa?^ne. 5584 Fourcheere. 

Charlis it sea & wax ful wrof , & prikede Blaunchard & to him agob, Charles 

' charges at 

As faste as he may reraie. him 

1T fan Charflis] . a strok til hym gan mynte: Ac hym faylede of ys but his sword 

glances oft" 

dynte, for fat swerd hym glente 5588 

- 1 over 'Ac by-for al o}?re \>ay flo^e.' 2 So [J?e]. 3 ]iat [)?ar]. 

4 - 4 [A strok with myjt &]. 5 [fjawne] smot. 



174 BALAN ATTACKS CHARLES AND THEY FIGHT FIERCELY. 

By-twene ys scheld & ys for arsoun ; Ac f e sadel & f e stede clef he 

al dou/z, f orw-out al yt wente : 

and cuts his f e stede ful douft on peces tweye ; f e Ameral dradde fan to ben a-sleye, 

or he aryse my^te, 5592 

[leaf 74] Ac sone sterte he vp of fre for}, And Char[lis] stede a gerde for}, 

fat was so fair of si^te. 
Charles's f e stede was ded & ful adouw, On fote stert vp bo Charlouw, 

horse is killed A * 

Eaply al on hete, 5596 

& wyf ys drawe swerd an-honde Alayd on f e Ameral wyf fat bronde, 

& 3af hym dyntes grete. 

and they fight /^VN fote fanne fo3te fys princes bofe, And layde on strokes wilde 
\J & wrofe, With hure swerdes kene. 5600 

f e A[meral] was he^ere fan Charlys was f e amotwtance of a fotes spas 

& su?7i-wat more y-sene. 

Ac ay fa$t Charlis wyf herte god, And f e Ameral egerliche hi??i with- 

stod, & Foule with hym gan fare ; 5604 

Such strokes Charlis of hym haf hent fat scheld & haberke f er-with 

was rent, & he was wounded sare. 

IT fan Char[lis] by-gan to waxe wrof , & ful sterneliche til hym agof 
cimries ents & a strok on ys hed a-sett 5608 

thro' Baton's 

helmet, Wyf ys swerd of 1 style brou/z : f e cercle on ys helm he bar adouw 

f er-wif i w?'t/i-oute lette, 
& of ys helm away he bar A quarter f & of ys cheke a schar 

Myche of fat ofer syde, 5612 

& fan on ys schelde ful f e dent, & endelonges he hym to-rent, 

$ut gan he ferf er glyde. 
be ys iambeaus forf he swarf <r ys ofer spore f amie he carf, 

Adou?^ ri3t by the hele ; . 5616 

In-to f e erthe a fot and mare Ean fat swerd fat cam so sare, 

fat was y-mad of steele. 

and calls on H Charlis to f amerel fan gan sayn : " 3eld me f e relyqes vp agayn, 
surrender. fat fou w^t/i-halst of myne, 5620 

& beo cristned and fat Anon, Ofer elles f ov schalt fyn hefd forgon, 

To morwen or y wil dyne." 

IT Wamie f e Ameral hym vnderstod, For teone wax he almost 2 wod, 
1 [y-mad] of. 8 over ' wel nej wod.' 



BALAN IS DISARMED AND TAKEN PRISONER. 175 

& to hym 1 he sterte, 5624 

And smot to 2 him a strok with mod With ys swerd ful scherp and god, 

& on f e helm \\jin gerte. 

Ac fram f e helm fat swerd \i\rn glente As fat Charpis] cornel f ar-wyf Baian smites 
to-flente, & fe dynt ful on ys schelde, 5628 the helmet, 

And f e stronge scheld f er-wyf to-rente ; Ac }ut f e strok ys ferf er 

wente, nof yng f e dynt ne athelde, 

3 And ful 3 opon ys genyllere, & bar away ys chauceore, [leaf 74, back] 

Of yre & styl y-mad. 5632 

bof e ys spores a-dowi he schar In-to f e erthe two fet & mar, 

f e strok fat was so sad. 
Wyf f e schakyng fat he gan make f o Ys swerd to-brak on peces two, his sword 

& fan gan he to doute. 5636 tw ; 

Ac al fat was of ys swerd y-leued Caste he fa/me a^e Charpis] heued, 

& an anlas bo dro2 oute, he draws his 

dagger, 

And egerlyche to Charlis ran And hente hym by f e nekke fan, and seizes 

& foygnede hym with fat knyf : 5640 the neck. 

Nad he be y-armed f e betere y wys, & rathe 4 to him 4 come socour of hys, 

he had him be-nome ys lyf . 

IT Ac 5 ber komen on companye, Eoland & Ey chard of Normandye, Roland and 

others rescue 

Olyuer & Ogyer, 5644 him > 

And myche 6 of hys ofer barony e, And departede hymen twye : 

& ban Afmeral] bo toke ther, and take 

Balan 

& to f e erthe f arcne hem caste ; Olyuer wyf a corde bond him fast, prisoner. 

Ac arst was muche ado : 5648 

To Hardree had he a strok y-^yue Wyf ys fuste, and al to 7 -dryue 

Ys chekbon ne$ a-two : 
Nad his auentaile y-beo fat heel, France had f o be delyured weel 

of a ful traytrous man ; 5652 

For wyf f e strok had he beo ded, & fan hadde muche harm be aled, 

fat ful f o after fan. 
IT With fat com prikynge sir Fyrumbras And saw ys fader on 8 fe Ferumbras 

advises his 

plas, y-boumle honde & fet : 5656 father to 



submit. 



[& til hym J?an]. 2 [til]. 3 3 [bote sankd]. 

1 [y]. 5 [Ac J?e laste bawne], 6 [al] bat. 

7 ' nej to ' written over. s [ligge] on. 



176 



CHARLES LEADS BALAN A PRISONER TO EGREMONT. 



[leaf 75] 



The Emir is 

set on a mule 



" Fader," sayd lie, " bow dost folye fat f ow ne wolt f yn herte abye 

To Charpis] fat ys so gret ; 
Y rede f ow do as lie wil saye, & f amie for f e wol y praye 

fat lie schal fe kepe & saue. 5660 
& al f y londes & f yn honours, & alle f y castels & alle f y tours, 

A3eynward schaltou haue 1 ." 
^ " U^ e s tille," saycle he fan, " Art f ow bi-come a crystenman ] 

Ma[houn] do f e wrake ! 5664 

& if y niy power rekuuere a^e, Wei he^e schalt f ou an-honged be, 

Wliar f ou mo we beo y-take." 

f Wa?me Fyruw[bias] y-herde how he tolde, For hym ys herte sat ful 
colde, Ac no more ne saide fo 2 : 5668 

for 3 f at ys fader by hym wolde 4 no^t, NQ of his counsaU nofynge ne 

ro^t, On his herte hym was wo. 

Sone bas was bar a mule y-f et, And be Amerel was ther-on v-set : 

To CharpiB] was brojt a stede, 5672 
f e kyng lep on hym fayr & wel, & ledef wyf hym fan Amerel, 

fat dulful was f o for drede ; 

to Egremont. In-to Egrymoygiie he hadde hym fen, Wyf twenty f ousant of frensche 
men, fe remanauwt by-lafte he fare, 5676 

Fy^tyng oppouw hure enemys, Affrycans, Persant^ and tourkys, 

fat sone were bro^t in care. 

^[ "\Yanne f e Sarsyns y-seje fat cas fat f e Amerel yn f e feld y-take 
was, & so y-lad hem fro, 5680 

fay flo^e away on euery syde, far was non fat f erste abyde, 

Hure song was, " welewo." 
Ac Eoland and hys companye 5 Bronte hym in 5 a^en an hye 

& faste fay slo^e hure fon 6 ; 5684 

F/'ani was non til be nyite Ne cessede bay neuere for to fiate 

"hot euere 7 so layd hem on. 7 
H By fat f e ny^t hym was y-come, f e Sarsyns were slawe al & some, 

fat fay my3t of take. 5688 

f e frenschemen f a?me to hure herburghes wende, And of f e mete and 
drynkefrttgodhemseiide, Murye fav dude hem make. 



fly 



but Roland 



companions 

pursue and 

slay them 

till night. 



1 orer.foi* hym |?an moit IJMI haue. 

3 [&]. for. 4 [do] wolde. 

6 [& liarde layde hem on]. 7 7 [slo^e hure fon] and [til jmy wer ded ccchon]. 



~ [J^at he hym ansucrede so]. 
5 ~ 5 over a-druwe (?) hym yn. 



177 

ON" be morwe wan be SOHTLQ schon. CharQis] of-sente ys barons Charles dis- 
* f tributes all 

ecchon, And. among hem departeb bawne 5692 the treasure, 

Of bat gold & of bat gery^ouw bat he fond on be tour & on be tou, 

Y-now to euery manne. 
An Archebysschop he eiepede after baat, And bad hyni ordeyne an and orders 

the Arch.* 

huge vaat, Ful of water clere; 5696 bl r s e h P e * 

And his orysouws saye oppon, As he wolde fully ther-on wffifflo 



ban Amyral bat was bere. 
be Bysschop wente aboute sone be kynges heste for-to done, 

for bat hym bo3te god ; 5700 

& war* he had al aboute y-so^t, To a gret holw marbre was he bro^t, A great mar- 

bat wyb-ynne be paleys stod ; 
Whych was wonyd beo fillid wyb wyn At euerech gret f este ol which was 

filled with 

appolyn, bat b e A[meral] holde wolde : 5704 J^,**^ 

Wyth water was fulled bo bat 1 ston, And 2 b.e bysschop hit blessede [leaf 75, bk] 

anon, as Charflis] het he scholde. 

1F be Emperour het come his baronage, That ber was bawne wel sauage, is prepared, 

to 3 seen bat selcoub sy3te. 5708 

And subbe of-sente he after ban After be Ameral, syre Balan, 

be barons threo wel wy^te, 
Eoland, Olyuer, and Ogyer ; bilke thre bo f ette hym ther, 

& bro^t hym forb anon, 5712 

by-fore be emperour bat hym abod And he het anon bar as he stod, and ciuu-ies 

J orders Ualan 



Dispoily hym by-fore be ston. 
IT Wan bay by-gu?me ys clobys of-do Myche strif made be Amerel tho, He resists, 

And tornde & wende faste, 5716 

Ac Roland and Olyuer hulde hym so, That whather he wolde ober no, but in vain. 

ys clobys of thay caste, 
f be Emperour sayde to hym ban " bou schalt ben a crysteman, 

& ben y-follyd here ; 5720 

And if bou wolt ber-to beo brost, Of byne ne schalt bow lese nott, Charles teiis 

5 ' him that if 

be worthy of a pere : h e win 

become a 

Ac arst bou most for-sake Mahone, And be-lyue on gode sone, C os r seSlion8 is 

bat in marye y-kened was ; 5724 Sored, 

1 fulled ]xtt [like]. 2 And [ban]. 

a [for] to. 

FERUMBRAS. v 



178 CHARLES REPEATS TO BALAN THE ARTICLES OF THE CHRISTIAN FAITH. 

and repeats & subbc of liure body y-bore, Wyb-oute wem & wyb-oute hore, 
articles of As S u?me gob bora b e glas, 

the Christian & r r 7 r 

bow most al-so be-lyue thus, bat he suifrede deb for vs, 

To kepe ous fram helle pyne ; 5728 
& bat he a-ros be bridde day, And to helle tok bo be way, 

And delyuerede bar is hyne ; 

And bat he ber-after to heuene ste^, & syt on ys fader ri^t hond 
an-he}, & ys in try ny tee : 5732 

And subbe sente be holy gost To ys decyples he louede most, 

And het men y-fulled bee : 
bou most byleue on holychurche, After hure lawe for-to wurche, 

And on for-^yft of synne ; 5736 

And on be dredful domes-day, Wan ech man schal rysen on such aray 

As he 1 dayeb ynne, 
And come be-fore god present, And fonge ther ys iuggyment, 

to ioye o]?er pyne to wende, 5740 

After bat ' bat hy dob heere, Body & saule to dwelle y-fere, 

Eue?*e wyb-outen ende, 
[leaf 76] 1[ Bylyf bou as y haue be tau^t, And on bys water tak fullau^t, 

& bys schal beo by mede ; 5744 

by body and by catel ban my^t bou saue, And heuene blisse al-so haue, 

If bou dost bat dede." 



swears 5T Wan be Amerel hab iherd hym telle, Contenance made he fers & 

nothing will J 

to ( be c b a p im ^ e ^ e ' ^ fram hym tornde away : 5748 

smashes the ^- n( i bytok hym-selue be deuel of helle, If he wolde euere wyb 

follo3t melle, Terme of ys lyues day ; 

Ne Mahou?2 wolde he neuere for-sake, For drecle of deb ne for be 
wrake, to be ded ber for be ri^te. 5752 

For Angre sake bawne he swatte, & ban ston a cracchede & in a 

spatte In dispit of god almy^te. 

11 Wan be Emperour y-hurd him speke so, Wowderly wrob ban wax 
he bo, Ys swerd baw gan he dra^e ; 5756 

Ne hadde Fyrumbras ys sone y-ben bat bo wente hem be-twen, 

A wold him haue a-sla^e. 

1 [hem self]. 



FERUMBRAS IMPLORES HIS FATHER TO CONSENT TO BE BAPTISED. 179 

IF Fyruwibras huld fan Emp[er]our, And prayede him cessc of his Fcrumbras 
rauncour, & he wolde eft asaye, 5760 h is P Sf t e 

If he mi^te wyf any colour Brynge him }ut of his errour, 

In-to f e betere waye. 
IF bawne spak Florippe, bat burde brvat " Syr Emperour. bov dost rioripas 

urges Charles 

no$t ary^t, To tarye \>us c . for ys sake. 5764 to slay Baian. 

36 hadde don wel, by god almy^t, Had ^e 1 do slen him 3esterny3t, 

Wan fat he was take." 
IF be Emperour huld ys swerd an-honde, And askede asen whar he diaries again 

J asks Balan if 

wil fonde to lyue 011 cristes lay, 5768 JjjJJ 1 *' 

And Mahon ys false god for-sake, And crystendom far by-fore hym Chnstian - 

take Wyf -oute more delay : 

& if a wolde, fat hit were so, A wolde be ys frend for eutre-mo, 

On what lond fat he lende ; 5772 

And fat he nel by-nyme hyni lond ne. fee, Bot euere scholde 2 beo 

to hym pryuee, In-to ys lyues ende. 

IF ban Fyru??i[brasl ys so?m<e hym sette on knen By-fore ys fader f & Ferumbras, 

too, on his 

cryede a^en " Mercy, fader," he sayde, 5776 knees 

" Swete fader, 'do hys lykyng, And ne make ber-of no more taryyng, implores his 

father to 

for gode loue y pray ]?e. consent. 

And J>an my^tou haue al J>yn Awe, And libbe Jjy lyf on godes lawe [leaf 70, bk] 

& kepe ]?e so fro sore ; 5780 

And Jrilke fat buj> now fyn fon WolleJ) Jie louye euerechon, 

& worschypy ]>e euere-more." 
1T " Y grauwte," quaf he fan f " haue y-saied How fat f ys water ys Baian yields. 

arayed, fat y schal phwgy on." 5784 

fan was Fyrumbras glad & blythe, And f ankede god ful many a sythe, 

& bro^te hym to f e ston. 
Charlis fanne hym wax ful glad, And hopede a wolde be christen mad, 

So wern fe of re barourcs. 5788 

f e bysschop stod f er f f o fat had Y-blessed f e fant, and ouer y-rad 

Alle ys orysouns. 
IT f e bysschop sayde to f e Ameral fan " If f on wilt ben a crysteman, The Bishop 

tells him lie 

Mahout bou most for-sake, 5792 must before 

all renounce 
Mahomet. 

1 MS. he. ' scholde [he]. 



180 



BALAN KNOCKS DOWN THE BISHOP, AND SPITS IN THE FONT. 



Balan nearly 
breaks his 
jaw-bone 
with his fist, 



and then 
spits on the 
font. 



Ferumbras 
begs on his 
knees for 
another 

chance. 



[leaf 77] 



Floripas says 
it is only a 
waste of 
time. 



Aller-forst by-fore ous here, And suppe stape in-to ]>is water clere, 

pan schaltou fillet take." 

pe Afmeral] pan wropeliche hym gan beholde, And gurde hym with ys 

fuste y-volde, Ageyn ys cheke an-haste, 5796 

pat pre tep sterte out of pe bon, & nadde Ogyer po by-twene hem gon, 

He wolde him habbe of-praste. 

51 pawne saide pe Ameral with egre mod " Wat wenestow, glotouw, 

pat ich be wod, Schold y for-sake my d^te, 5800 

And beo plunged on pys marbre ston ? " In dispyt of cryst f pan spat 

lie per-on, by-fore hure Aldre sy^te. 

IT po wax Charlys wonder grym, And clepede Fyrura[bras] & spak 
to hym, In J) e maner as y schal sayne : 5804 

" Fyrumbras, as fow art me lef, Ne tak yt no^t to no 1 gref, 

] 70 3 y putte hym to is peyne, 
SuJ))?e he wil no^t christened, be, Bot ha]) now in dispyt of me 

My bysshop y-bete sore : 5808 

And afterward, in fe dispyt of crysst, Spet on J?e fant as j)ow her 

sysst, ne pray J?ow for hym no more." 

IT Wan Fyrumbras herd hym speke so, For ys fader Jjanne hym was 
so wo He nyste wat j)0 to 2 done : 5812 

Bote by-fore hyin on ys knes a cryde pat a wolde }ut a-byde 

Wyjj hym til eft-sone, 
])at he hym hadde eft by-so3t, & bot if he pawne wold take fullo^c, 

As he hym wolde abette, 5816 

Hys wille wyj? hym do a scholde & gurde of his heued }yf a wolde, 

No lenger wold he hi??^ lette. 

IT To ]>e Ernp<??x>ur saide florippe pan " Wy tariest ]?ou so longe wyj? 

pat man, pat hap pe & pyne agreued ? 5820 

Al ys for no^t f 36 A-boute goes, 36 ne bringep him neuere to 301110 



pwpos, 



y leye per-to myn hened." 



Ferumbras 
remonstrates 
with her. 



IT Til hure pan saide sir Fyrumbras " Sustre ne ys he py fader ; 
alas ! Tak of hym pytee : 5824 

He pe gat & forp pe bro3te, Thar-for ert pow mys-byfojte, 

To procury Kym to slee. 



1 yt [now] 11031 to. 



wat 



FERUMBRAS AGAIN TRIES TO PERSUADE BALAN TO BE BAPTISED. 181 

"VVyf wilde hors mot y beo drawe, Bot y wolde her ri^t fawe 

A lyine of me for-gon, 5828 

"Wyf fat he y-f oiled 1 wolde bee On fat water fat 2 here [30] see 

standyng her on fys ston." 
Wyf fat he wep & sy^te sore, As he f anne stod hym by-fore, 

& f us til hym gan telle 5832 

" Swete fader, chaunge f y f o^t, And elles fow worst to def e y-bro3t, Fem 

fan gof f y said to helle. 
And if fow wolt be y-fulled heer f ar-of f anne ert fow . skeer, 

& heuene my^t fou craue. 5836 

And leue lordlich on fyn owe, And habbe at f yn heste he^e & lowe, 

As f on wer woned to haue. 
And ther-for, swete fader myn, [Fo]rsak Mahou7^ and Appolyn, 

fat buf no^t worf a flye ; 5840 

And be-lyf on cryst, and cristned be, And f anne schalt fow f ryue & f e, 

& god lyf schalt f ou drye 1 " 
1T "Sone," sayde be Amerel ban. "By Mahouw bmi art a nycy man, ButBaian 

says he will 

bat bou dost me rede 5844 never consent 

* * to believe on 

To by-lyue on such a mon fat was on a croys y-dojfi, 



for ys owe mysdede. 
Y diffye hym her and alle hyse, By Mahout y nolde ^yue a pyse, 

for cryst ne al ys my^te. 5848 

Nel y neuere on hyni be-lyue, Ne beo y-fulled on my lyue, 

to dye farfore her ri^te." 

"Wan fat Fyrurabras y-knew ys f o^t, & fat he ne mj3t hym ti^rnne 
no3t, On herte hym lekid ille. 5852 

To kyng Charlys sayde he fan "Dof now syre by thys man [leaf 77, bk] 

As it is f y wille ; 

Certys y ne haue now no wonder f 03 36 hym do hewe ech lyme on 
sonder, for3~out flechs & bon, 5856 

Suf f e he wil no3t for no pray Belyue on god '. & for-sake ys lay 

Ne follo3t take non." 
1T fan CharFlis] askede of ys men a-boute, Hwych of hem wolde of al Charles asks 

who will be 

f e route Sle fat hefene hounde. 5860 executioner 

Ogyer hym ansuerede " y wil hym slo, For myche tene he hauef o ? ier says he 
me y-do, Her ys his bane y-founde." 

1 y- veiled corrected. 2 J?at [stent]. 



182 BALAN IS SLAIN, AND FLORIPAS CLAIMS GUY FOR HER HUSBAND. 

Ys swerd a drow fat hot corteyn, Wei many a Sara^yn had he sleyn 

ih&r-with thar by-fore. 5864 

and with one Ogier in the nekke thar-wyf \\jin gerte, fat f e heued fro fat body 
Baian's head. sterte, ys owen lengf e & more. 

?nGu rt t alls *Wan f 6 A[meral] Balan was a-slawe Florippe com for]) & was wel 
EHe S . fawe ' & [ asked ( ? )] k y n g Charlouw, 5868 

& sayde, " syre kyng, as f ou art wijte, And y haue ben trewe to f yne 

kni^te (?), [Now] graunte to me Gyowi." 

" Damesele," qua]? Kola^d, " f ow sayst ryjt, f ow schalt hym haue by 
god almyjt." fan spak he to fat hende 5872 

" Gy of Borgoygne, do as fow hyjt, Ant tak fys lady fair & bri^t, 

In-to fy lyues ende." 

willingly/ " Wel gladlych," saide Gyoun fo, " So fat myn vncle assenty to, 
wlfgSs \> Q EmperoMr Charlemayn." 5876 

faw saide Charlys " god for-beode fat y anentes f ilke neode 
+ Any-fyng sayde a-gayne." 

Fioripas If f e Damesele dispoilled hure f a?ine anon,\ Hyr skyn was as whyt so 

heeif. jj e melkis fom, fairer was non on molde : 5880 

Wyf ejene graye, and browes bent, And ^ealwe traces, & fayre y-trent, 

Ech her semede of gold. 
Hure vysage was fair & tretys, Hure body iantil and pure fetys, 

& semblych of stature. 5884 

she is so I n al be werld ne mirb be non fayrer wymman of flesch & bon, 

beautiful 

fan was fat creature. 
that an the 5T Wan bys lordes had seyaen hur naked, In alle manere wyse weel 

lords fall in 

love with her. y-niaked, On hure fay toke lekynge. 5888 

Was non of hem fat ys fl-eclis ne-raas, Nof er kyng, ne barouw, lie non 

fat was, Sche was so fair a 



1 N crossed through, the rest erased and written over. 
+ Ponatwr in loco isto ^^^ ; pointing apparently to some lines on the 
opposite page, which is wanting, fact probably referring to the following lines 
which are added in the margin below : 

"To ..... y plhte my troupe ^ore To haue & holde for eu^'e-more 

On wedlak fre 
For was .... do my power To saue >e " ...... 

\End of MS. ; the missing lines are supplied as before from the 
French original.] 



FLORIPAS IS BAPTISED AND MARRIED TO GUY. 



183 



[L'empereres meismes en a .i. ris jete ; 

Pour tant s'il ot le poll et canu et melle, 

Si eust il mout tost son courage atorne. 

Ens es fons c'on avoit pour Balant apreste, 

Out donne la puciele sainte crestiente, 

Et par nom de bautesme ont son cors genere. 

Karlemaines le tint au courage adure, 

Li dus Tieris d'Ardane, ensi 1'ont esgarde, 

II ne laisierent homme qui de mere fust nes. 

Ne li ont pas son nom cangie ne remue ; 

Apres, a la puciele son gent cors conrae. 

Tout droit enmi la plaice en sont avant ale ; 

Iluec a 1'arceveques 1'un a 1'autre doune. 

La couronne Balant a Charles demande, 

Floripas en couronne et Guion le sene ; 

'Puis les a 1'arcevesques beneis et sacres. 

A Guion de Borgoigne rent Karles le rengne, 

A Fierabras en a Tune moitie donne ; 

De Guion le tenra par droite loiaute. 

Les la tour d'Aigremore ot .i. palais liste ; 

La sont nostre Francois a grant joie mene, 

Richement sont servi et a moult grant plente. 

.VIII. jours trestous entiers ont les noeces dure. 

Karles i a .i. mois et .i. jour sejourne, 

Tant qu'il ot le pais auques asseure. 

Quant Karles ot la tere auques asseuree, 

Le pais ont cerkie et toute la contree. 

La gent paiene en ont tant qu'il pueent menee ; 

Qui ne veut croire en Dieu s'ot la teste caupee. 

Par . i . saint diemence, quant 1'aube fu erevee, 

Adont ot 1'arcevesques une messe cantee ; 

L'empereres en a Floripas apelee. 

* Bele, ce dist li rois, je vous ai couronnee, 

Si estes, Dieu merci, bautizie et leve 

Au milleur chevalier estes vous espousee, 

Ki soit jusques Aufrique, outre la mer salee. 



5892 



Floripas is 
baptised, 



5896 



5900 but her name 
is not 
changed. 



5904 She and Guy 
arc crowuod, 



and Spain is 
divided be- 
KQAQ tween Guy 
OJUi5 andForuin- 
bras. 



6912 



At the end of 
a month 
Charles pre- 
pares to 

K f\ i t* return to 

5916 France. 



5920 



He asks 
Floripas to 
snow i m th 
sacred relies, 



184 THE SACRED RELICS ARE EXHIBITED AND TESTED. 

as he intends Et il et Fierabras tenroiit mais la contree, 

to start the 

next day. .XX. m hommes aront de ma gent bien armee ; 5928 

Bien sera, se Dieu plaist, vers Sarrazins tensee. 

Demain vaurai mouvoir par boine destinee ; 

]STe m'aves des reliques encor nule monstree; 

Ales, sel m'aportes sans nule demouree.' 5932 

Fbripas < Sire, moult volentiers, puisque il vous agree.' 
casket : En la tour d' Aigremore est la bele inontee, 

Venue est a la cambre, si 1'a tost deffremee, 

Vint a 1'escrin d'argent, s'en a la casse ostee, 5936 

Et vint devant Karlon, si li a presentee. 

Et li rois s'agenelle et si 1'a enclinee. 
the crown of Trestout premierement a la couronne ostee. 

thorns 

Que Diex ot en son cief enbatue et serree ; 5940 

N'estoit d'or ne d'argent ne faite ni ouvree, 
Mais d'espines poignans estoit entourtillee, 
Et d'aspres joins marages de lius en lius bordee. 
is exhibited to Nos barons les monstra par boine destinee. 5944 

the barons. 

Ha Diex ! adont i eut mainte larme plouree ; 
Cascuns s'i agenoulle, s'a sa coupe clamee. 
The arch- L'arcevesques fu sages, si 1'a bien esprouvee : 

bishop tests . 

it' s b u y spended R En ^ aut desus le P aille 1>a contremont levee, 5948 



iti'ouf any P u is a retrait son brae, s'en a sa main ostee, 

support. -.-,. , . , . . -i, , t 

Et la sainte couronne s est en 1 air arestee. 
Et dist li arcevesques, ' Je 1'ai bien esprouvee, 

Que ce est la couronne que Dix ot espmeV 5952 

L'arcevesques 1'a prinse, si 1'a jus avalee, 
A delicious Par de desus le paile 1'a assise et posee. 

odour comes 

from it. Plus flaire doucement que canele aluinee ; 

La fkirour qui en ist ne puet estre contee. 5956 

Environ la couronne fu moult grans li barnez ; 
Moult i avoit candelles et cierges embrases, 
D'oa? estoit li palais, de soie encourtines. 
The arch- L'aTcevesque a les claus fors de la casse ostes. 5960 

bishop takes 

out the nails. p u i s i avo it sa bouce et ses ex adeses. 



THE SACRED NAILS AND INSCRIPTION ARE SHOWN TO THE ARMY. 



185 



Et Karles les baisa et li autres barnes. 

L'arcevesques fu sages, sils a bien esprouves : 

Par deseure le paile, qui d'or est paintures, 

Les a en contremont et drecies et leves, 

Puis les baisa tons cois, s'eii a ses mains ostes ; 

Et li cleu sont tout coi, n'en est uns escapes. 

Adont i ot grant joie, c'est fines verites. 

1 Signeur, dist 1'arcevesques, pour Dui, or m'entendes ; 

Je vous di vraiement, se croire me voles, 

Que ce sont li clau Dieu, qui ques ait aportes.' 

Quant Francois 1'ont veu, si les ont encline. 

' Ha Dix ! dist Karlemaines, tu soies aoures ! 

Moult par puis estre lies quant consenti m'aves 

La couronne a avoir dont fustes couronnes, 

Et les saintismes claus que tant ai desires ; 

Or en ert mes pais, se Dieu plaist, acuites.' 

L'arcevesques les prinst, sils a jus avales, 

A nos Frangois en a les cies envolepes, 

D'encoste la couronne les a mis et poses. 

Puis a trait f ors le signe, qui bien estoit dores ; 

Plus naire doucement que bames embrases. 

Quant Fran9ois Font veu, e les vous enclines, 

De pite et de joie fu cascuns esploures. 

L'arcevesques-le prinst, qui bien fu apenses, 

Puis le mist sur le paile, qui fu a or ouvres, 

les autres reliques, dout il i ot asses. 



5964 



The arch- 
bishop tests 



5968 



and declares 
them to be 
the real 
relics. 



5972 



5976 



5980 Then he 

draws out the 
inscription, 
which he 
shows, and 
lays on a 
cloth beside 
the other 

5984 relic8 ' 



L'emperere de France fist forment a loer ; 
II a fait une table sor .ii. trastres poser, 
Et pardesus .i. paile, qui fu fais outre mer. 
Ses fist li emperere partir et desevrer ; 
Puis a fait les reliques moult bien envoleper, 
Dedens son maistre coffre les a fait enserer. 
Toutes ices reliques en vaura enporter. 
Les petis espinons qu'il en fist esgrinner 
De la saints couronne qu'il ot fait desevrer, 



5988 The relics are 
carefully 
wrapped up 
and placed in 
the king's 



5992 



5996 Charles placea 



186 THAT NIGHT CHARLES HAS A FRIGHTFUL DREAM. 

thefragments Trestous les conquelli 1'emperere au vis cler, 

of the thorns 

which S- ve ' -^ * es m ^ st en son 8 ant > canqu'il en puet trover. 
pendeYilTthe ! chevalier le tent, qu'i vit les lui ester, 

air for over -,.- . .-, , , . . ., 

an hour. Mais il nel recnut mie qui ne loi parler 6000 

Et Dix a fait le gant emni Tair arester 

Tant que une liue peust .i. horn aler ; 

Ailleurs ot a entendre, ne Ten pot ramenbrer. 

Karles a demande de 1'aigue pour digner ; 6004 

De son gant li souvint quant il devoit laver, 

Mais il ne sot a qui le bailla a garder : 

Par de desus la gent le vit en 1'air ester. 
The arch- L'arcevesques le nionstre a tout 1'autre barne ; 6008 

bishop points 

out this great (je fu moult grant mervelle, bien en doit on parler. 

miracle. 

Karles a prins son gant, si se sist au digne. 
Charles and Challes nostre emperere est assis au mengier. 

his barons go 

to dinner. Jouste lui Floripas la bele au cors legier, 6012 

Et d'autre part Guion, qui 1'ot prinse a moullier. 

Eierabras tint la coupe, devant le roi, d'ormier ; 

Moult furent bien servi, n'eri estuet pas plaidicr. 

Quant il eurent digne, les napes font sacier ; 6016 

Cascuns sor son ceval s'ala esbanoier. 

Karlemaines a fait la quintaine drecier ; 
The revelry Tout le iour behourderent desi a 1'anuitier. 

lasts till 

wJSuhey Q uan ^ il virent le vespre, mis sont au repairier, 6020 

separate. ^ s osteug se re p a i ren t } s i S e vont aaisier ; 

Quant asses sont deduit, si sont ale coucier, 

L'emperere se dort ens un palais plenier, 

Et a songie .i. songe mirabillous et fier, 6024 

Charles Que a Ais la Capele se devoit haubergier. 

dreams hat 



^ tere d'Espaigne ot une vois hucier, 
b!d d s hhn ce Que il alast la tere et les pais aidier, 



e " 



spn to Et de paiene gent nostre Signeur vengier. 6028 

help Guy. 

Tout le monde veoit de grifons esragier ; 

De sa gent li faisoient mervilleus encombrier : 

A .i. seul jour en furent mort plus de .xx. m 



THE FRENCH ARMY STARTS ON THEIR RETURN TO FRANCE. 



187 



En sa court a Paris avoit .i. lienier 

Qui li voloit du ventre tous les boiaus sacier ; 

N'avoit baron en France qui 1'osast aprocier. 

Pour le songe se print Karles a esvillier, 

De Damediu de glore se prinst a sinier. 

Taut soufri Karlemaines qu'i prinst a esclaiiier ; 

Devant lui fait venir Namle son consillier, 

Le songe li conta qui Tot fait esvillier. 

' Sire, ce dist li dus, vous ires ostoier 

Ains le cief de .iiii. ans sor la gent 1'aversier. 

Tel homme aves nouri qui point lie vous a cier ; 

Damedieu nous en gart, qui tout a a jugier ! ' 

L'emperere de France s'est leves par matin 
La messe a escoutee ens ou palais marbrin, 
Puis, quant il 1'ot oi'e, si se mist au cemin, 
Lors o'issies grant noise et mervilleus. .hustin ; 
Li os est aroutee, ne prist cesse ne fin. 
Damedieu le garisse, qui de 1'iauve fist vin, 
Le jour qu'il sist as noeces le saint Arcedeclin. 
Challes est d'Aigremore partis et desevres ; 
Floripas la rouine le convoia asses. 
' Bele, ce dist li rois, ariere retornes.' 
' Sire, dist Floripas, si com vous commandes ; 
Diex soit garde de vous, qui de virge fu nes ! ' 
Floripas le baisa par moult grant amistes ; 
Plourant s'en department, e les vous dessevres. 
Mais Guis et Fierabras ne sont pas retournez ; 
Ains convoient Karlon et son rice barne 
Jusque au pont de Mantrible, la rice fremete. 
Et Eaous et Jehans lor sont encontre ale. 
Francois se sont logie tout contreval les pres ; 
Karlemaines n'i est c'une nuit osteles. 
Li rois Guis est de Karle partis et desevres, 
Et Fierabras o lui, li vassaus adures. 
Au departir des .ii. i fu grans deus menes ; 



6032 And flint a 
favourite 
lioness tries 
to tear him to 
pieces. 



6036 



6040 Naymes 

explains the 
meaning of 
the dream. 



6044 Next morn- 
ing after 
mass the 
army starts. 



6048 



6052 Floripas 

accompanies 
them a short 
distance. 



6056 



6060 



Guy and 
Ferumbraa 

go as far as 
Mantrible, 



6064 



whereCharles 
stays one 



188 THE FRENCH ARRIVE AT PARIS. CHARLES DISTRIBUTES THE RELICS. 

Mais li rois Karlemaines les a reconfortes. 



de Borgoigne s'est Karles departis, 6068 

ctarieT eof Et & et Fieiabras, qu'est chevaliers gentis. 

Moult les a 1'emperere baisies et conjois 

Si lor a commande que 1'uns soit 1'autre amis, 

Et s'ost s'est aroutee par puis et par larris. 6072 

Taut vont par lor journees, si com dit li escris, 
ontheeigkth Q ue ^ 1'uitisme jour sont venu a Paris. 
at r pa c ri8? rrive Cascuns s'en va ou regne dont il estoit nouris ; 

Karlemaines s'en va au moustier Saint Denis. 6076 

La manda arcevesques, evesques beneis, 

Les reliques lor monstre Damedieu Jhesu Cris. 
Charles goes Gel j our ot .x. evesques ensamble revestis, 

to St Ijcnis 

the d 8 e a x cred its Si i ot arcevesques et abes .xxxvi. ; 6080 

hcs ' Li barnages i fu d'Orliens et de Paris. 

Au baron Saint Denis fu grans li assamblee ; 
Au peron du lendi fu la messe cantee. 
which he Illuec fu la couronne partie et devisee : 6084 

distributes : 



Une partie en fu a Saint Denis donnee, 
give" to st Et .i. cleu ensement, c'est verites prouvee. 

De la couronne fu partie et desevree ; 
the inscrip- A Compiegne est li signes a 1'eglise honneree. 6088 

tipn to Com- 

piegne. D es saintimes reliques fu la le desevree ; 

Maint present en fist Karles par France la loee : 
He establish- En 1'onor Dieu en f u mainte eglise honneree. 

es in their 

honour the La foire du lendi fu par ce estoree, 6092 

fair of 

Lendit.' ue a n j d evro it estre cens ne taille donnee. 



within three ^ e tarda que .iii. ans qu' Espaigne fu gastee ; 

years came 

of GSneion y L ^ fa la traisons de Reliant pourparlee ; 

If Ro h iand e . atb Guenelon le vendi a la gent desfaee, 6096 

Puis en fu a cevaus sa car detrainee. 

Pinabiaus en fu mors sous Loon en la pree ; 

La le tua Tierris au trencant de 1'espee, 



THE! DEATH OF GWsNELON. CONCLUSION. 189 

Puis fu pendus armes par la geule baee. 6100 Gweneionis 

torn in pieces. 

Tous jours vont traitours a male destinee ; 
U en pres ou en loing, ja n'i aront duree. 

A Dieu vous common je, ma canchons est finee. e ale is 

De cest roumant est boine et la fin et 1'entree, 6104 

Et enmi et partout, qui bien Fa escoutee ; 
Ki cest roumant escrist il ait boine duree. 

Explicit Li Kommans de Fierabras d'Alixandre.] 



190 



NOTES. 



p. 1, 1. 4. So in the Sowdone of Balyloyne, 11. 25 29 : 

" As it is wryten in Komaunce 

And founden in bokes of Antiquyte, At Seinte Denyse Abbey in Fraunce." 
p. 1, 1. 11. In the Sowdone we are told that Charles distributed the sacred 
relics as follows : 

" At our lady of Parys, He offred the Crosse so fre ; 

The Crowne he offred at seynte Denyse, At Boloyne the nayles thre." 
which differs slightly from the account in Fierabras (see 1. 6085). 
p. 2, 1. 56. " Poille." In the Fr. " Coloigne." In the side-note read " Apulia " 

instead of " Poland." 

p. 3, 1. 65. " tolde 3w of eer." See p. 1, 11, 8 12. In the Fr. " les dignes 
reliques que je ne sai nommer." The number of the nails used at the Crucifixion 
is a disputed point. The question has been fully discussed in ^V. and Q. t Series 
III., vol. iii. pp. 315, 392, whence I extract the following : 

" St. Gregory Nazianzen says of the taking down from the cross 



Clearly intimating that our Saviour was fixed to the cross with three nails 
only. 

" Nonnus, the Greek poet, in the fifth century, describes the sacred feet of 
our Lord as placed one over the other, and fastened down with a single large 
nail. 

" On the other hand, St. Cyprian, St. Augustine, St. Gregory of Tours, and 
Pope Innocent III., as also Rufinus and Theodoret, 1 reckon four nails. The 
earliest known representation of the Crucifixion is, I presume, that found in the 
cemetery of St. Julius Pope, or of St. Valentine, in Via Flaminia ; in which 
our Saviour is clothed in a long robe, without sleeves, reaching from the 
shoulders to the ankles ; and his feet are separate, and each one fastened by a 
nail to a piece of wood projecting from the cross." 

1 This seems to be a mistake, for Calvin in his work referred to below says " Si 
vera enarrant antiqui scriptores, ac praesertim Theodoritus, veteris Ecclesise historicus, 
Helena unum filii sui galeas inseri, reliquos duos equi freno aptari jussit," p. 206, 
col. 2. 



NOTES TO pp. 3 6, 11. 91 161. 191 

In the Ancren Riwle, p. 390, we find three nails referred to : u J)is scheld j?et 
wreih his Godhed was his leoue licome Jjet was ispred o rode, brod ase scheld 
buuen in his i-streiht earmes, and neruh bineotSen, ase jje on uot, efter Jjet me 
wenefc, sete upon }je otter uote." 

See also Legends of the Holy Rood, E. E. T. Soc., ed. Morris, pp. xix, xx. 
It is curious that the author of the Eng. version invariably omits all mention 
of one of the relics so frequently referred to in the French version, le signe 
honnere, the " title," which was placed over our Lord's head. 

In I. Calvin's Admonitio de JReliquiis, ed. of 1667, will be found a very full 
and interesting account of the distribution of the sacred relics. It would occupy 
too much space to give his account in full, but I may briefly summarise the 
results of his investigations so far as they refer to the relics here mentioned. 
Of the nails he found no fewer than fourteen preserved in various churches and 
monasteries : of which four were in Italy ; two in Germany ; one each at 
Cologne and Treves ; and six in France (p. 206, col. 2). In addition to these 
the monks of Glastonbury Abbey claimed to possess one. See An History of the 
Abbey of Glastonbury, Warner, p. Ixii. 

As to the crown of thorns, Calvin, p. 207, col. 1, gives a long list of places 
claiming to possess one or more of the thorns, and here again Glastonbury must 
be added. In the Annales ordinis S. Benedicti, III. pp. 699, 700, we read that 
Azan, a prefect of Jerusalem, presented to Charlemagne, " Spinea corona, que 
caput amabile Redemptoris nostri complexa est," and " unus de clavis qui 
delectabiles Christi articulos configebant." The Abbey of Glastonbury appears 
to have been especially rich in relics, for, in addition to the above, and others 
of minor importance, it possessed the spear of Longinus, presented by Audulphus, 
Count of Boulogne, to Athelstane, some of the milk of the Virgin, and some of 
the hairs of St. Peter's beard. See Knyghton's Chronicle in Historice Anglicance 
Scriptores decem, London, 1652, col. 2321, 1. 28, and Warner's History of the 
Abbey of Glastonbury, Bath, 1826, p. Ixii. 

p. 3, 1. 91. So in the Coventry Mysteries, ed. Halliwell, 183, " bragge or 
blowe." 

p. 4. 1. 101. Perhaps we should read, " [To] such jjre," &c., *. e'. " to three such 
men I would not give way." 

p. 4, 1. 102. " twelue." The Fr. is more moderate " Ja n'en refuserai, par 
Mahom, jusqu'a vi.," with which the Sowdone of Babyloyne agrees. 

p. 4, 1. 120. "y knowe him wel to wisse ;" I know for certain. In this phrase 
wisse appears to be an adj. (A.S. gewis, Old Sax. iwiss, certain). 
" I-wis, J^enne seide william, i wot wel to wisse." 

William of Palerne, ed. Skeat, 3397. 

p. 4, 1. 124. Compare P. Plowman, C. xiv. 239. 

p. 4, 1. 128. "none kynnes Jjynge." See Prof. Skeat's note to P. Plowman, C. 
xi. 128. 

p. 5, 1. 144. " so most he J>e ; " so might he prosper. A common expression, 
for examples of which see Stratmann. One of the, if not the latest use of the 
verb to the (A.S. Ipeon) is in Tusser's Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandrie, 
1580 (Eng. Dial. Soc., ed. Herrtage), p. 19, stanza 8. 

p. 6, 1. 161. Know that this is thine own fault. 



192 NOTES TO pp. 6 8, 11. 167 247. 

p. 6, 1. 167. See M. Gaston Paris' remarks on this incident, and the different 
causes assigned for it in various poems. Histoire Poetique, p. 263. 

p. 6, 1. 173. " Makes no account of me." 

p. 6, 1. 197. " doffeper." This spelling is most remarkable. Were it not for the 
fact that the original draught and the corrected copy are in the same hand- 
writing, one would be led to suspect that the word had been dictated by some 
person who lisped. But in the original draught we find the word correctly 
spelt do$eper (see 1. 423, and note to 1. 259). A similar instance of )> for 3 
occurs at 1. 1462, where we find dotyeyne for doyyne. At 1. 2036 curiously 
enough the word is spelt correctly. 

The various forms under which we find this word are very curious. In Otuel 
(Ellis. Metr. Romances, ii. 367) we have " dussypere" and " duzze pieres " ; in 
the Sowdone of Babyloyne, " do-siper " and " dosyperys " / in Rouland & Vernagu 
(Abbotsford Club) " dussepers" ; in Harbour's Bruce, ed. Skeat, iii. 440, 
" dukperis " and " Dutchpeeres " ; in Wyntown, v. 4350, " dowch-sperys." It is 
worthy of notice how entirely the original meaning of the word has been lost 
by the English poets ; thus at the end of Otuel we read, " Here endeth Otuel, 
Roland, and Olyuere / and of the twelve dussypere." So too in Sir Dvyrevant, 
ed. Halliwell, 1. 1853 : 

" Ther come in a daunse IX. doseperus of Fraunce ; " 

and we frequently find a single knight (as in the present instance) called 
" a do^eper." 

p. 6, 1. 199. " to tristyng to." A corruption of the old gerundial form. Thus in 
the Tale of Beryn (Chaucer Soc., ed. Furnivall), 1. 347, we find, " This ny}te 
that is to comyng ; " and again in P. Plowman, C. xviii. 313, " Hopen ])at he 
be to comynge." In the Wyclifite version of Rev. xii. 4 we read : " And the 
dragoun stood before the woman that was to beringe child," and in the next 
verse, " to reulinge alle folkes." Caxton, Descr. of Britain, 1485, has "Candred 
is to menyng a contrey that conteyneth a hondred tounes," p. 20. Cf. " Eart 
Jm $e to cummene eart ? " Luke vii. 20. 

p. 7, 1. 209. " ofte sekede amonge ; " sighed at frequent intervals, frequently. 
Compare the following from Mr. Wright's Carols and Songs (Percy Society) : 



" Thys endys my^th 
I saw a sy^th 

A stare as bry^t as day ; 



And euer amonge 
A maiden songe 

Lttllay, by by lullay.' 



Compare also Mod. Eng. all the while. 
p. 7, 1. 213. "his mantel of say." In the Fr. " son bliaut de soie." Halliwell 

defines say as " a delicate serge or woollen cloth," quoting from Palsgrave 

" Saye clothe, serge" See Du Cange, Glossar. s. v. Seta. 
p. 7, 1. 219. " J>at toched mannes dede ; " that was the part or duty of a man ; 

compare 1. 1435. 
p. 8, 11. 234, &c. The process of arming is not so minutely described here as in 

Sir Gawayne, 1. 567, et seq., on which see Sir F. Madden's note in his edition 

for the Bannatyne Club, 1839, p. 314. 
p. 8. 11. 246-7. In the Fr. version Oliver is more definite as to the reward ho 

purposes to give Garyn : 



NOTES TO p. 8, 11. 241 259. 193 

" Ferrant, dist Oliviers, bien ait qui te garda ! 
Si je vif longuement, moult grant preu i ara, 
A Pasques, en avril, chevalier en sera." 

p. 8, 1. 241. " hys styrop trepede he no^t \ " that is, he did not place his foot in 

the stirrup, but vaulted into the saddle. 
p. 8, 1. 253. "K'au plus fier Sarrazin ancui se combatr 

Qui ains fust en cest sieucle, ne jamais i ssera ! ' 

p. 8, 1. 256. " blessed him ; " signed himself with the sign of the cross ; in Cax- 
ton's version " blessyd hym in makyng the.sygne of the crosse ; " compare 
" blesce J)e al abuten mid te eadie rode tocne." Ancren Riwle, p. 290. The 
act of making the sign of the cross is still called, "blessing one's-self" by 
Catholics. See Myrc's Instructions for Parish Priests (E. E. T. S., ed. Peacock), 
p. 9, 1. 280. 

"And blesse [hem] feyre as ey conne 
Whenne gloria tibi ys by-gonne." 

p. 8, 1. 258. On the cover the following lines corresponding with 11. 258 261 of 
the corrected copy are legible : 

"As Charlys stod by chance at conseil wit/i his feris, 
J\. Whiche J?at wern of fmnce his o^ene do^epers. 

Roland ' 

& J?an him for-Jjo^te .... he had" . . . 

p. 8, 1. 259. " do]>J)eperen." On this curious form see remarks on 1. 197, 
above. 

The names of the douzeperes are variously given in the MSS. Thus the 
present Romance gives them as Roland, Oliver, Terry, Geoffrey, Ogier, Basyn, 
Naymes, Richard of Normandy, Berard, 'Aubrey, Gwylmer, and Guy of 
Burgundy 

The Lansdowne MS. gives Roland, Oliver, Geryn, Gerer, Berenger, Otto, 
Samson, Engeller, Ivon, Ivoire, Anseis, and Girard 1 ; while in Otuel and Roland 
& Vernagu (ed. for the Abbotsford Club, from the Auchinleck MS. in 1836) no 
regular lists are given. Caxton, following the prose Fierabras, says "the 
barons of themperour Charles and pyeres of Fraunce ben sayd? comynly in 
nombre xij or riij . . . But of the lordes valyaunte capytaynes were more than 
xiij after that L fynde" (sign. B viii, col. 1). He then gives the following 
names, sixteen in number : Roland, Earl of Cenonia, Oliver, Richard, Garyn, 
Geoffrey, Hoel, Ogier, Naymes, Thierry, Basyn, Guy, Caudeboy, Ganellon, 
Sampson, Alorys, and Gwylmer. 

In the Sowdone of Babyloyne also the dou^epairs are sixteen in number : 
Roland, Oliver, Regnier, Richard of Normandy, Garyn of Lorraine, Geoffrey, 
Hoel, Ogier, Lambert of Brussels, Naymes, Thierry (Terry), Basyn, Guy of 
Burgundy, Gaudeboys, Ganellon, Sanson of Burgundy. But at 11. 1680 
1722, we find other names mentioned which do not appear in the foregoing 
list. Thus we have, Bery, Baliante, Aleroyse, Miron, Turpin, Bernard of 
Prussia, Bryere, and Naymes. 

1 Although Ogier is not included in the Chanson de Roland amongst the douzejieres, 
yet he is the most important personage after Roland. 

FERUMBRAS. O 



191 NOTES TO pp. 8 10, 11. 267 326. 

M. Gaston Paris in Ins Histoire Poetique de Charlemagne, Paris, 1865, p. 507, 
gives the names as found in the French versions. See also his remarks, ibid. 
pp. 416418. 

p. 8, 1. 267. The following portion of the original draft corresponding with 11. 
267-9 is legible on the cover : 

" Many was j?e kuy^t j?at him beheld i wa>i he spak his resoiw. 
He said to >e kyng ]>er as he wes . ' y . . . . haue j?e serued ^ore, 

in werre & in lond of pes, wel vij ^er & more '." 

p. 9, 1. 276. "neuere ous two to-sterte ; " we two have never been separated, 
p. 9, 1. 286. " lome." Generally found in combination as " oft and lome." For 
examples see Stratmann. The comparative lommere occurs in P. Plowman, C. 
xxiii. 238, where it is glossed by the scribe sepius. 

p. 9, 1. 302. " Gweneloun." It is one of the signs of the popularity of the 
Charlemagne Romances, that this name should have become synonymous with 
the basest treachery. Thus Chaucer, Monks Tale, 3579, uses it as an epithet, 
when he speaks of " Genylou Olyuer, corrupt for mede ; " and again, Boke of the 
Duchess, 1121 : 

" Or the false Geniloun 
He that purchased the trayson 
Of Rouland and of Olivere." 

See also Gesta Romanorum, Tale Ixxviii, p. 396. 
p. 10, 1. 304. From this line we learn the date of the action of the Romance. 

See the Introduction, p. xvi, and note. 

p. 10, 1. 307. " As the law decreed in the case of traitors." 

p. 10, 1. 311. " Rewardet," agreed, determined : cf. 1. 3452. " Tweyre ; " 
A. S. twegra, gen. of twegen, two. There are not many instances of its 
occurrence. In La^amon, ed. Madden, ii. 312, 11. 17568-9, we have 

" f?at hii wolde al J?is lond i fette in hire tmeire bond/' 

and 11. 21436, " fette in ^oure tweire hond." See also Ancren Riivle, p. 406, 
" i J>isse tweire monglunge.* The meaning of the line is That that which is 
agreed upon by the consent of any two, any third person, upon whom they may 
fix, shall be bound to perform. Caxton's version is, " ye haue ordeyned! that it 
whyche by ij of vs is juged? ought to be holden." The French version runs 
" Que ce que li doi jugent, puis k'i 1'ont affreme, 
Aler estuet le tierc, ensi 1'ont creante. 
Nous jujon Olivier, si 1'avons esgarde, 
Qu'il fera la bataille au paien deffae." 

p. 10, 1. 322. "Puis dist entre ses dens ; 'Diex li doist courte vie.' " 
p. 10, 1. 324. " dere herte." Compare Gesta Romanorum (E. E. T. Soc., ed. 
Herrtage, 1879), p. 181 : " yf fiou do welle, j?ow shalte be myn owne dcre 
harte ; " and Troilus and Creseide, iii. 988 : " Lo ! herte mine" and in the next 
stanza, " my dere herte." 
p. 10, 1. 325 k " Qwhylles he es qwykkeand in qmerte vnquellyde with handis." 

Morte Arthurs, ed. Brock, 1. 3810. 

See also note in Cathol. Anglicum, s.v.v. Inquarte and Quarte. 
p. 10, 1. 326. " Were it not for thy grievous wound, I am sure thou wouldst fare 
well." 



NOTES TO pp. 10 17, 11. 328 447. 195 

p. 10, 1. 328-9. "Duk Reyner .... Olyuers fader." So we find in all the 
authors with the exception of one passage in David Aubert (chapt. 39) : " Com- 
ment le roy Fourre fu occis contre le gre de 1'empereur par Olivier de Viane, 
qui vengea la mort de son pere Gerier que Fourre avoit occis," &c., but as the 
same author elsewhere gives the names correctly, this is doubtless, as pointed 
out by M. Gaston Paris, a slip on the part of the writer or the copier. (Hist. 
Poet., pp. 263-4.) 

p. 10, 1. 331. Here begins the legible portion of the original draught, which 
for convenience of comparison has been printed parallel to the corrected 
version. 

p. 11, 11. 334 337. These lines are an addition of the English translator : at 
least they do not occur in the surviving MSS. of Fierabras. As to the meaning 
of 1. 335, I cannot offer any suggestion. 

p. 11, 1. 351. Here the draught follows the original French more closely than the 
corrected copy : 

" La u voit Fierabras, si 1'a araisonne : 
' Sarrazins, d'ont es tu, tant nous as apele ? ' " 

The four following lines, 352 355, are not in the original French. 
p. 13, 1. 381. " alre." See note on 1. 2342. 

p. 13, 1. 384. " raply ; " quickly, hastily. For examples see Stratrnann, to which 
add" He ros vp raply : " Arthur, ed. Furnivall (E. E. T. Soc., 1864), 1. 87 ; 
P. Plowman, C. vii. 383, and Richard the Redeles (E. E. T. Soc., ed. Skeat), 
prol. 13. 
p. 14, 1. 400. " ladde (harlot) on Jjy fote." In the Fr. 

" Fui t'ent fors de la tere, mar enmerras destrier, 

A ton col .i. grant pel, a loi de pautonnier." 
The word pautener occurs hereafter, 1. 859, which see. 
p. 14, 1. 404. " letest so lite of me." Of. Richard the Redeles (E. E. T. Soc., ed. 

Skeat), iii. 284, and P. Plowman, B. vi. 170, " leet li}t of J?e lawe." 
p. 15, 1. 408. " stondej) aye." An old phrase meaning to stand in awe of, to fear. 
Thus in Harbour's Bruce (E. E. T. Soc., ed. Skeat), iii. 62, we have " stand 
awe," and in Havelok, ed. Skeat, 1. 277 : 

" Al engelond of him stod awe, 

All engelond was of him adrad," 

where the prep, in has been incorrectly and unnecessarily inserted before awe. 
See also The Wallace, v. 929, vi. 878, &c. 
p. 15, 1. 423. Notice that while in the original draught we have the ordinary 

form do^epers, in the corrected copy we have dotyeper 

p. 16, 1. 433. " f>e sonne hure sette." On the gender of the word Sun see Prof. 
Skeat's note to P. Plowman, C. xxi. 256, and my note to Gesta Romanorum, 
p. 12, 1. 14. 

p. 16, 1. 437. " Hym dredep nopyng," &c. In the original French 
" Tant fu fers et oribles et de grant cruautes 

Ne prisa Olivier .ii. deniers monnaes." 
p. 16, 1. 444. "Perigot." French, " Pieregort." 

p. 17, 447. " the kynges styward." French " Fius a un vavasour, c'avoit nom 
Ysores." 

O 2 



196 NOTES TO pp. 17 20, 11. 456 511. 

p. 17, I. 456. " Ogeroun Jje wi^te." The whole life of this celebrated hero i in 
the Royal MS. 15, E vi. 4. Ogier le Danois, due de Dannemarche, was printed 
at Paris about 1498. His old Gothic Sword, Spatha, and Iron Shield are still 
preserved in a monastery in the north. Bartholinus, Antiq. Domic, ii. 13, pp. 
578-9. For further notices see M. Michel's edition of Charlemagne from tho 
Royal MS. 16, E viii. 7, written in the 12th century (Paris, 1836); and Wartou, 
Hist, of Eng. Poetry, ii. 137-8. 

" Who more couragious then Renaldo ? who more invincible then Roldan ? 
who more comely or more courteous then Rogerof from whom the dukes of 
Ferrara at this day are descended (according to Turpin in his Cosmographie). 
All these knights, and many more, Master Vicar, that I could tell you, were 
knights errant, the very light and glorie of knighthood." Don Quixote, ed. 
Shelton, 1652, Part 2, chapt. 1, p. 139. 

p. 17, 1. 458. " Spelie." For examples of this rare word see Stratmann, to whose 
references add P. Plowman, C. vii. 432. 

p. 18, 1. 473. " cors of werre ; " as distinct from a " cors of pees," or a jousting 
match, which was usually conducted with spears without heads of iron. Thus 
in /Sir Degrevant, ed. Halliwell, 1. 1215, we read : 
" Thou shalt be servid, or I sess, 
Bothe of werre and of pess, 
Of ayther cours thre ; " 

and again, 1. 1261, we find mentioned u sperus of pese," which were the jousting 
weapons above alluded to. See Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, ed. Hone, p. 
141, and Meyrick, Antient Armour, Glossary. In MS. Lansdowne 285, leaf 10, 
are rules for the proper conduct of " justes of pees." 

p. 18, 1. 476. The horse of the vanquished became the property of the con- 
queror. There are numerous allusions to this custom. See, for instance, Sir 
Degrevant, 11. 1112, and 1119: " Syxty stedus he wan." 

p. 19, 1. 498. " Et voit le sane vermel a la tere couler, 

Car 1'ahans du ceval Ii ot fait escrever." 

p. 20, 1. 507. " J)ou blcrest no^t so myn e^e." A common expression for blind, 
deceive, delude. Thus Chaucer, Reeve's Tale (Cant. Tales, A. 4049) : " By my 
prift }it schal i blere here ie ; " and in Ly Beaus Disconus, 1. 1432 : 
" Wyth fantasme and fay rye 
Thus sche blerede Jtys yyv" 
See also P. Plowman, C. i. 72 ; Seven Sages, ed. Wright, 2952, &c. 

p. 20, 1. 510. "Myddel " : sic in MS., but probably we should read "my sadel ", 
as in the draught. Caxtou's version has, " two flagons haugyng on the sadil of 
my hors." " a costrel." French " voila .ij. barils." 

p. 20, 1. 511. This balm is thus referred to in Don Quixote, ed. Shelton, 1652 : 
" Be not grieved, friend Sancho, replyed the knight ; for I will now compound 
the precious Balsamum which will cure us in the twinkling of an eye." The 
ingredients of this Balsamum were Rosemary, Oil, Wine, and Salt, mixed to- 
gether in an old tin pot, and over it were said " eighty paternosters and as 
many Aves, Salves and Creeds . . . [he] did easily persuade himself that hee had 
hapned on the right manner of compounding the Balsamum of Fierabras ; and 
that having that medicine, lice might boldly from henceforth, undertake any 



NOTES TO pp. 20 23, 11. 521 580. 197 

ruines, battailes, conflicts or adventures, how dangerous soever." Lib. I, 
Pt Hi, chap. 3, pp. 31-2. 

p. 20, 1. 521. " by Jns li^te." A proverbial expression equivalent to " during 
this life." We have the same idea in different words at 1. 1744, where we find, 
"by Jjys leem." 
p. 21, 1. 525. " Kolandre." A form apparently invented metri gratia; compare 

the reading of the original draught, 
p. 21, 1. 528. " fer & ner." A phrase of common occurrence, and equivalent to, 

" all over, thoroughly." 

p. 22, 1. 544. The translator has here omitted a few lines in the original 
French : 

" Et respont Fierabras : ' trop me viels ore haster. 
Par foi, se tu me vois deseur mes pies ester, 
N'a si fier homme el siecle ne me doie douter.' 
' Certes, dist Olivier, trop t'ai o'i vanter. 
Miex vaut mesure a dire que ne fait sorparler ; 
A bon droit te devroit de ton cors meserrer.' " 

p. 22, I. 545. " bente hym brymly as a bor." A common simile in early poetry. 
Thus in Sir Degrevant, ed. Halliwell, Camden Society, 1844, 1. 1240, we read 
*' The eorl hoved and by held 

Brent as a bare," 
and in Shelton, Works, i. 187 : 

" Your bragynge bost, your royal aray, 
Your beard so brym as bore at bay" 
p. 22, 1. 548. " Had he ben," &c. French : 

" Se il vausist creir le digne roi Ihesu, 

N'eust tel chevalier dusques a Montagu." 
I-volled occurs in Robert of Gloucester. 

p. 23, 1. 580. Here the translator has passed aver several lines descriptive of 
Ferumbras's arms, &c., and particularly of his three swords, Plorance, Baptism, 
and Garbain, the whole pedigree of which is given. In fact the whole account 
of the combat is considerably altered in the present English version. 1 The author 
of the latter omits the incident of Oliver's assisting Ferumbras to arm, and the 
long harangue of Oliver made in the hope of converting the Saracen to Chris- 
tianity. 2 The French writer represents Ferumbras as then again offering the 
balm to Oliver, and its refusal. 

The French knights who are witnesses of the combat are alarmed for their 
champion's safety, and Charles, covering his head with his cloak, hurries to his 
chapel to pray for his success. Roland is anxious to join Oliver, but is pre- 
vented by the king, who reminds him of his refusal to accept the challenge. 
Both the combatants are wounded, and Ferumbras proposes, as he sees Oliver is 
pale from loss of blood, to leave off for a time, but the latter refuses. The 
prayer of Charlemagne to the Virgin then follows a curious specimen, since in 
it he declares that if Oliver is conquered, he will destroy all the altars and 

1 The account as given in the Sowdone follows the French text exactly. 

2 Compare the very amusing description of the duel between Magog the Saracen and 
Kauf Coiljear, ed. Murray, pp. 29 32. 



198 NOTES TO pp. 24 28, 11. 583 679. 

crucifixes, words for which Naymes reproaches him. Then comes a long 
prayer of Oliver, who is again wounded, but refuses the balm which Ferumbras 
offers him with the assurance that it will make him as lively as a swallow in 
May. The Saracen is then wounded, but having drunk some of the balm, is 
quickly restored. Oliver with a stroke of his sword cuts away the two bottles 
containing the balm, which fall to the ground (1. 742, English version). He 
leaps off his horse, seizes one of the bottles, drinks its contents, by which he is 
restored to strength, find then throws both into the river. The weight of the 
gold with which they are set causes them to sink, but on the feast of St. John 
they rise to the surface. Ferumbras in a rage slays Oliver's horse (1. 591, English 
version). The French wish to assist their countrymen, but Charles insists on 
fair-play to Ferumbras. The latter offers Oliver his own horse, and as the 
offer is refused, he himself dismounts. Charles utters another prayer, and an 
angel appears to him, and tells him that Oliver will be the conqueror, but not 
without severe wounds. 

Meanwhile the combat continues, and Ferumbras disarms Oliver : and advises 
him to renounce Christianity, offering him his sister Floripas in marriage. Oliver 
rejects the offer, and also refuses to accept his own sword back, but by a sudden 
spring seizes one of Ferumbras* swords, Baptism, with which he continues the 
combat. At length Ferumbras is seriously wounded and asks for mercy. 
Here the two versions again correspond. 

p. 24, 1. 583. in draught, " J)ylke " : sic in MS., read " jjykke ", as in the cor- 
rected copy. 

p. 25, 1. 601. " hir eyj>er." See note on 1. 677. 

p. 26, 1. 623. " cercle." This is not the padded wreath worn from the time of 
Richard II. to Henry IV. on the bacinet, but the more splendid band of gold- 
smiths* work enriched with jewels. It is called bordoure in the Awntyrs of 
Arthure, xxx. 4, and said to be " alle of brynte golde " ; and in the present 
poem, 1. 5627, it is termed the "cornel". See Roquefort, Glossaire, Supple- 
ment v. Helme, Plan die's Hist, of Costume, p. 160, &c. 

p. 26, 1. 631. Compare 1. 727. 

p. 26, 1. 636. In the French version this incident occurs before the fight 
begins. 

p. 27, 1. 652. " Y am Charlis Eemys sone." This would mean, " I am the son of 
Charlis' uncle," but I do not find that Reyner is in any other passage called the 
uncle of Charles, 

p. 27, 1. 661. "beyne," both. This is the 0. E. begen, which we find as bei^en, 
beien, beine, beyne, in Lazamon. In the Vernon MS. we read 
" Well Jjou maiht }if f>ou wolt, taken ensaumple of beyne, 
Bothe two in heor elde children heo beore." 

p. 27, 1. 677. " Vnder hure bo))en fete:" tmder the feet of both of them. So 
we find, " her neither may henten oj?er," P. Plowman, C. xvii. 81 : " her none," 
ibid. B. xiv. 239. Compare 1. 601, " hir ey]?er," and 1. 4146, "3our suwrne." 

p. 28, 1. 679. Apparently the line means, in the excitement and thrusting of the 
moment, to the. Saracen, &c. Cotgrave gives " Entrelas, in. A knot hard to be 
loosed, and intricate businesse, a work much entangled. Entrelassement, m. 
A setting, putting or thrusting in, between or among." 






NOTES TO pp. 28 34, 11. 681 813. 199 

p. 28, 1. 681. " to donde." This form occurs in " A Prayer to Our Lady," pr. 
(from the Addit. MS. 27,909) in An old Eng. Miscellany, E. E. T. Soc., ed. 
Morris, p. 123, 1. 15 " to donde sunne awei fram him." It is a corrupt form 
of the infinitive arising from a confusion of the gerundial form -nne, corrupted 
into -ing (see 1. 199), with the participial ending -ende. Thus in 0. E. 
Homilies, ed. Morris, ii. 57, we read : " the rihtwise [man fasteth] for to witiende 
his rihtwisnesse." 

It is worth noticing that in the French version the positions of the two com- 
batants are reversed, so far as this incident is concerned. 

p. 29, 1. 697. "many a schoure." We still speak of a ''shower of arrows, or 
darts," and the word was frequently used in that sense ; cf. flana scuras, showers 
of arrows, in the A.S. fragment of Judith. Compare 11. 771, 841. 

p. 30, 1. 719. I know of no other instances of the forms sot or soot for the past 
tense of the verb to sweat. Chaucer uses swot. 

p. 31, 1. 727. Compare 1. 631. 

p. 31, 1. 750. The following lines, corresponding with 11. 750-1 of the corrected 
copy, are at the back of the Fragment : 

" Of herte was F[erumbras] bo}?e hoi & sond i & plenyde him no Jjyng, 
[Ac] ful him dou?i knelyng on ]>e grond, & >ankede heueue kyng." 

There are also a few other lines partly legible, running round the margins, and 
some, but for the most part illegible, on the other cover. 

p. 32, 1. 753. " for Marie sone j?at mayde : " that is, " for the love of the Son 
of Mary that Virgin." Compare 1. 1270, " We buj> Charlis men Jje Emperere." 
The construction, though singular-looking, is not at all uncommon in Old 
English : thus in P. Plowman we find several examples, e. g. " For marie 
loue Jjy moder," i. e. for the love of Mary thy mother ; C-text, viii. 149 ; " Peers 
pardon J>e plouhman," i. e. the pardon of Piers the Plowman ; C-text, xxii. 187, 
392 ; " For Peers loue Jje plouhman ; " i. e. for the love of Piers the Plowman ; 
C. xvi. 131, xxiii. 77, &c. So again in William of Palerne, ed. Skeat, 1. 5437, 
" Themperours moder william," i. e. the mother of the Emperor William. See 
also Chaucer, Boke of the Duchesse, 1. 282 ; Squieres Tale, 209, &c. 

p. 32, 1. 756. " Are not worth thinking of." 

p. 33, 766. " y-core." So in La$amon, ed. Madden, 20971 : 
" Alle hii weren i-core i and he^e men i-bore." 

p. 33, 1. 771. " Went him." See Prof. Skeat's note to P. Plowman, B. Prologue 
1. 7. 

p. 33, 1. 774. " Goffanoun." " Gonfanon, m. A little square flag, or Penon at 
the end of a Launce; or (more particularly) an old-fashioned Banner, or square 
Standard, borne on the top of a Launce ; such as, even to this day, is used in the 
warres made by the Pope." Cotgrave. See also Meyrick, Antient Armour, 
Glossary. The French version reads : " Du pan de son bliaut li a les flans 
bendes." 

p. 34, 1. 800. " v pousant of ojjre and mo." This gives a total of 15,000, but 
the French text has "L M ." The " mo " in the English version seems to mean 
3 ; cf. 1. 815. 

p. 34, 1. 813. " Mantreblec." There appears to be some doubt as to the correct 



200 NOTES TO pp. 3438, 11. 819 940. 

spelling of this name. In the Sowdone of Babylon it is printed as " Moun- 
trible," and in the Complaint of Scotland, ed. Dr. Murray, p. 63, we have, " tho 
tail of the brig of the mantribil." The same spelling appears in Harbour's 
Bruce, ed. Skeat, iii. 455, where we find " Mantrybill." Shelton also refers to 
" Mantryble the bryge," Poems against Gamesche, ed. Dyce, i. 117, 1. 22 ; and 
so it appears also in Caxton's Lyf of Charles the Grete, 1485, which follows the 
original French prose Fierabras ; and in Shelton's translation of Don Quixote, 
Bk I, part iv, cap. xxii, p. 130, ed. 1675, where in the original Spanish the 
reference is to " Fierabras, con la pueiite de Mantible " (sic), part I. cap. xlix. 
On the other hand, the editors of the French version of Fierabras and of La 
Destruction de Rome print the name as " Mautrible," and so it seems sometimes 
to be in the Ashrnole MS. Considering, however, the slight difference between 
u and n in MSS., I have followed the reading which appears to have the weight 
of evidence in its favour. 

p. 34, 1. 819. " Hure commune horn," &c. In the French text " Es tres et as 
herberges ont olifans sonnes." 

p. 34, 1. 825. " jje woundede man fan he set adouw." In the original French 
this is done at Ferumbras' own desire, and Oliver, we are told, 
" Relement le couca desous le rame pin ; 

Ses espees li bailie, li rois 1'en fist enclin." 
The latter part of this line is repeated at 1. 838, below. 

p. 34, 1. 827. " iornay." The use of this word in the sense of combat is not 
uncommon ; compare Harbour's Bruce, ed. Skeat, xiii. 480 : 
" Him war levar that lou-rneye wer 

Wndone, than he swa ded had bene ; " 
and again, xx. 494 

" He come nocht to the lournee, 

For his Arme was brokyne in twa." 
We still use the expression "to win, or lose, the day'' 

p. 35, 1. 833. " at arst ; " i. e. " then for the first time." So in William of 
Palerne, ed. Skeat, 1. 1028 : 

" panne alisaundrine at arst j^an antresse him tille." 

p. 35, 1. 855. " Escaped from him by flight as best they might." 

p. 35, 1. 859. "pantener", read "pautener." This word occurs twice in Bar- 
four's Bruce, i. 462, and ii. 194. Cotgrave gives " Pautonnier. A lewd stubborn 
or saucy knave ;" and Burguy, " Paltonier, pautonier, homme sans profession ni 
demeure fixe ; homme de mauvaise vie, mechant, hautain, miserable, queux, 
coqnin." Halliwell quotes from Guy of Warwike, p. 113, "a felouu pautcmr." 
See 1. 400, above. The word occurs again, p. 121, 1. 3877. 

p. 36, 1. 876. "plate & maille." Plate armour was, as its name implies, formed 
u<l plates of steel or iron, while mail armour was composed of small rings or 
links. " Maille. Maile, or a linke of maile (wherof coats of mail be made) ; 
also a Hauther, or any little ring of mettall resembling a link of maile." 
Cotgrave. 

p. 37, 1. 928. '" schake." So in Lajamon, ed. Madden, 13,246 : " Nes per nan 
biscop fiat forfc on his weei ne scoc." 

p. 38, 1. 940. " Coruybourgh." French text, " Corauble. 



NOTES TO pp. 38, 39*, 11. 941 988. 201 

p. 38, 1. 941. "persched." ''To perche, vU to Thirl e," Catliol. Anglicum. For 
other instances of this and similar forms of the w.ord, see my Gesta Romanorum 
(E. E. T. Soc.), p. 47, 1. 28, and note thereon, 
p. 38, 1. 953. "vewe." One of the instances of v used for/, 
p. 38, 1. 955. " chacyej) for]) ; " i. e. hurry along with them. See instances in 

Stratmann. 

p. 38, 1. 956. " ri^dt : " for ridefh'; a very singular form. 
p. 38, 1. 966. " falsar^ : " hand-bills, in the French fausart. 

In the Chronicle MS. Bertrand du Guesclin we read : " D'espees et de 
faussars ot sur lui plus de cent," and again-^" Gettent dars et faussars, moult 
en vout ociant." 

John, the Monk of Mairemontier, i. Hist. Gauf. Due Normand says " Im- 
posita est capiti ejus cassis multo lapide pretioso relucens, quse talis temperatura3 
erat, ut nullius ensis acumine incidi velfalsijicari valeret." Robert de Bourron, 
Hist. Arthure et Merlin, has, " Li haubert aunt si fort et si tenant qu'il ne puent 
maille fausser" Meyrick, Antient Armour. 

p. 38, 1. 969. " wel thre score & mo." French text, " plus de xlvi." 
p. 38, 1. 971. " wel an akers lengjie." I know of no other instance of the use 
of the word acre as expressing a measure of distance. See notes to 11. 2270 
and 3040. A somewhat similar expression occurs in the amusing description 
of the fight between Rauf Coil^ear and Magog, the Saracen, where the latter 
strikes the former so hard that 

" The lenth of ane rude braid he gart him remufe." 

Ed. Murray, p. 30, 1. 861 
The expression occurs again, 1. 4699. 
p. 39, 1. 977. " su]>J>en y-set alle an horce." French text : 

" Sur bons chevaus les montent, n'i ot onques roncis." 
p. 39, 1. 984. At aualyng of a hulle ; " i. e. at the descent from a hill, &c. 

French text : A i' ava ler d'un tertre ont paiens consivis." 

p. 39, 1. 988. " Jjat schon so siluer bri^t ; " that shone as bright as silver. 
French text " dont li poins est burnis." 

In the poems of Pulci and Boyardo the name of Roland's celebrated sword 
appears as Durindana and Durlindana. The possession of this sword was so 
coveted that Gradasso, a powerful Eastern king, invaded France with 150,000 
men, in order to secure it and Rinaldo's horse. 

We find this sword referred to in the Roman de Horn (12th Century), MS. 
Harl. 527, leaf 61, back, col. 2, v. 40. 

"Unkes miel^ ne trenchat Curtein ne Durendal" 

One of the earliest authors who speaks of it is Rodulphus Tortarius, who lived 
at the end of the llth century, between 1096 and 1145 : 

" Ingreditur patrium gressu properante cubiclum, 

Diripit a clavo clamque patris gladium ; 
Rullandi fuit iste, viri virtute potentis, 

Quern patruus magims Karolus huic dederat. 
Et Rullandus eo semper pugnare solebat, 

Millia pagani multa necans populi." 
Histoire de VAcademie Roy ale des inscriptions, &c., vol. xxi. 4. p. 141. 



202 NOTES TO pp. 39, 40, 11. 996 1034. 

All the celebrated warriors of romance appear to have given names to their 
swords : thus we find Charles' own sword termed Joieuse (see below, 1. 4G83, 
Chanson de Roland, ed. M. Michel, st. 179, 11. 6, 13) ; Turpin's Almace (ibid. st. 
153, 1. 7); Baligant's Mullet (ibid. st. 227, 1. 15); Richard of Normandy's 
Escalidars (Romance of Ogier le Danois, ed. Adenez) ; Oliver's Hautecleer ; 
Ogier's Cortine, and others. Ferumbras in the French version has three swords, 
Plorance, Baptisme, and Garbain. 

The following account of Durendal is from Le Premier Livre de la plaisante et 
delectable histoire de Gerileon d'Angleterre, by Estienne de Maisonneufve Borde- 
lois, Paris, 1572, 8. leaf 47, back : " Apres cela elle (la fee Oziris) tira du dit 
cabinet vne espee large, belle et bien trenchante au possible, le fourreau de laquelle 
estoit de la peau d'un grand serpent, qui fut occis par Hercule lors qu'il estoit 
encore bien jeune, laquelle estoit si proprement mouchetee qu'encore qu'elle n'eust 
este garnie et conuerte de plusieurs diamans, rubis, et autres pierres precieuses, 
ayant este mise a 1'opposite du Soleil, elle eust rendu plus grand lueur et clarte que 

le mesme or s'appeloit Duransarde, que ledit Nabot auoit conquise sur 

le merueilleux et epouuantable Geant Scarafarab, qui estoit de la race d'Aricelade, 
vn de ceux qui voulant jadis monter au ciel furent foudroyez par Jupiter." In 
a work published at Paris in 1555, by Pierre Bel on du Mans, entitled, 
Observations de plusieurs singularitez et choses memorabiles, trouuees en Grece, 
Asie } &c., Bk. III. chapt. 42, leaf 204, we are told that, "La grand espee de 
Roland pend encore pour 1'heure presente a la porte du chasteau de Bource. 
Les Turcs la gardent chere com me quelque reliquaire ; car ils pensent que 
Roland estoit Turc, au moins s'il pent estre vray ce que le vulgaire en pense." 
In the French Fierabras Durendal is said to have been made by Munificans, one 
of three brothers who forged nine celebrated swords, three of which I have 
already mentioned as belonging to Ferumbras, the others being Musagine, 
Courtain (Ogier's) Floberge, Hauteclere, and loieuse. 

Roland's dying address to his sword, in which he fully describes it, will be 
found in the Chanson de Roland, ed. Michel, st. 169, p. 90 ; and in Turpin's 
Vita Caroli Magni, Florence, 1822, chapt. xxiii. pp. 66-7. In this latter work 
will be also found, p. 147, a long and interesting account of an ancient sword 
corresponding in almost every particular with Durendal, as described by Roland 
himself. 

p. 39, 1. 996. " on ys yre," i e. on his ear. The form ieare occurs in the Ayenbite 
of Inwyt, ed. Morris, 211 ; and tare in An English Miscellany, ed. Morris, 
p. 36. 

p. "39, 1. 1000. " prysouns," prisoners, as frequently found in early writers. 
Similarly we have message, for a messenger, Chaucer, Man of Lawe's Tale, 333. 
See the Story of Genesis and Exodus, ed. Morris, 1. 2044 ; P. Plowman, C. x. 
72 ; xxi. 59, &c. 

p. 39, 1. 1001. " with rendouns ; " i. e. at full speed. Cotgrave gives, " Aller a 
grand randon. To go very fast, or with a great and forced pace." So in Bevis 
of Hampton, p. 139, " He rod to him with gret randoun." 

p. 39, 1. 1003. " potte an auenture ; " risked, ventured. The Catholicon Anglicum, 
E. E. T. Soc. ; ed. Heritage, gives " to In Awntyr. In evenlu ponere." 

p. 40, 1. 1034. "sechyng oil ])e playne." French, " le camp ont recerquie." 



NOTES TO pp. 40 42, 11. 1070 1118. 203 

p. 40, 1. 1070. In the French text it is Roland and Ogier who disarm 
Ferumbras. 

p. 40, 1. 1071. " sengle." Apparently the meaning is undressed; the French 
text reads " Li rois est remens sengles on bliaut gironne." 

p. 40, 1. 1072. Compare 1. 1942. In the French text Ferumbras is thus 
described ^ Gros f u par les espaules, grailles par le baudre 
Et ample ot le viaire, gentement figure, 
Les ex vairs en la teste comme faucons mue." 

p. 41, 1. 1082. " an archebisschop." In the French text 
" II apela Milon et Turpin 1'aloses, 
Deus rices arcevesques de mpult grand saintete. 

p. 42, 1. 1087. It was the custom for persons converted to Christianity to change 
their names. 

p. 42, 1. 1094. " taste is wounde," i. e. examine by touch, probe. In a similar 
way we find the expression " to fele a savour." The translator has literally 
rendered the French original, which has "Us sont venus au roi, les flans 
li ont tastes." Cotgrave gives " Taster. To taste; or take an essay of; also 
to handle, feele, touch, or grope for." The same expression occurs in Horn 
Childe and Maiden Rimnild (pr. in Ritson's Metr. Rom., p. 309) : 
" The maiden tast Homes mounde 

The kinges doubter in that stounde. 

See also P. Plowman. B. xviii. 84. Caxton's version reads "sercheden his 
woundes." 

p. 42, 1. 1104. "atte frome :" at first. The expression occurs in the Owl and 
Nightingale, ed. Stratmann, 1513. Compare also the Castel off Loue, ed. 
Weymouth, 595 : 

" Herkenefj now forj?ere atte frome 

How vr Saueor wolde come ; " 
and in the Anglo-Saxon Gospel of St. John i. 1, " Onfruman waes word," &c. 

p. 42, 1. 1109. This celebrated bridge is thus referred to in Don Quixote, ed. 
Shelton, 1675 : " See what wit is there in the world so profound, that can in- 
duce another to beleeve that the History of Guy of Burgundie, and the Princes 
Floripes was not true ? Nor that of Fierabras, with the Bridg of Mantible, 
which befell in Charlemaines time, and is I swear, as true, as that it is day at 
this instant ? And if it be a Lie so must it be also that ever there was an 
Hector, Achilles, or the War of Troy ; The twelve Peeres of France, or King Ar- 
thur of Britaine, who goes ^et about the world in the shape of a Crow, and is 

euery foote expected in his kingdome and in Roncesuals there yet hangs 

Rowlands home, which is as big as a very great joyst." Lib. I, Part iv, 
chapt. xxii, p. 130. 

p. 42, 1. 1112. " prisouns." See note to 1. 883, above. 

p. 42, 1. 1115. " Carful ; " full of care, wretched. Compare P. Plowman, C. xiii. 
103, and see Luke xiv. 13, and 1. 5221, below. 

p. 42, 1. 1118. " Amerel ". The following are the various forms under which 
this word appears in the romances. In Fierabras we have Amirans and Ami- 
rant ; in the Provencal version, Almiran ; in the Sowdone Admyrall 9 Amiral ; 
in Caxton Admyral. 



204 NOTES TO pp. 43 48, 11. 1146 1307. 

p. 43, 1. 1146. " J>es moste man ; " this the tallest man, &c. 

p. 44, 1. 1159. " bro^t of lyues dawe ; " killed : a common expression. Compare 

1. 1588: 

(> Maui a bold burn was sone brourt of dame" 

William of Palerne, ed. Skeat, 3817. 

and " Mani a bold burne sone brourt of Hue." ibid. 1159. 

p. 44, 1. 1176. " no^t for J>at ; " nevertheless. Compare the modern expression 

for all that. At 1. 5265 we have the form for JJGMZ. 
p. 44, 1. 1186. " stokkes of trow ;" in wooden stocks, pillories. French text 

" En ma cartre profonde en eslroit les metes." 
p. 45, 1. 1201. " Sche was a maydo fair & swet." Floripas is described as 

follows in the French text : 

" Moult par ot gent le cors, escevi et mole, 
Le car ot tenre et blance comme flours en este, 
La face vermellette comme rose de pre 
La bouce petitete, et li dent sont sere, 
Ki plus estoient blanc k'ivoire replane. 
Les levres ot grossetes, dou rouge it ot asses, 
Le nes ot bien seant, le front bel et plane, 
Les ex vairs et rians plus d'un faucon mue." 

p. 45, 1. 1206. " on & on ; " one and one, that is of this one and that one, of 
everyone. Compare our expression " of one and another," and see 1. 1193. 

p. 45, 1. 1211. "in baile;" in custody, confinement. "Bail. A wardship, 
tuition, government." Cotgrave. See Kyng Alisaunder, ed. Weber, 7532, &c. 

p. 46, 1. 1238. " preynte." According to Prof. Skeat from an A.S. verb prinken, 
to wink, of which, however, we find but slight traces. In Halliwell we have 
" Prink, to look at, gaze upon. West." The word occurs in P. Plowman, 
B. xiii. 112 : 

J?anne conscience curteisliche . a contenaunce he made, 
And preynte vpon pacience . to preie me to be stille." 

It occurs again in the present poem, 11. 1365, and 4507. 

p. 47, 1. 1264. Note the change in the tenses. 

p. 47, 1. 1270. See note to 1. 753. 

p. 47, 1. 1284. t( at Ipy paye ; " at thy pleasure, to please thee. 

p. 47, 1. 1289. " Doggedlich ; " i. e. dogtelich, doughtily, valiantly, 

p. 47, 1. 1290. " helue." See 1. 103 

p. 47, 1. 1291. " by hur selue ;" with herself. 

p. 47, 1. 1294. " Moult vaut miex boins taisirs que folement parler." 

p. 48, 1. 1304. In the French text 

" l Je quit c'as pucieles sives moult bien juer, 
En cambre sons cortine baisier et acoler.' 
Dist Guillemers 1'Escos : * Biens saves deviner, 
Juqu'en Jherusalem ne trouveries son per.' " 

Caxton's version has, " I byleue veryly that ye can wel playe with maydens of 
eage in sorame chaumbre vnder curtevnes, & dysporte you in loue : I trowe ye 
knowe how and what maner." 
p. 48, 1. 1307. In the French text Floripas sends Harmucet (Maumecet) not for 



NOTES TO pp. 4851, 11. 13111370. 205 

a sledge-hammer, anvil, &c., but for a long rope with which she pulls the knights 
up from the dungeon ; and so in Caxton's version. 
p. 48, 1. 1311. Compare P. Plowman, C. xiii. 117 

" Euery man help oj?er, for hennes shullej? we alle." 

p. 48, 1. 1316. "^eate." This pronunciation of gate still survives in Devonshire. 
The line is literally translated from the French 

" Par une gaste porte de viel antequite." 

p. 48, 1. 1324 1331. This description of the chamber of Floripas differs alto- 
gether from that in the French text, in whic'h onjy the ceiling is described as 
follows : Desus la maistre vaute avoit par art pose 

Le ciel et les estoiles, et yver et este, 
La lune et li solaus, qui nous donne clarte, 
Forers, teres et puis, i est tout painture, 
Li oisiel et les bestes et li serpent creste." 

The author then tells us that the chamber was built by king Methuselah, who 
he assures us ("ce dist on par verte") died of grief because king Naaman desired 
to have it. Surely an extraordinary jumble of personages. The garden is then 
described, amongst the plants growing in which is the Mandrake, which will 
cure any wound or disease. 

With the description of Floripas's room as here given compare that in Sir 
Degrevant, ed. Halliwell, 11. 1425 1500 (where amongst the wall-paintings we 
find one of " Grete Charlus with the crounne "), and the following from Early 
English Miscellanies, Warton Club, 1855, ed. Halliwell, p. 4 : 
" The towres shal be of every, Clene corven by and by, 
The dore of whallus bone; 

The cowpuls alle of galyngalle, The bemus alle of ryche coralle, 
Kyally begone ; 

The dosers alle of camaca, The bankers alle of taifaca, 
The quysschyns alle of velvet ; 

The wyndows alle of jasper stone, The pelowrs of coralle everychone, 
With joye joyned in gete," &c. 

p. 48, 1. 1325. So in Sir Guy, 

" The walls therof were of cristall, 

And the sommers of corrall." 

p. 50, 1. 1329. Compare La^amon, 24,598 ; " mid golde bi-gon." 
p. 50, 1. 1341. *' sente." Probably sendal, a species of rich thin silken stuff, 
highly esteemed. See Strutt, II. 3 ; Guy of WarwiJce, p. 421, &c. Or it may 
mean that the bedsteads were of Sendal-wood. " Sendal. Sandal, sendail ; Bois 
rouge des Indes." Roquefort. 
p. 50, 1. 1359. " Or y ha told Jjy fader fore ; " before I have informed thy father. 

The fore appears to be superfluous. 
p. 50, 1. 1360. "chaunged was al hure blee." In the French text 

" si a le sane mue : 

Son pere moult redoute et sa grant cruaute.' 
p. 50, 1. 1365. " preynte." See note to 1. 1238. 
p. 50, 1. 1368. " hur cast ; " French, sa volente. 
p. 51, 1. 1370. " J)at olde trate ; " that old woman. An expression of contempt 



206 NOTES TO pp. 5157, 11. 13861633. 

Halliwell curiously enough quotes the word from the Towneley Mysteries, p. 
150, misspelling it crate, and corrects Ritson for spelling it correctly. (See 
Halliwell s.v. Crate.) In the present instance the first letter of the word in the 
MS. is certainly more like c than t. but these are letters between which it is at 
times almost impossible to distinguish. 

p. 51, I. 1386. " Sche fet him a drench." In the French text Floripas gives 
Oliver a small bit of the Mandrake already referred to as growing in the garden, 
but the effect is the same. 

p. 51, 1. 1387. " sone Jms; " at once. See Introduction, p. xxvii. 

p. 51, 1. 1388. " gropede ; " felt. So Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 6556, tells 
us that in Hell the darkness will be such " Jjat it may be graped, swa thik 
it es." 

p. 51, 1. 1391. " tau^te fat sche was free ; " showed that she had learnt politeness 
and courtesy. 

p. 51, 1. 1407. " by is power ; " according to his power. 

p. 52, 1. 1450. " Myn herte me 3ifj>." Compare the modern expression my 
heart misgives me. 

p. 52, 1. 1463. " to don him sle ther ;" to cause him to be slain there. See 
Introduction, p. xxiii. 

p. 54, 1. 1512. " Vij." Trench text " xv." 

p. 54, 1. 1525. " Myne amendes make ; " that is, make amends, satisfaction to 
me. The expression occurs several times in the present poem. Amendes is 
singular, as in Pecock's Represser (Rolls Series, ed. Babington, p. 110), where 
we read, " a sufficient amendes" and in the Catholicon Anglicum we have, " an 
Amendes. Emenda, emendacio, correceio." See hereafter, 11. 1724, 1768. 

p. 54, 1. 1527. " in fee ; *' that is as a knight held his land from his sovereign, 
or a vassal from his lord. Spelman defines Fee as " the right which the vassal 
has in land, or some immoveable thing of his lord's, to use the same, and take 
the profits of it hereditarily, rendering to his lord such feudal duties and ser- 
vices as*belong to military tenure ; the meer propriety of the soil remaining 
always vested in the lord." 

p. 55, 1. 1579. See note to 1. 197 above. 

p. 55, 1. 1580. French text reads 

" Tels .x. en materoie ains soleil esconse ; 
Mais envoie jouster .1. legier baceler, 
Car trop aves eel cief et canu et melle." 

p. 56, 1. 1595. " fe hedes on J?e tre by-lafte ; " the heads remaining on the 
shafts. 

p. 56, 1. 1602. " What halt it ; " of what use is it to make a long story of it, to 
delay us in our tale ? 

p. 57, 1. 1621. " requilled hem alle ; " drove together. In the French text : 

" Et aquellent Francois environ de tous les." 

Requilled represents the Latin recolligere as Aquellent represents accolliqere. 
" Aqueillir. Associer. Accolligere" Roquefort. 

p. 57, 1. 1633. " seuen glotouns." French " vii gloutons." We have already 
had the word as used by Charles to Roland on his refusal to accept Ferumbras' 
challenge : see 1. 164. 



NOTES TO pp. 57 60, 11. 1638 1730. 207 

p. 57, 1. 1638. " Hure wyle mi^t J>ow now wel }ylde ; " thou canst now well 

requite their treachery, 
p. 57, 1. 1639. " Al qnike y rede ]>an let hem hylde ; " I recommend that thou 

cause them to be skinned alive, 
p. 58, 1. 1653. " stent ; " for standeth : as we say, How matters stand. See L 

2035. 

p. 58, 1. 1666. " Al so mot y waxe ; " so may I thrive, prosper, 
p. 58, 1. 1667. " prensenty." French prensenter. 
p. 58,1. 1671. "vassalage;" conduct becoming to a knight. "Vasselage, 

vasselaige : Courage, valeur, action de valeur, action courageouse, prouesse, force 

de corps." Roquefort. 

p. 58, 1. 1672. " an hed." In the French text, " Cascuns saisi .ii. testes." 
p. 58, 1. 1674. " aferrom ; " far off, from afar. So in Morte Arthure (E. E. T. 

Soc., ed. Brock), 856 : 

" We folowede o ferrome moo thene fyfe hundrethe." 
p. 58, 1. 1678. " Richard ; " in the French Ogier li danois. 
p. 58, 1. 1680. " J?ef." Sic in MS. Read }>es. Compare 1. 4315, below, 
p. 58, 1. 1682. " Sixty pers." French " xxx. ars." 
p. 58, 1. 1684. French text 

" X breteques y a, chascune sor piler, 

Et peut bien sur caseune .x. chevaliers ester." 
p. 58, 1. 1687. We are told afterwards in the French text that the river was 12 

feet deep, and the lowest pier 30 yards high. 
p. 59, 1. 1700. " Who, to look at, seems a fiend." 
p. 59, 1. 1701. u Hache." French " mace." 
p. 59, 1. 1705. Compare note on 1. 1042. 
p. 59, 1. 1708. " ther by-gynnej) luj^er hansel ; " that is here is a bad beginning. 

Hansel is literally " the first money taken for the sale of any commodity, or 

taken the first in the morning." Bailey. 
p. 59, 1. 1711. " I will try to find out his intentions, and delay him a while, till 

you shall all have passed over." 
p. 59, 1. 1715. " it mi3te be dure abo3t." French text reads : " Viels tu donner 

.i. cop pour .xv. recouvrer ? " 
p. 60, 1. 1729. It is singular that the author of the English version should omit 

here four lines in which Naymes accounts to Alagolofure for the heads which 

each knight carries at his saddle-bow, a point on which the Bridge-ward would 

naturally demand an explanation : 

" XV. larrons trouvames la val enmi ces pres, 
Si nous vaurent tolir no destriers sejournes. 
Mais, merci Diu de glore, i 1'ont cier compere ; 
Vees ici les testes, se vous ne m'en crees." 

which, it will be seen, correspond with Roland's statement to the Emir, at 11. 

16831687. 
p. 60, 1. 1734. " It is not easy to get." Literally from the French, " n'est legiers 

a trouver." 

p. 60, 1. 1736. " an hundred." French, " viiV 
p. 60, 1. 1739. French text gives : 



208 NOTES TO pp. 60 64, 11. 1741 1872. 

" Et 31. palefrois fors, 31. destriers sejournes, 
Et du pie du ceval 31. mars d'or esmeres, 
Apres d'or et d'argent .iiii. sonmiers trouses." 

p. 60, 1. 1741. " nemaj) gome ; " take heed, notice. 

" Son he seide, tak good gome, 
^yven J?ou hast jjin owne dome." 

Cursor Mundi, ed. Morris, 1. 7937. 

p. 60, 1. 1748. " barneys ; " baggage, impedimenta. The author follows the French 
text literally: " Ci vient nostre harnois." " Harnas, Armure complete, 
ornement ; meubles et ustensiles de menage ; bagage, outils ; en bas lat. 
harnesium." Roquefort. 

p. 60, 1. 1750. "hertes of gresse;" fat harts; already, ]. 1619, called " hertes 
refet at al," Grease or gree&e is the fat of a hare, boar, wolf, deer, &c. and 
the season for killing harts and -bucks was called grease-time, because they were 
then fattest. See Morte Arthure, ed. Brock, 1. 658 and 1101. 

p. 60, 1. 1773. " on a grene erber." In the French text : " Siet sous eel arbre 
rameV ; O.Fr. herbier, Lat. herbarium, a garden. The spelling erber occurs in 
some MSS. of P. Plowman, B. text, xvi. 15, and in P. Ploivman's Crede, 1. 166, 
we find the plural erberes. The word was afterwards confounded with harbour 
(herberwe), and, still later, was misspelt arbour from an erroneous idea that it 
was connected with Lat. arbor, a tree. See Dr. Murray's note on Thomas of 
Ercildoune (E. E. T. Soc.), 1. 177. 

p. 60, 1. 1793. " Roland." In the French text it is Naymes who speaks first, 
but the words and actions used are the same, and are certainly more appropriate 
to the reckless Roland than to the quiet Naymes. 

p. 60, 1. 1808. " By ous sente he J?e to sayn ; " by us he sent the message to 
deliver to thee. So in Lonelich's Holy Grail, ed. Furnivall, xiii. 48, u And 
thus the sente to seyne Ech del ; " and xii. 187, " And therefore the sente to 
sein be me." See also below, p. 121, 1. 1866. 

p. 63, 1. 1841. " his amendes." See note on 1. 1525, and compare 11. 1885 
and 4150. 

p. 63, 1. 1844. " abust ; " tellest ; a shortened form for abeodest. Wrongly 
explained in Halliwell. 

p. 63, 1. 1860. " Oil qui m'oeist Corsuble et mon oncle Mautrie. 

p. 63, 1. 1861. See note to 1. 521. 

p. 64, 1. 1872. " ^ea, truptJ" an exclamation of contempt. It occurs in a poem 
on the reign of Edward I., printed in Mr. Wright's Political Songs (Cainden 
Society, 1839), p. 223. " Tprot, Scot, for thi strif ! " on which the Editor 
remarks " The word tprot appears to be a mere exclamation of contempt. In 
a poem on ' The Propertees of the Shyres of Engelond/ printed by Hearne in 
the Introduction to the fifth volume of Leland's Itinerary, we find it used, as 
here, against the Scots : 

' Northumbrelond hasty and hoot ; 

Westmerlond tprut Scotte.' 

In Sir Thomas de la More's Chronicle, it is applied to King Edward II : 
* Tprut ! Sire King ! ' It seems to be taken from the French: in Jean BodelY 
Jeu de S. Nicolas (Theatre Frangais au Hoy en- Age, ed. MM. Moumerque and 



NOTES TO pp. 6469, 11. 18902059. 209 

Michel) it is put into the mouths of the common gamblers in a public- 
house : 

' Tproupt ! tproupt ! bevons hardiement : 

Ne faisons si le coc eruplat ' (p. 183). 
And again, immediately after (p. 184) : 

' Tproupt ! tproupt ! ou que soit passe, Diex ! ' " 

It seems to be a' word coined for the purpose of expressing visibly the sound 
made with the lips in uttering an ejaculation of contempt, 
p. 64, 1. 1890. I cannot explain this line. 

p. 64, 1. 1893. " how he let his lif ; " how he spends (ledeth) his life, 
p. 64, 11. 1895 1898. Are additions of the English translator. 
p. 65, 1. 1907. " J>is day ^at or none." Fr. " ains 1'eure de complie," which is a 

very different thing, bring the time for the last prayers of the day. 
p. 65, 1. 1913. " wij)oute more distaunce;" without any further contest." 
p. 66, 1. 1942. " sengle." Compare 1. 1071 : French text : 
' En la pure cemise soit li tiens cors remes, 

Sor ton col une selle d'un destrier sejoume." 

p. 66, 1. 1953. " lete don of dawe ; " caused to be put to death. Compare 1. It59. 
p. 67, 1. 1976. Note the two forms " heo " and " sche " in this line, 
p. 67, 1. 1992. " let hewen hem flesch & bon." French text: 
" Or leur faites les pies et les menbres cauper, 

Et ardoir en .1. fu par dehors la cite." 
p. 67, 1. 2007. " a-sotid." French text, assote. 
p. 68, 1. 2008. " duke Myloun." French text : 

" Du rice due Milon vous devroit ramenbrer, 
Qui tant nori Grirart, qu'il ot fait adouber ; 
Puis li tolli sa lille, Galiene au vis eler, 
L'enfant Garsilium en fist desireter." 

p. 68, 1. 2016. " J>ow gadelyng horesone." French text : 
" Fils a putain, fait elle, lecierres parjures." 
p. 68, 1. 2019. " y wol pe teche," &c. French text : 
" Je te donroie ja tel de mon puing ou nes 

Que tres parmi la goule te sauroit li sans clers." 
p. 68, 1. 2021. "prysouns." See note on 1. 883. 
p. 68, 1. 2027. The rime requires that we should read " het schitte the dore 

faste" The line is written over another erased, 
p. 68, 1. 2032. " aspye ; " enquire, 
p. 68, 1. 2034. " may him gayme ; " that may amuse him. Lines 2031 to 2036 

are an addition of the English translator. 
p. 68, 1. 2035. " stent." See note to 1. 1653. 
p. 68, 1. 2036. " do^opers." It is strange that here the author should spell this 

word correctly, while elsewhere we find " dojjjjopers." See note to 1. 197. 
p. 69, 1. 2053. " jjou madest an hard vyage." French text : 

"He Diex ! dist Floripas, or est Karles ires." 

p. 69, 1. 2059. " Corsible of Mantrie." In the French version these two names 
appear as representing two distinct persons : 

FERUMBRAS. p 



210 NOTES TO pp. 69 74, 11. 2065 2232. 

"Tu m'ocesis Corsuble et mon oncle Matrie," as in 1. 18GO. 
p. 69, 1. 2065. " Roland my name is call id ri^t." French text : 

"Fix sui Milon d'Engler, 
Et si ai nom Rollans, ensi sui apeles." 

p. 69, 1. 2076. " Wan fat my fader," &c. Compare before, 11. 14121425. 
p. 70, 1. 2085. " his; " probably an error for " he." 
p. 70, 1. 2092. "vi. fet." French text, " deus iiij pies mesures." 
p. 71, 1. 2140. " pus wyle ; " the while, while. 
p. 71, 1. 2142. "a wykkeder man," &c. French text : " N'ot tant felon paien 

jusc'a la rouge mer." 
p. 72, 1. 2174. " he put him seluen on a cas ; " he risked himself in an situation, 

from which he met with trouble. 

p. 73, 1. 2187. " hepeuis ; " heathendom, 1. 121, " hepenisse." 
p. 73, 1. 2191. "Lyues ;" the genitive sing, of the noun used adverbially. So in 
Ancren Riwle, p. 390 : " Nu, peonne, biseche ich pe . . . . pet tu luuie me efter 
pen ilke dead deaSe, Hwon pou noldes liv.es;" and HaveloTc, ed. Skeat, 509 : " Y 
if y late him Hues go." Compare 1. 2483. 
p. 73, 1. 2207. " olde cherld." French text, viellars. 
p. 73, 1. 2211. " barons in fee ;" barons holding their land direct from the king. 

See note to 1. 1527. 

p. 74, 1. 2221. " to ryuere ; " go hawking at the river-side after water-fowl. So 
in the Life of St. Alexius (E. E. T. S., ed. Furnivall, 1878, p. 65) we read how 
the Saint was set To ] ernen cn iualrie, 

Of hunting & of Ryuere 
Of chesse pleieng & of tablere." 

p. 74, 1. 2224. " pleyep to pe eschekkere ; " play at chess or at tables (back 
gammon). See an account of the old game of chess in the notes to the Gesta 
Romanorum, chapt. xxi. p. 70. 

p. 74, 1. 2225. " iew-de-dame ; " draughts. " Dames, The play on the outside 
of a pair of Tables, called draughts." Cotgrave. See Strutt, Sports and 
Pastimes, 1810, p. 278, and Jamieson, s. v. Dams. 
p. 74, 1. 2227. " sckyrme alay." I do not know the meaning of these words ; 

most probably there is some error in the text. 
p. 74, 1. 2229. " All these are not worth a straw." 

p. 74, 2232. " chymenay ; " hearth, fireplace. This was the original meaning of 
the word from Lat. caminus. So in Sir Degrevant, ed. Halliwell, 1. 1375 

" Daraesel, loke ther be A ffuyre in the chymene" 
See Prof. Skeat's note to P. Plowman, B. x. 94. 

Compare also the corresponding passage in the Sowdone of Babyloyne : 
" To the Chyinneye forth he goth 

And caught a bronde him withe to smyte " (1. 2009). 

But in the same poem, 1. 2351, the word appears to bear the modern meaning, 
for we are told that Mapyne the thief, 

" Even in to Floripas boure, By a chemney he wente inne." 

This is a very early instance of this use, as chimnies in the present sense of the 
word were not common before the time of Elizabeth. 



NOTES TO pp. 74 80, 11. 2240 2429. 211 

p. 74, 1. 2240. " with oute ^ede," &c. This seems to mean that Naymes moved 
so that Lucifer was between him and the tire, which is corroborated by the fact 
that when Naymes strikes the Saracen, the latter falls " doun amidde- J>e 
fyre." 

p. 74, 1. 2242. " onde." Icel. ond, ondi, breath. " An Ande ; anelitus." Cath. 
Anglicum. See Prompt. Parv. s. v, Onde. 

p. 74, 1. 2244. "fachoun." " A faulchion : perhaps the sword was first so called 
when the inner edge was sharpened, in resemblance of the hand-bill, and after- 
wards the name was applied generally to any sword. The Statuta Ecclesias 
Agnensis say : Statutum fuit quod nullus canonicus, mullus clericus portare 
audeat cultellum arrnorum, falchionem pennatam, clavam ensem, aut alia arma.'' 
See Meyrick's Antient Armour, 1824, iii. Glossary. 

p. 74, 1. 2253. " faire hure falle ]>at ilke hond : " fair befall it, that hand. 

p. 75, 1. 2256. " let hym enchanfye ynne." French text : " or le laisies caufer." 
In the Sowdone of Babyloyne, Naymes, we are told, " With a fyre-forke he helde 
him doune," while Floripas " bade him warme him wele " (1. 2018). 

p. 76, 1. 2291. " Coudryn." French text, Cordroe. 

P. 76, 1. 2303. " an hundred." .French text, " M." 

p. 77, 1. 2336. " j?at so on Jje fenne," &c. ; that was so covered with mud. On 
by-gan see note to 1. 1329. 

p. 77, 1. 2342. " alre most ; " most of all. Alre is the genitive pi. of the adjective, 
which we find under the various forms, alre, oiler, alder, aldre, aliher. See 
numerous examples in Stratmann and Halliwell. Aldre occurs in the present 
poem at 1. 2541, p. 83. 

p. 78, 1. 2376. " to ^er." French text, jusque a viii. ans. 

p. 78, 1. 2377. " vj. mylen." French text, iv lieues. 

p. 79, 1. 2392. " an hundred pound." French text, une grant caretee. 

p. 79, 1. 2399. " rnyster ; " craft, -skill ; 1. 2425, " maystries." 

p. 79, 1. 2413. " attendejj ; " lights. French text : 

" Une chandelle a prinse, au fu 1'a alumee." 

" })at he of J)e holi gost so ure heorte ntende" An Early Eng. Miscellany, ed. 
Morris, p. 52. A.S. ontendan. 

p. 79, 1. 2421. " druwerye ;" sweetheart, betrothed. In Arthour and Merlin, p. 
312, the Virgin is styled " Cristes drurie." O.French, drurie, druerie, love, 
passion, from drut, a lover ; O.H. Ger. trut, Ger. traut, dear. See Rime of Sir 
Thopas, 2085. " J?e ^ute ; " compare our expression, all the while, and see 1. 2140. 

p. 80, 1. 2429. " whit as wales bone ; " that is, as white as ivory (the bone or 
tooth of the walrus). So in Sir Eglamour, ed. Halliwell, 801, 
" A man-chylde had Crystyabelle, 

As whyte as whallys boon." 

The expression is not uncommon in the old poets ; thus in the Squyr of Lowe 
Degre, 1. 537, we find 

" Lady, as whyte as whales bone, 

There are thyrty agaynst me one ; " 
Compare also Love's Labour Lost, v. 2 : 

" This is the flower that smiles on every one, 
To show his teeth as white as whales bone." 

P 2 



NOTES TO pp. 81 84, 11. 2475 2614. 

See also tlie description of the house in Early Eng. Miscellanies, ed. Halli- 
vvell, from the Porkington MS. (Warton Club, 1855), p. 4, 1. 8, where we are 
told that 

" The towres shal be of every 
Clene corven by and by, 
The dore of whallus bone." 

p. 81, 1. 2475. " wan fe soune hure schon." See note to 1. 433. 
p. 81, 1. 2483. " lyues man." See above, 1. 2191. 

p. 82, 1. 2524. tr clynge & drie ;" pine away through thirst So in P. Plowman, 
B. xiv. 50 : " whan fou clornsest for colde, or dyngest for drye ; " and Metrical 
Homilies, ed. Small, p. 88 : 

" For pal and clungen was his chek, 
His skin was klungen to )?e bane." 

Hampola, in describing the signs of man's approaching death, says 
" His pouce es stille, with-outen styringes, 
His fete waxes calde, his bely clynges." 

Pricke of Conscience, 822. 

Shakspere, Macbeth, v. 5, 40, has " Till famine cling thee," i. e. pine, shrivel 
tliee up. 

p. 83, 1. 2534. " mauinerye." From the false idea that the Mahometans were 
idolaters a belief very general in the middle ages arose the O.French 
maliommet, an idol ; mahumerie, idolatry, or an idolatrous temple, as here. 
Chaucer, Persones Tale (De Avaritia), says : " an idolastre peraventure ne hath 
not but o maumet or two, and the avaricious man hath many ; for certes, every 
florein in his coffre is his maumet." See Mawmet in Wedgwood's Etymological 
Dictionary. 

p. 83, 1. 2538. " Sir Ternagan," &c. French text : 
" La estoit Tervagans, et Apolins leves, 
Et Margos, et Jupins, et des autres asses." 

p. 83, 1. 2541. aldre." See above, 1. 2342. 

p. 83, 1. 2543. " y-poudred ;" interspersed. "A garment pondered with purple 

studdes." Hollyband's Diet. 1593. 

p. 83, 1. 2558. " fat god schold ben on apayd ; " that God should be pleased with. 
p. 84, 1. 2603. " our purchase for to make." Fr. pourchasser, to hunt after, 
chase ; thence, to catch, seize, rob ; thence, to obtain generally ; and finally, 
to acquire in exchange for money. In old writers the word had the meaning 
of acquiring in any way, whether by force or not. We see it in its transition 
state in Shakspere, Henry V, iii. 2 : " They will steal anything and call it 
purchase." Spenser uses the word in its original sense, Faery Queene, I. iii. 
16: 

" On his backe a heavy load he bare 
Of nightly stelths, and pillage severall, 
Which he had got abroad by purchase criminall." 

p. 84, 1. 2614. The cuirass called broigne. The word occurs in documents of the 
time of Charlemagne. The Anglo-Saxons termed it byrne and byrnan; the 
Normans broigne. Thus the Roman de Garin : 

" L'escu li perce, s'a la broigne faussee." 



NOTES TO pp. 85 90, 11. 2623 2804. 213 

Again : 

" En son dos vest une broignc trestice." 

In Le Roman de Ron : 

" Des haubers et des broignes mainte male faussee." 
And the Roman de Roncevaux : 

" La veist-on tante brolgne saffree." 

From Meyrick's Antient Armour, 182-1. 

The Brynye was of mail, as appears from King Horn, 2740 : " Of his briiiie 

"And caste a brinie up-on his rig." 

Havelolt, ed. Skeat, 177/ 
p. 85, 1. 2623. " her schal leue ; " shall remain here. So in P. Plowman, A. iii. 

190 : " fer I laftc wijj my lord," and Gesta Romanorum, ed. Ilei-rtage, p. 401, 

u he lefte still alone in the kyrke." 
p. 85, 1. 2629. " our on ; " one of us. Compare " hure bojjen," 1. 677, and the 

note, 
p. 86, 1. 2647. " latoun." A kind of mixed metal, resembling brass both in 

nature and colour. We find it used for helmets (Rime of Sir Thopas, 2067) ; 

sepulchral monuments (Way in Prompt.); spoons (Nares, Glossary); lavers 

(P. Plowman's Crede, 196), &c. 
p. 86, 1. 2648. " bias ; " blast. So in the Ancren Riwle, p. 82, we have " J)es 

deofles lies" and in An Early English Miscellany (E. E. T. 8., ed. Morris), p. 

93 : " windes lies." 
p. 86, 1. 2654. "boj>e bok & bil." French text, "les flans et les costes." Here 

the meaning appears to be, " back & front." 
p. 87, 1. 2684. u forsake he J?ys rnyster ; " let him give up this profession (of a 

soldier). 

p. 87, 1. 2692. " xxiiij of faire somers." Fench text, " ix soumiers." 
p. 87, 1. 2695. " capouns." French text, " boius paons lardes." 
p. 87, 1. 2706. " xxx. pousant." French text, " plus de xx m . armes." 
p. 88, 1. 2719. " fat art." The change of person is curious, 
p. 88, 1. 2728. " dartes y-fejjered wij> bras." Compare 1. 966. 
p. 89, 1. 2752. " wel-a-Fyn ; " well, perfectly, to good purpose. Compare Tusser, 

Five Hundred Points (E. Dial. Soc., 1878), p. 210, 1. 5. 
p. 89, 1. 2753. "]>ou syngest an ydel songe." French text, "pour noient 

regretes." 

p. 89, 1. 2762. "Hete;" time, 
p. 89, 1. 2770. " an aker lengjje." See note to 1. 971. French text, " plus d'une 

grant ruee." Compare 1. 3040. 

p. 90, 1. 2782. " agon ys al myn hi^t ; " all my promised pleasure, 
p. 1)0, 1. 2784. " Hit ne may beo no consail ; " there can be no concealment 

about it. 
p. 90, 1. 2792. " J>e Jjridde day." French text, " Je rendrai ceste tour ains 

demains I'ajorne'e." 
p. 90, 1. 2804. " tomorwe or ni^t jjat J?e cok hym graide ; " before the cock crows 

to-morrow night. French text, " demain ains 1'avespree." " Avesprer. To 

drawe towards evening to growe neare night" Cotgrave. 



214 NOTES TO pp. 9095, 11. 2808 2976. 

p. 90, 1. 2808. " J)at we ete ; " since we have eaten. 

p. 91, 1. 2822. " teynt." French text, " il est estains et pailes." 

p. 91, 1. 2832. " Hit is twel month and more apaste." French text, " plus de 
v. mois." From this line and 11. 304-5 it would appear that Charlemagne's 
stay in Spain extended over four years, but the Song of Roland states that he 
was in Spain seven years, 1 while in Otuel this is still further increased to 
twenty-seven years. 2 See Otinel, Chanson de Geste, ed. MM. Guessard and 
Michelant, pp. vi, vii, and Gaston Paris, Histoire Poetique, p. 268. 

p. 91, 1. 2829. " he is myn vncle ri^t." French text adds : 
" Et fils d'une des filles au due Millon d'Aingler." 

p. 91, 1. 2830. " Cosyn . . Germayn." " Germanus, de eodem germine vel eadein 
genetrice manantes." Dulange. " Germain. Germaine : come of the same 
stock, bred of the same kind, neare of kinne, of all-one race." Cotgrave. tl For 
certis ye ne han no child but a doughter, ne ye han no brethere ne cosines 
germains" Chaucer, Tale of Melibeus. 

p. 91, 1. 2834. "mored;" rooted, fixed. A.S. more, a root, which occurs in P. 
Plowman, C. xvii. 250 ; xviii. 21 xxii. 340. See Legends of the Holy Rood, 
E. E. T. Soc.. ed. Morris, p. 28. 

p. 92, 1. 2854. And yet we are not told that he had been freed from the bonds 
with which he had been " harde & uaste y-bounde." 

p. 92, 1. 2860. " dede hym kulle." We cannot take kulle here literally, but as 
meaning " tried to kill." Caxton's reading is "they al to-bete hym in suche 
wyse that he knewe not where he was." 

p. 92, 1. 2872. " wyj)-oute any where ; " without any doubt. 

p. 93, 1. 2919. " amounty ; " amount to, signify. 

p. 94, 1. 2946. " euene him selue ; " equally with himself. So in P. Plowman, 

" I hote f?at j?ow louye 

Thyn euene crystene etiermore, euene forth with Jn-self." 

and Chaucer, Knightes Tale, 2235 : " emforth (= even forth) my might." See 
also King Solomon's Book of Wisdom, E. E. T. Soc., ed. Furnivall, p. 83, 1. 33. 
p. 95, 1. 2963. " blessede ; " made the sign of the cross. See 1. 256. 
p. 95, 1. 2969. " douce France." The Editor of the Roxburghe Club edition of 
the Sowdone of Babyloyne makes a curious suggestion arising from the epithet 
here applied to France. After remarking on the fact that sixteen, if not more, 
are enumerated as amongst the " dou^epairs," he says : " a reference to 1. 170 
will show that the epithet dowse is applied to France : it may, therefore, have 
been given to the twelve peers, much in the sense of gentle in the English 
word gentleman, homo gentilis."" Introduction, p. vi. 

p. 95, 1. 2976. " polte." So in Robert of Gloucester, 479, 7, " Hii pulte hem vorjj 
bivore f>e ofere," and in Lajamon, I. 321, 1. 7527 : " And Nenmius pulte vp 
his seelde." 

1 " Set anz pleins que en espaigne venimes : 
Jo vos cunquis e Noples e Commibles, 
Pris ai Valterne e la terre de Pine 

E Balasgued e Tuele e Sezilie." ed. Michel, p, 8, st. xiv. 
2 And so in Gfni de Bourgogne, 1. 59 : 

" II a .xxvii. anz qu'en Espaigne venismes." 



NOTES TO pp. 96 101, 11. 2986 3170. 215 

p. 96, 1. 2986. " Hur brede was y-bake." Compare 1. 577. 

p. 96, 1. 3019. " loude & stille." One of those proverbial phrases, with the 
meaning of ( ' in every way, at all times," which so frequently occur in the old 
poets. Compare " oft and lome ; " "hard & neychs" (1. 5187) ; " high and low ;" 
" fer and hende ; " " al and some ; " " late and rathe ; " &c. 

p. 96, 1. 3020. " schille ; " shrilly, loudly. Not a mistake for sehrille, as might 
be thought, but the true form of the word, from A.S. scyll. It occurs not in- 
frequently ; see, for instance, William of Palerne, 11. 37, 213 ; Sir Eglamour, 
300, &c. 

p. 96, 1. 3021. " our men." The pronoun hre comes in curiously, this being 
the only instance in which the author identifies himself with either side. 

p. 97, 1. 3037. " be-vapid." This may either be the same word as by-fraped, 1. 
2987, or, as Prof. Skeat suggests, it may = be-wappid, thoroughly whopped or 
beaten. See Halliwell, s. v. Wap. Halliwell also gives " Waped, stupified 
(A.S.)," but I cannot find the word in Stratmann, though Bosworth has 
" Wapian, to waver, to be astonished." 

p. 97, 1. 3039. " hymme." Sic in MS. We should doubtless read hymew, the 
mark of contraction being misplaced. 

p. 97, 1. 3040. "More fan a bo^e-dra^te ;" French text, "plus d'an arpent de 
tere," which we have literally translated in 11. 971 and 2770. 

p. 97, 1. 3053. " Roland," In the French text " Guy." 

p. 98, 1. 3061. " ounjmnk habbe )?at spare;" shame to him who keeps back, 
spares himself. French text, " dehait ait cui en caut." 

p. 98, 1. 3063 3175. An addition of the English translator. 

p. 98, 1. 3072. " is takyngge Jjanne abo^te ; " suffered for having captured him 



p. 98, 1. 3083. "in ]?y donger." French text, " en vo dangier." Here we have 
the original meaning of danger, i. e. jurisdiction, the power which a feudal 
lord possessed over his vassals. " Dawnger : domigerwm, regnum" Cath. 
Anglicum. Chaucer says of the Sompnour, 

tl In daunger hadde he at his owne gise 
The ^onge gurles of the diocise." Prol. C. T. 663. 

See further illustrations in my note to the word in the Cath&licon Anglicum. 
p. 99, 1. 3126. " duden hem for to gone ;" set themselves to get away. 
p. 99, 1. 3131. "y-vewdidj" voided, cleared. " Vuider. To void, evacuate, emptie," 

&c. Cotgrave. The original prose Fierabra reads " qil$ vuidereut la 

place," and Caxton, " made them to voyde the place." 

p. 100, 1. 3136. " Two & Jjyrty grete somers." French text, " xv soumiers." 
p. 100, 1. 3155. " iornee ; " a day's work. 
p. 100, 1. 3157. " monies three." French text, " Enfresi c'a .ii. mois n'aront 

mais povrete." 
p, 101, 1. 3170. " Barbygan ; " rampart. " Barbican by-fore a castelle. Anle- 

murale" Prompt. Parv. See Dr. Weymouth's note s. v. in Glossary to the 

Castel off Loue. 
p. 101, 1. 3170. " J?y castel of tre." French text, leffroi. In the Cath. Anglicum 

we have " A Barsepay (Barfray) ; fustibulum" on which see my note. 



216 NOTES TO pp. 101 105, 11. 3184 3310. 

p. 101, 1. 3184. " of al france J>ay bere)> pat flour." French text, " La flors i est 

de Franche, tout le plus alose." 
p. 101, 1. 3190. French text 

li .1. viellart, .i. cenu de moult grant cruante, 
Qui plus de .M. hommes mordris et estranle's. 
En la forest d'Ardane, ou il a conversed" 

p. 101, 1. 3194. " chel ; " perhaps for chol, jaw. The French text has cief. 

p. 102, 1. 3202. " By oure ; " on what is ours they live. French text, " Et vivent 

tout du nostre." 
p. 102, 1. 3222. " hejjenene." A relic of the old genitive plural ending in -ene : 

so in P. Plowman we have kingenen, of kings, 
p. 102, 1. 3227. In the French text the engineer is named Mahon. 
p. 102, 1. 3228. " Foule verde with J>e tour ; " it fared ill with those in the 

tower, 
p. 102, 1. 3233. " armedem in syker wede." French text : 

li Cascune avoit vestu .i. hauberc fremillon, 
Et Iaci6 en son cief .i. vert elme reom." 

p. 103, 1. 3263. " bo^es of brake." Bows with a rack or winch, cross-bows of 
the largest size and strongest tension. 

" With alblastis also [thai] atlet to shote, 
With big bones of brake byrkit full hard." 

Troy Book, ed. Panton and Donaldson. 5728. 

See the meaning of the term fully discussed in Prof. Skeat's note on P. Plow- 
man, C. xxi. 293 : 

" Setteth bones of brake, and brasene gonnes." 

A 'gunne was a machine for casting stones, a catapult. 

p. 103, 1. 3267. " wilde fyr ; " a combustible mixture, otherwise termed Greek 
fire. In Richard Cceur de Lion, 2463, we read of a vessel laden " with wylde 
fyr and other vytayle ; " and at 1. 5229, of the besiegers of a castle blowing 
" wylde fyr in trumpes of gynne." " Wyylde Fyyr. Spartus : ignis Pelasgus, 
vel ignis Grecus" Prompt. Parv., on which see Mr. Way's note. 

p. 104, 11. 3280, 3281. Notice the different genders of the pronouns, he, hit. 

p. 104, 1. 3282. " schaly ; " to peel off, drop off like scales. 

p. 104, 1. 3286. Soon it will be our lot (it will betide) to be burnt to ashes. 

p. 104, 1. 3289. " Melk of J>e camele," &c. Caxton in his Mirrour of the world, 
pt. II. cap. 21, speaking of " grekyssh fyre," says that " it can not be quenchyd 
with water, but with aysel, vryne, or with sonde only. The Sarasyns selle this 
water right dere and derrer than they doo good wyne." 

p. 104, 1. 3295. " J>y do}ter dede." So we find " suster sone ; moder half," &c. 
See Introduction, and 1. 3448. 

p. 105, 1. 3310. " Springold ; " or springal, an ancient military engine for hurling 
stones, arrows, &c. 

" And sum J?ai went to J>e wal 
With bowes and with springal." Bcves of Hamtoun, p. 159. 

A deed of Edward II, dated 1325, in Rymer's Fccdera, mentions " Springaldos, 
lalistas, arcus, sagittas, ingenia, et alias Jiujusmodi armaturas pro munitione 



NOTES TO pp. 105 115, 11. 3323 3659. 217 

castrorum et villarum." See Meyrick's Antient Armour. Cotgrave gives 
" Espringalle. An ancient engin of warre, whereon stones, pieces of iron, and 
great arrowes were shot at the wals of a beleagured Towne, and the defenders 
thereof: (now out of use.) " 

p. 105, 1. 3323. " y wot rijt wel to wisse." See note to 1. 120 
p. 105, 1. 3324. " wold." So in Sir Perceval, ed. Halliwell, 2006 

" The geant stode in his holde, 
That had those londis in molded 

p. 106, 1. 3345. Here in the French text Balan begins to curse Mahomet and all 

his gods, but is rebuked by Sortybrant. In the Soivdone Balan seizes the image 

of Mahonn and smashes it, whereat all the priests and bishops fall on their 

knees and cry " Mahoun thyn ore," which the editor has curiously explained 

as " thy golden image ! " 

p. 106, 1. 3352. " be-trend ; " involved. See note to 1. 4006 below, 
p. 106, 1. 3377. " launce ne kepede he non ; " he cared for no lance, did not care 

to take a lance with him. 
p. 107, 1. 3385. " for arsonn ; " the fore saddle-bow. Each saddle had two 

arsouns, one in front and one behind. " Argon, a saddle-bow," Cotgrave. 

See Halliwell, s. v. Arson. 

p. 107, 1. 3389. " i-broched ; " spitted, transfixed. 
p. 109, 1. 3448. " ys syster sone." The sign of the genitive case is frequently 

omitted before words beginning with a sibilant. 

p. 109, 1. 3450. " & pan lest he ys blys ; " and then loseth he all his pleasure, 
p. 109, 1. 3475. " panne hymen bad pe duk Gyoun," &c. In the French text 

Guy offers of his own accord to go, but Floripas will not hear of his doing so. 
p. 110, 1. 3481. "y am sumdel stryken in age." French text "je suis de grant 

ae." 
p. 110, 1. 3499. " at nessche & hard ; " lit. in soft and hard. A proverbial phrase 

meaning " in every way, in every point." See note to 1. 3019. 
p. 110, 1. 3511. "pe beste red ys pat yean;" the best plan which I know 

is, &c. 
p. 112, 1. 3555. "vilentyne." French text, " Oisiaus et volatisses." See the 

Glossary. 

p. 113, 1. 3600. " By a fer contraye ; " by a great distance, a long way. 
p. 114, 1. 3625. " was no^t so ferred ys fon ; " had not got so far from his foes. 

See also 1. 5565 below. 
p. 115, 1. 3657. " brochyng ; " spurring. So in Morte Arfhure, ed. Brock, 1. 918 : 

" Brochej the baye stede, & to the buske ryde^," and Langtoft, p. 277 : " Ther 

stedes bracked thei fast." " JBrocher un cheval des esperons. To spurre him, 

to strike him with the spurres ; also to spurre him hard, almost to sticke him 

with spurring," Cotgrave. 
p. 115, 1. 3659. " Of quente entaille was is stede," &c. French text : 

" Sor .i. destrier d'Arabe, qui plus cort que levrierz, 
Couvert d'un rice paile, menu est entailliez .... 
L'un coste avoit plus blanc que n'est flors en pre, 
Et 1'autre avoit plus roge que charbon alume, 
Le keue paonace, le bu en haut leve. 



218 NOTES TO pp. 115119, 11. 36673825. 

Plus menu que pietris est li cevaus gietes, 
La cuisse grosse et corte, les pies plas et coupes. 
Et ot droite 1'eskine et les crins acesmes, 
Petites oreilletes, maigre chief, ample nes. 
Moult ot largue le pis, les ex et vairs et clers ; 
Tout estoit comme pie par devant vaironnes. 
La sele fu d'ivoire dont il fu enseles, 
Et de .iiij. fors chaingles fu li cevaus chaingles ; 
Li estrier furent d'or, rices fu li poitres ; 
.0. campanetes d'or i pendent de tous les. 
Quant li cevans galope, ki tant est abrieves, 
Li sons de campanetes est tans dous et soues, 
N'i vaut lai ne vielle .ii. deniers monnees. 
Li paiens 1'esperonne par andeus les costes, 
Et li destriers li saut .xxx. pies mesures, 
Et vait ensi bruiant comme foudre et ore." 

p. 115, 1. 3667. " ket ; " this word seems here to mean " quickly, furiously." It 
is a word of rare occurrence, but is found twice in William of Palerne, ed. 
Skeat, 11. 330, 3793, where we also find the adverb ketti, leetly, 11. 1986, 2105, 
and 3023. See Professor Skeat's note in the Glossary s. v. where he suggests 
that possibly it may be another form of the O.E. skeet, O.N. slejuttr, sharp, 
quick, in the same way as we find the two forms, moulder and smoulder ; knap 
and snap, &c. The word occurs also in P. Plowman, A. xi. 56, where the 
meaning seems to be acute, sharp. 

p. 115, 1. 3686. "for a Jjousend pound of golde." French text, "pour .xiiij. 
cites." 

p. 116,1. 3693. "grope to J?at gerse;" felt the wound (gash). "A garse : 
scara vel scaria. To garse, scarificare" Cathol. Anglicum. Palsgrave has 
" Garsshe in wode or in a knife, boche" and Huloet, " Garse or cutte, incisura" 
" A garse or gash, incisura." Manip. Vocab. 

p. 116, 1. 3699. "entamy;" make any effect on. French text reads " enpirier," 
which Cotgrave renders by " impaire, imbase, or make worse." 

p. 116, 1. 3704. " In to J>e feld it fle3." French text : 

" Le cief li a trencie pres du bu, res a res ; 
Plus d'une longe toise en est avant sales," 

p. 116, 1. 3708. "pat come]? after gon ; " a curious expression, where the gon 

appears superfluous, 
p. 116, 1. 3713. "morel;" properly a dark-coloured horse. See Towneley 

Mysteries, p. 9. French text reads, Baugant. " Moree, a kind of murrey, or 

dark-red colour. Cheval moreau, a black horse," Cotgrave. 
p. 116, 1. 3721. " ouer-towart : " athwart, across. French text, en travers. 
p. 117, 1. 3735. " Fyfty stedes." French text, xiiij. 
p. 118, 1. 3763. " wot to wys." See note to 1. 120. 
p. 118, 1. 3765. " For ^e hyre," &c. Probably we should read " For 30 schal 

hyre," &c. 

p. 119, 1. 3804. " Me nyste nowar ys pere ; " nowhere was his equal known, 
p. 119, 1. 3820. " ry$d[tj.? Compare 1. 956. 
p. 119, 1. 3825. " snel ; " sharp, careful. 






NOTES TO pp. 120 129, 11. 3835 4157- 219 

" Teche hem alle to be war and snel, 

That they conne sey J?e wordes wel." 
Mire's Instructions for Parish Priests, ed. Peacock, p. 4, 1. 121. 

p. 120, 1. 3835. " Hym schel beo betre han y-leued ; " it will be better for him to 

have left it (not done so). 
p. 120, 1. 3851. " Messager." French text, " drugemans," a dragoman, which 

Cotgrave gives as " Druguement, a Trucheman, or Interpreter." 
p. 121, 1. 3863. " As foul fat flejj on Jje lift ; " in the air, aloft. 
p. 121, 1. 3875. " pautener." See note to 1. 859. 
p. 121, 1. 3876. " He sent J)e so to saye." See note to 1. 1808. 
p. 121, 1. 3878. " & ys by-stole awaye." The only other instance of this word 

of which I am aware is in La^amon's B-rut, 28,422 ; " and bistal from fan 

fihte." 

p. 121, 1. 3886. "ty^d." See 1. 1817. 
p. 121, 1. 3888. ' ' A skuntede als a bore ; " he foamed like a wild boar. In the 

prose Fierabras the reading is " il commenca a escurner come sil fust vng 

senglier eschauffe," which Caxton translates " he began to scumme at the 

mouthe lyke a bore enchaffed." " Escumer, to foame," Cotgrave. 
p. 122, 1. 3893. "orn;" ran. A.S. rinnan, irnan, eornan. Orn occurs in the 

Ancren Riwle, p. 188, and in La^amon we have such forms as irnen, urnen, 

eornen. See also P. Plowman, C. xix. 165, and Stratmann, s. v. Rinnan. 
p. 124, 1. 3956. " wyt ase melkys fom." Compare Sir Degrevant, 1. 1386 : " why3th 

as the seeys fame." The French text reads, " fu blans comme nois." See also 

1. 5879, below, 
p. 124, 1. 3968. "thro ; " sharp, swift ; u hur peinis were so jjj-oo." Sir Triamour, 

1. 405, and William of Palerne, ed. Skeat, 3264 ; " wij) J>re M. of men jjat J?ro 

were to fi^t." 
p. 124, 1. 3984. " Er he a-^te adoun." French text, " il estoit descendus son 

ceval recengler." 

p. 125, 1. 3987. " sterrede." See before, 1. 3923. 
p. 125, 1. 4006. " betrende ; " to wind round, involve him. See Chaucer, 

Troilus and Cresseide, 4080, and 1. 3352 above, which are the only other instances 
. of the word of which I am aware, although the simple verb trende is not so 

rare. 

p. 125, 1. 4015. " fayne y wolde Jje croune of ^elde." French text : 
" Je vous rent la couronne dont je suis couronnes ; 

Jamais jour de ma vie n'en tenrai 1'irete." 

p. 126, 1. 4031. " jje Ameral haue]? y-gadred," &c. French text : 
" De toute paienime a ses barons mandes." 

Gwenelon here, in the French text, makes the speech which is afterwards, 11. 

4163 to 4186, attributed in the English version to Hautefulle. 
4075. " Malkare." French text, " Macaires." 



p. 128, 
p. 128, 
p. 129, 
p. 129, 



4109. " lond ne rente." French text : " n'ot de terre .1. arpent.' 
4119. "rybaud." French text, " glous." 
4146. " ^our summe ; " some of you. Compare 1. 677. 
4157. " J?e amendes a profrede him," &c. French text : 
" Au due lienier de Genes a son gage donne." 



220 NOTES TO pp. 130 141, 11. 41764553. 

p. 130, 1. 4176. " An ten ^er ate leste." French text, " seul .xx. ans." 
p. 130, 1. 4187. " enchanted so ;" persuaded, deceived. Literally translated from 
the French text : 

" La ont li traitour Karlemaine encante." 

" Enchanter ; to charme, inchant, bewitch ; bleare the eyes, deceive the under- 
standing," Cotgrave. 

p. 132, 1. 4241. " Raol Mountferant." French text, " Raoul le Ferrant." 
p. 133, 1. 4291. "on hymen ylong ;" through them, by their help. The phrase 
is still common, though now become vulgar : " it is all along of you," i. e. " it 
is all through you." Chaucer uses it 

" I can not tell ivlieron it was along, 
But wel I wot gret strif is us among," C. T. 16398. 

p. 134, 1. 4327. " Cyuyle grant ; " great Seville. 

p. 135, 1. 4338. " Hit were no$t worj> a slo." So in Havelolc, ed. Skeat, 2051 : 

" Of hem ne $eue ich noulit a slo." Compare 11. 4930, 4975, 5442, below, 
p. 135, 1. 4357. " at my paye ; " to please me, to my mind. 
p. 136, 1. 4371. " sarplers ; " sacks, packing-cases. " Sarpilliere, a sarpliar : a 

peece of canvas, cloth, or other stuffe to wrap or packe up wares in," Cotgrave. 

The French text reads " Es sarpeillieres lient toursiaus d'erbe fence." 
p. 136, 1. 4385. " Raol of Mans." French, " Raoul d' Amiens." Compare 1. 

4423. 

p. 136, 1. 4393. " tyd pe haue." The change of pronoun is curious, 
p. 137, 1. 4405. " terme of al hur age ; " in all their life-time, 
p. 137, 1. 4423. "Muche maugre mote he han," &c. See note to 1. 3061. 

French text " Se bien ne m'i combat, recreans sui prouves." 
p. 137, 1. 4435. Compare Bevis of Hamtoun, p. 91 : 

" His berd was bothe gret and rowe, 
A space of a fot betwene is browe." 

p. 138, 1. 4437. " ys nose cammus ; " flat-nosed. So Chaucer says of the Miller, 
" Round was his face and camois was his nose." Reeve's Tale, 1. 14, and again, 
1. 54, he describes the Miller's daughter as having " camoys nose, and eyghen 
gray as glas." Cotgrave gives : " Camus, flat-nosed. Camuser, to flatten, or 
quash down the nose, to breake the bridge of the nose, to make flat-nosed." 

p. 138, 1. 4463. "clones of tarse," a species of silken stuff formerly much 
esteemed. 

" In toges of Tarsse fulle richelye attyrede." Morte ArtJmre, 3189. 

This cloth was said to derive its name from Tharsia adjoining Cathay (China), 
whence it came. Ducange explains Tarsicus as " panni preciosioris species." 
See P. Plowman, B. xv. 163, and Professor Skeat's note thereon. 

p. 139, 1. 4465. " god won ; " good plenty. Cf. 1. 3560. 

p. 141, 1. 4539. " non ho^e ; " no fear, alarm. Ho^heful occurs in the Ormulum, 
2902, and JwJifulle in La^amon, 14096. A.S. hoga. " be-to^Q ; " dressed, 
covered. 

p. 141, 1. 4553. " stilp of ok ; " a post of oak, stub. See Halliwell, s. v. Stolpe. 
The French text has " un marbre encontre, Autresi le caupa coinme un baston 
ale." 



NOTES TO pp. 142 151, 11. 4588 4869. 221 

The Eev. Barton Lodge, in the Introduction to his edition of Palladium 
(E. E. T. Soc.), p. ix, says " In the Corporation Rolls, preserved amongst the 
Colchester Records, we find that in the 3rd and 4th Richard II, a sufficient 
piece of land was granted to place three stulps to support a certain vine opposite 
the house of one Clement, a dyer in North Street ; and ' in 4th and 5th Edward 
II, Hugh de Stowe raised two stulps under his vine opposite his tenement in 
Chero.'" 



p. 142, 
p. 144, 



par f u grans la noise et li 1ms et li cris ; " great was the hue and cry. 



144, 
145, 



p. 145, 
p. 145, 



. 4588. " a rank ; " in a rush, with a charge. 
4649. " Muche was J?e noise & J>at cry," &c. French text " Moult 



4652. " Enfachoun." French text, " Effraons." 

4663. " Had ykept hem wij? busynesse ; " had nursed them carefully. 



French text, " les avoit bien nourris." 



4664. " Algate." A distinctively Northern adverb. See Introduction. 
4668. " barers ; " the bar, gate, barrier. Notice the other form of the 



word in 1. 4679 : 

" The folk that assaljeand wer 
At mary ^et, to-hewyn had 
The barras, and a fyre had maid." 

Barbtmi** Bruce, ed. Skeat, xvii. 756. 
p. 145,1.4678. "tilde;" reached. A.S. teldan, " tekled on lofte," Alliterative 

Poems, ed. Morris, 2. 1342. Compare 1. 59. 

p. 146, 1. 4707. " to done." The gerundial infinitive : see Introduction, 
p. 146, 1. 4721. " Ho-so pis day," &c. French text : 

" Honis soit li frans horn qui vient au couarder." 
p. 147, 1. 4751. " wyj>-oute distaunce ; " without fighting. " A Distance, Dis- 

tancia, & cetera : vbi Debate," Catliol. Anglicum ; on which see my note, 
p. 147, 1. 4753. " Godes for-bode ; " may there be God's prohibition, 
"ix. tymes Goddis forbott, thou wikkyde worme, 
Thet ever thou make any rystynge." 

A charm for the tooth-ache, from the Thornton MS. 

printed in Kelly. Antlq. I. 126. 

In the Percy Folio MS., ed. Furnivall and Hales, Robin Hood, &c., p. 18, 1. 
59, vol. I. we read " ' Now, Marry, gods forbott, 1 said the Sheriffe, * that euer 
that shold bee.' " The expression also occurs twice in Stafford's Examination 
of Abuses, 1581, New Shakspere Soc., ed. Furnivall, p. 73, where it is spelt 
4t God sworbote." 
p. 150, 1. 4846. "& monaye whyt & blake." French text : 

" Fin or et blanc argent et pailes de coulour." 

" Monnoye blanche, brasse or copper coin silvered over. Monnoye noire, brasse, 
copper, or iron coine, unsilvered," Cotgrave. 

p. 151, 1. 4856. " molde ; " the suture of the skull. See 1. 45G7, above, 
p. 151, 1. 4862. " for a somers charge of golde ; " for a horse-load of money. " A 

charge ; Onus," Cath. Anglicum. 

p. 151, 1. 4869. "After J?e $er Jjat our lord was bore." &c. This line is an 
addition of the English translator. See the remarks in the Introduction, where 
it is shown that the date is almost exactly 200 years late, 980, instead of 775. 



222 NOTES TO pp. 153 163, 11. 4930 5278. 

p. 153, 1. 4930. " no^t worj? a flye." French text, " ne vales une alie."' 
p. 154, 1. 4974. " & we be-leue with-ynne ; " and we remain, within. Chaucer uses 
bileue in the same sense, Squire's Tale, 583 ; see other examples in Stratmann, 
and compare 11. 1595 and 2623 above, 
p. 154, 1. 4975. " 3yue a stre ; " give, care a straw for. Compare P. Plowman, 

C. xvii. 93, and Chaucer, C. T., F Group, 1. 695. 
p. 154, 1. 4983. "saut ; " assault. So we have pele for appele. 
p. 155, 1. 4993. " pykoys & howes ; " pickaxes and hooks. The modern pick-axe 
is simply a tautological corruption of the French picois, a mattock, pickaxe. 
In the Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner, I. 106, we find pikoys as here used as a 
plural, and so in the Handlyng Synne, 11. 940-1 : 
" Mattok is a iiylteys 

Or a pyke, as sum men seys." 

" Forsorium, a byll or a pykeys," Medulla Grammatice. 

p. 156, 1. 5030. " hure haberkes ritte ; " split, cut. So in Sir Tristram, p. 33 : 
" The breche adoun he threst 
He ritt, and gan to right : " 
and in Havelolc, 1. 2495 : 

" Sket cam a ladde with a knif, 
And bigan rith at >e to 
For to ritte, and for to flo." 
See 1. 5339, below. 

p. 157, 1. 5057. " Wei two C." French text, " M." 
p. 157, 1. 5077. " cloj? of tarse." See note to 1. 4463, above, 
p. 158, 1. 5087. " Certys y dude gret folye," &c. French text adds : 

" Fols est ki fame croit, on 1'a dit grant pie9a." 
p. 158, 1. 5092. " lyme & ly]?;" limb and body. Compare the common 

expression, " body and bones." 

p. 159, 1. 5127. " Wyt pat Jje selue ; " blame thyself for that, 
p. 159, 1. 5133. " breke him heued & arm." French text, " brisastes son nes." 
p. 160, 1. 5174. " Of cowardyse ous mo^e arette ; " may accuse us of, or attribute 
to us, cowardice. So in Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 1871 : 
" It nas aretted him no vyleinye, 

Ther may no man clepe it no cowardye. 

" to Aritte. Ascribere, deputare, imputare," Cath. Anglicum, on which see my 
note. Wyclif also uses the word in 2 Corinth, v. 19, " not retting to hem her 
giltis." 

p. 160, 1. 5177. " syt on my bok ; " lit. sits on my back, i. e. remains with me. 
p. 161, 1. 5185. " pat ys herte ne by-gan to cacche ; " that did not pluck up 
courage. French text : 

"N'i a celui d'aus tous n'ait vertu recouvree." 

p. 162, 1. 5221. " a earful iornee : " a sad day's work, a hard time, 
p. 162, 1. 5240. " Ay tweyne a^en hem one j " quite two against their one. 
p. 163, 1. 5265. " for-pan " for this reason, because. The expression occurs in 
Lajamon, 1. 989, and in the Castel off Loue, ed. Weymouth, 1. 1072 : " And he 
scholde neuer die for pcw." 
p. 163, 1. 5278. " pan al J)at god y owe j " than all the goods, wealth I own. 



NOTES TO pp. 1C4 171, U. 5301 5526. 223 

p. 164, 1. 5301. "perschede." See 1. 941, and note thereon, 
p. 164, 1. 5313. " felascbip ; " companion. The French text has : 
" Onques n'i vot mener ne per ne compaignon." 

See note in Cath. Anglicum, s.v. Felischippe. 

p. 165, 1. 5335. " make ]?y fyn ; " pay the penalty, make amends. 
p. 165, 1. 5339. " A clew ys heued," &c. ; he scratched (clawed) his head and 

tore his hood. For riyte see 1. 5030, above, 
p. 165, 1. 5341. "& prauncede," &c. ; and stamped about, and puffed and blew, 

as if he were mad. 
p. 165, 1. 5342. " or was after longe ; " lit. before it was long time after, i. e. for 

a long time, 
p. 166, 1. 5353. " Bruyllant, jjat was kyng of Mountmyrrant." In the French 

text no name is given to the Saracen slain by Gwenylon : Bruyllant, who 

is called Balan's brother, comes on the scene at 1. 5417, below. It appears to 

be an oversight of the translator, 
p. 166, 1. 5366. " a propre si^te." The word proper is still used in this very 

phrase with the meaning of worth seeing, fine, but it has descended to the level 

of a slang term, 
p. 168, 1. 5425. "spillyng of speche; " great telling of news, great talk. French 

text, " grant ioie." 

p. 168, 1. 5437. " on hure hepe ; " in their gathering, army, 
p. 168, 1. 5442. " J)e value of a kerse;" the value of a rush (cress). This very 

expression is still kept up : men say a thing is not " worth a curse," but the 

true meaning of the last word is quite forgotten. P. Plowman, C. xii. 14 : " Nat 

worth a carse" Compare 11. 124 : " he doutej) he kyng ne Emperour, ]>e value 

of a rysshe ; " and 11. 4338, " no^t wor]? a slo ; " 5722, " J>e worthy of a pere ; " 

and 5847, " y nolde ^yue a pyse." 

p. 168, 1 5443. " fyede jjar-on " expressed his disgust at it. 
p. 169, 1. 5453. " v. batail ; " five divisions. In the French text it is ten, the 

second five being entrusted to Alorys, Macaire, Hardres, Amaugis, and Sanses. 

" Bataille, any squadron, battallion, or part of an army," Cotgrave. 
p. 170, 1. 5482. " Euery ^er to rente ; " every year as a tax. 
p. 170, 1. 5484. " Blanchard." A common name for a white horse, 
p. 171, 1. 5520. " prout on pres j " bold in battle. A not uncommon expression 

in alliterative poems. 
p. 171, 1. 5526. Here the author of the English version has most unaccountably 

omitted no less than 125 lines of his original. This may have arisen from one 

or other of three causes : 

(1) He may have intentionally omitted the lines ; or (2) he may have turned 

over two leaves; or (3) the lines may not have been in the MS. from which 

he made his translation. 

As to (1), I do not think it at all probable that the translator would intention- 
ally have omitted the passage : against such a view the strongest argument 

is the closeness with which he has throughout the remainder of the poem 

followed his original. 

Neither do I think (2) more probable. When we consider the care with 

which he has revised his poem we can hardly conceive that he would be satis- 



224 



NOTES TO p. 171, 1. 



fied with only one reading of his original, and it is hardly probable that the same 
accident should have happened more than once. 

We are, therefore, reduced to (3), which is not at all impossible. 

As, however, the author may have intentionally omitted the passage I 
give it here instead of iii the text. 

' Par Mahomet, dist il, tous seres afole ; 
Quant passastes Mautrible, musart fustes prove. 
Jamais en douce France ne seres retorne, 
Et anuit perdra Karles du miex de son barneV 
Richars de Normendie a le Turc escout, 
Le destrier laisse coure. si a a lui jouste ; 
L'escu li a percie et le hauberc saffre, 
Parmi le gros du pis li mist le fer quarr6, 
Si souef 1'abat mort qu'il n'a brait ue crie. 
* Outre, dist 1'empereres, trop vous estes vantes.' 
Richars de Normendie trait le branc acere. 
Tost en feri .i. Turc dusque au neu du baudve. 
Francois passent a force le grant val Josue ; 
Jusque au plain d'Aigremore n'i ot regne tire. 
La trouverent la force de P>alaut Pamirs' ; 
En sa compaigne furent .xxx. roi couronne, 
Et .c m . paien, que Persant, que Escler. 
Gil qui vienent fuiant li ont dit et cont6 
Que ses f reres est mors et la gent c'ot men6. 
Quant 1'entent 1'amirans, tout a le sane mu6. 
Dont s'ont li estandart li maistre cor sonne. 
L'amirans en apele son neveu Tempeste, 
Sortinbrant de Connibre, son consillier priv6 : 
' Baron, dist 1'amirans, n'i soies oublie ; 
Je vous di et commant, s'entendre me voles, 
Tant me queres Karlon que vous le me troves ; 
Et se jou ne 1'ocis, poi pris ma poetes : 
Moi ne caut se je muir, quant je Parai tu6 ? 
Quant Sortinbras Pentent, s'a de pite plour6. 



Li amirans cevauce, qui de corage ot fier ; 
Ri cement fu arm6s ser le courant destrier. 
En toute paienime n'ot .i. si boin coursier, 
Si estoit trestous novis com meure de niorier. 
Toutes ses armes furent ouvrees & ormier. 
Large ot la forceure, le cors grant et plenier ; 
Par desus la ventaille fait sa barbe lacier, 
Plus est blance que noif , quant ciet apres fevrier, 
Centre val li pendoit j usque au neu du braier. 
Li amirans commands s'ensaigne a despoier, 
Devant les Sarrazins se prent & eslaisier. 
Dont sonnerent ensanble .c. graile menuier. 
A bataile cevaucent et font lor gent rengier ; 
On premier cief devant estoient li arcier, 
Pour les nos desconfire as ars turcois mainier. 
Adonques veissies .i. estour commencier, 
L' un mort par desus Pautre verser et trebucier ; 
Moult i ot grant dolor au traire et au lancier. 



He threatens 
the French. 



Hi chard 
charges at 
and slays 
him. 



The French 
force their 
way to the 
valley of 
Aigremont, 

where the 
Emir is with 
100,000 men. 

Balan la- 
ments over 
the death of 
his brother. 



Description 
of Uahin. 



He orders his 
standard to 
be unfurled, 

and places 
his archers in 
front. 



A fierce 
combat 
ensues. 



NOTES TO p. 171, 1. 5526. 



225 



As ars trucois commencent les nos ii damagier ; 
Plus menu que gresins font sajetes lancier. 
Atant es vous poignant le preu comte Renier, 
Celui de Genevois, qui fu pere Olivier. 
Sortinbran de Connibre a encontre premier, 
Grant cop li vait donner, nel vaut plus esparnier, 
Ses escus ne li vaut lie maille ne denier, 
La maille a trespasse du blanc hauberc doublier, 
La lance o le penon li fait on cors baignier, 
Des arons 1'abat mort, le cuvert losengier. 
Quant Sortinbrans cai, la hante fist brisier, 
Et Reniers trait 1'espee, dont bien se sot aidier 
Paien et Sarrazin conimencent a hucier ; 
Ki estui atendra moult ara mal loier. 
.1. Sarrazins s'en torne, 1'amirant va noncier 
Que ' mors est Sortinbras, que tans avies cier.' 
Quant 1'amirans Ten tent, le sens cuide cangier. 
' Ha ! dist-il, Sortinbrans, tant vous avoie chier, 
Quant je vous ai perdu, moult m'en doit anuier ; 
Jamais ne monra Turs ki tant faice a priser ; 
De duel erragerai se ne vous puis vengier.' 

Moult fu pour Sortinbran 1'amirans esmaians. 

Par mautalent s'en torne courecies et dolens, 

Le morel laise coure, ki sous lui va bruiant, 

Sour 1'escu de son col fiert Huon de Milant. 

Trestous est pourfendus, rons est li jaserans ; 

Le fer li a conduit par ambe .ii. les flans, 

Mort 1'abat du ceval, ce fu damaige grans. 

Quant la lance brisa, si a trait le nu branc, 

Mort a .xv. Francois et .xiiii. Normans, 

Souvent crie : ' Aigremore ! vengies ert Sortinbrans I 

Or vous ferai connoistre venus est 1'amirans : 

Ancui sera destrius li barnages des Frans, 

Jamais .i. en sa tere ne sera repairans ; 

Karlon enmerrai prins par les grenons ferrans ; 

Avoec lui ert pendus Oliviers et Rollans.' 

A ce mot enforcierent li paien 1'amirant ; 

De nostre gent destruire est cascuns desirans. 



Renier 

encounters 

Sortibrant, 

and slays 
him. 



The Sarasins 
are panic- 
strickeii. 



Balan's grief 
at the death 
of Sortibraut. 



He charges 
at the French 



and slays 
Huon of 
Milan, 



and 15 
French and 
14 Norman 
soldiers. 



The Saracens 
rally. 



Moult fu grant la bataille et li cap e felon. 
Atant es vous poignant le conte Guenelon, 
Hardre et Alori, d'Autefoelle Grifon, 
Et le pere Herviu, Macaire de Lion, 
Et 1'orguelleus barnage brocant a esperon. 
A 1'abaisier des lances font tel ocision 
Que plus de mil paien trebucent on sablon. 
Atant es 1'amirant sur le noir aragon ; 
Amont parmi son heaume ala ferir Milon. 
Ne li ralut li cercles vaillant .i. augueton ; 
Tout 1'eust pourfendu enfresi c'au mentou, 
Mais 1'espee torna, por tant ot garison. 
Le destrier li copa par devant son archon ; 
Tost trebuca a tere par desus le sablon. 



Balan throws 
Milo from 
bis horse, 



FERUMBRAS. 



226 NOTES TO pp. 172175, 11. 5532 5627. 

Quant il ne 1'a ocis ne se prise .i. bouton ; 

L'amirans le saisi a 1'aubere fremillon, 

A .ii. mains le leva sur 1'auferrant gascon ; and tries to 

Ja 1'en 6ust porte jusque a son pavilion, prisoner " ff 

Mais 1'orguelleus lignages li est tous environ. but is su'r- 

La ot as brans d'acier si faite caplison. 

Ja fust li amirans detenus en prison, 

Mais au secourre vinrent tantost mil Esdavun. 1000 Saracens 

La o'issies grant noise et grande husion ; to hls 

Le feu gregois geterent tout ardant a bandon, 

Francois menent ferant le trait a .i. boujon. 

Ja fuissent desconfit sans nule raenchon, The French 

Quant Fierabras i vint, qui moult amoit Karkm. 

Iluec fist de paiens moult grant ocision, 

Tenpeste a ocis, le neveu Rubion. but Ferum- 

Et bien plus de .1. du lignage Mahon. 

Mais de paiens i ot a si tres grant fuison, 

Se Damediex n'en pense, qui souffri passion, 

Ancui iront Fran9ois a grant destruision. 

La bataille f u grans, longuement a dure". 

Ja fuissent no Franois moult malement mene", 

Quant de la tour sont tuit nostre conte ava!6. 

p. 172, 1. 5532. " A-strayey on J>e grene." See 1. 3729. 

p. 172, 1. 5542. " J?e scheldtromes ; " battalions, regiments. Halliwell quotes 
from Vegecius, MS. Douce 291, leaf 5 : " How he schal have for knowynge and 
wys insy3t of all perellis and harrnes that li^tliche mowe bifalle in scheltromes 
or batailes." Sceld-trume and sceld-trome occur in La^amon. See also 
Octovian, Weber's Metr. Romances, 1505j P. Plowman, C. xxi. 294; and Tre- 
visa's description of the Battle of Hastings, "ar the scheltroms come to-gedders." 
A.S. scyld-truma, lit. a troop-shield, then an armed company or battalion of 
soldiers. 

p. 172, 1. 5549. " fojjer." See before, 1. 641, and Alisaunder, Weber's Romances, 
1809. 

p. 173 1. 5565. "afferede hem o^t myche ; " got much distance from them. 
Compare 1. 3625, before : " Richard was no^t so f erred ys fon." In the Ayenbite 
of Inwyt, ed. Morris, p. 178, we read " to cachie and uerri Jjane dyuel uram 
him." A.S. feorrian. 

p. 173, 1. 5579. " also hot ; " at once. Compare the phrase foot-hot, with all 
possible speed, in Chaucer, Man of Lawes Tale, B. 438, and fut-hate in Barbour's 
Bruce, ed. Skeat, iii. 418. 

p. 174, 1. 5601. " jje amountance of a fotes spas," &c. The original French is 
more moderate " Li amirans fu graindres de Karlon demi pie\" 

p. 174, 1. 5615. " iambeaus." Armour for the legs, covering them both front and 
rear : in this particular they differed from the greaves, which only protected the 
shins. " Jambiere ; a greave, leg-harnesse, or, armour for a leg," Cotgrave. 

p. 175, 1. 5627. " cornel ; " the circle of gold and precious stones round the 
helmet. See 1. 623, above : " To-flente ; " flew in pieces. French text : 
" Grant caup donna Karlon sur 1'eame qui verdie, 
Que les flours et les pieres tout contreval en guie." 



NOTES TO pp. 175 178, 11. 6630 5725. 227 

p. 175, 1. 5630. " athelde ; " restrained, kept back. See La$amon, 10,970, 

13,825, &c. 

p. 175, 1. 5631. " genyllere ; " knee-armour. " Genouilleres, pully-pieces (armour) 
for the knees," Cotgrave. " Chauceore ; " the same as we have had before, 1. 
235, called " hosen of mayle." " Chausseure, a hosing, or shooing ; also, hosen, 
or shooes," Cotgrave. 

p. 175, 1. 5638. " anlas." French text, " une misericorde," of which Meyrick, 
Antient Armour, Glossary, says " said to have been so named because with 
this the knights obliged their antagonists to- call for mercy." 
" An anlas and a gipser al of silk 

Heng at his girdel." Chaucer, C. T. Prologue, 357. 

p. 175, 1. 5640. "foygnede;" thrust at, tried to stab. So in Morte Arthure, 1. 
1898 : 

" Thare faughtte we in faythe, &ndf0ynede with sperys." 
And Chaucer, Kriightes Tale, 796 : 

" And after that with scharpe speres stronge 

Theyfoynen ech at other wonder longe." 
p. 175, 1. 5648. "Ac arst was muche ado." French text: 

" Mais il i ot anchois moult grant tenchonnerie." 
p. 176, 1. 5665. " Wei he^e schalt J?ou an-honged be." French text : 

" Je te ferai ardoir ens en la poi boulie." 

p. 176, 1. 5682. " Al Jji song is wailawai." Owl and Nightingale, 1. 219. 
p. 177, 1. 5693. " gery^oun ; " treasure. The word occurs in La^amon in the 

forms gcersume, gersume, and garsume. For other instances see Stratruann. 
p. 177, 1. 5694. After this line in the original French come the following : 
" Corsable de Valnuble son ceval trestorna, 
Desi jusque a la mer onques ne s'aresta, 
Au roi de Capadoce les nouvales conta 
Que Karles Aigremore et 1'amirant prins a ; 
Sacie's moult ert dolens quant il ice sara. 
Plus de .C m . Furs pour ice rasambla, 
Sor Guion de Borgoigne & force les mena, 
Sa tere et son pa'is li destruist et gasta. 
Plus de .vii. mois en tiers li sieges i dura ; 
D'un roit trencant espiel ens ou cors le navra. 
Mais Karles 1'emperere, qui Espaigne gasta, 
Quant il revint ariere, fierement li aida." 

p. 177, 1. 5716. " wende faste ; " moved, twisted himself fast, 
p. 177, 1. 5722. " ])e worthy of a pere ; " the value of a pear. Compare Richard 
the Redeles, ed. Skeat, Prol. 73 : " It shulde nat apeire hem a peere" and Morte 
Arthure, Globe edit. p. 377. 

p. 177, 1. 5724. " y-kened ; " conceived. Of this word there are not many instances. 
It occurs in the Anglo-Saxon Version of St. Matthew, i. 20 : " J?set on hyre 
acenned was, hyt ys of Jjarn Halgan Gaste : " in the Ayenbite of Inwyt, ed. 
Morris, p. 12, " he wes y-Tcend of J)e holi gost, and y-bore of jje mayde Marie ; " 
and again, p. 263 ; and in Layamon, 26,128. 

p. 178, 1. 5725. " Wy])-oute wem & wy]?-oute hore ; " without spot or stain. 
Hore may perhaps mean adultery, as Halliwell explains it ; probably it does 

Q 2 



228 NOTES TO pp. 178181, 11. 5730 $847. 

in the .present instance, where the French text reads " En la sainte Virge 

puciele s'aombra." Halliwell quotes from a MS. of Caius Coll. Camb. 107 : 
" Syth the tyme that Cryst Ihesu 
Thorough hys grace aud vertu, 
Was in this world bore 
Of a mayd witliowt Iwre" 
p. 178, 1. 5730. "hyne ; " servants, followers. Compare P. Plowman, Prol. 39 

" Qui turpiloquium loquitur, is luciferes hyne." 
p. 178, 1. 5747. " Contenance made he," &c. Compare P. Plowman, C. xvi. 121 : 

" A contenance he made, And preynte vpon pacience." 
p. 178, 1. 5753. " cracchede." French text, ecraca. " Escraser, to squash 

downe, beat flat, crush in pieces with much pressing, or hard leaning on," 

Cotgrave. 
p. 179, 1. 5761. " colour ; " pretext, means. " Colour, a fayned matter," 

Palsgrave, 
p. 179, 1. 5763. "J)anne spak Florippe," &c. In the Proven9al version Floripas 

joins Ferumbras in begging Charles to spare her father's life and in entreating 

Balan to consent to be baptised. In the Sowdone there is no mention of 

either of them interfering either for or against their father, 
p. 179, 1. 5772. " on what londe Jjat he lende; " in whatever country he might 

settle, 
p. 180, 1. 5809. " sysst; 1 ' seest. A form invented metri gratia. Syxt occurs in 

Wright's Popular Treatises on Science, p. 134, and in the Castel of Loue, 1. 8. 
p. 180, 1. 5815. " & bot if he panne wold take ful^t." French text : 

" Et se il ne puet estre a ceste fois mates." 

p. 180, 1. 5819. " J?at man." French text adds, " Ce est .i. vis diables." 
p. 180, 1. 5821. "30 aboute goes ; " you are labouring in vain, lit. going in a 

circle, 
p. 181, 1. 5827. " wy]j wilde hors ; " with savage horses. Hors is here plural, 

as shown by the form of the adjective, 
p. 181, p. 5835. " skeer ; " safe, free from. So in Wright's Religious Songs, iv. 

78 : " of blisse 30 beoj? skere" 
p. 181, 1. 5840. "no^t worj) a flye." This expression has occurred before, see 1.' 

4930. It also occurs in Chaucer, Canons Yeomans Tale, 1. 1150 : " Or some 

what else, was nat worth a flye" Compare 1. 437. French text : " Ja ne vaut 

Mahomet .ii. deniers monnees." 
p. 181, 1. 5845. "jjat was on a croys y-don." The usual expression for "crucified" 

in early writers. For examples see Gesta Romanorum, ed. Herrtage, p. 179 : 

" Jjey did him vppon the crosse, and spette on- his face ; " Myrc's Instructions to 

Parish Priests, p. 14, 1. 437 ; Lonelich's Holy Grail, ed. Furnivall, xlix. 313, &c. 

" To do on crosse ; Crucifigere" Cathol. Anglicum. 
p. 181, 1. 5847. "y nolde 3yue a pyse;" I would not give a pea. Pyse or 

pese is a perfectly correct singular form (Latin pisum) : the plurals pesen, peses, 

are frequently met with : see, for instance, P. Plowman, C. ix. 307 : " of benes 

and of peses" A similar expression to that in the present line occurs in P. 

Plowman, C. ix. 166, " sette peers at a pese," accounted Piers at the value of a 

pea ; . e. set him at naught. See note to 1. 5442. 



NOTES TO ppv 181 182, 11. 5849 5883. 229 

p. 181, 1. 5849. " on my lyue." Here we have the Northern adverb on-lyue, 
alive, during life. See Introduction. 

p. 181, 1. 5857. " for no pray ; " for no entreaty. 

p. 182, 1. 5877. " anentes jjilke neode ; " with respect to this necessary condition, 
i. e. of his giving his assent. 

p. 182, 1. 5879. "]?e inelkis fom." We have already had this expression at 
1. 3956. 

p. 182, 1. 5881. " e^ene graye," &c. In the French text, 1. 2014, Floripas is 
described as having " les ex vairs et rians pl.us d'un faucon mue," while in the 
Destruction of Home, 1. 256, we read " Les ves avoit plus noirs que falcon 
montenier." So Chaucer (?) writes, " His eyen graie as is a faucon," where the 
original French is vers. Romaunt of the Mose, 546. In Sir Eglamour, 1. 861, 
we read of " eyen grey as crystalle stone," from which Malone, in his Shakspere, 
iv. 118, edit, of 1821, conjectured that the term meant what we now call a 
blue eye. Thus in Venus and Adonis, 1. 482, we have 

" Her two blue windows faintly she upheaveth," 

while at 1. 140 the eyes of Venus are said to be "grey and bright." In the 
present instance there can be no doubt as to the colour intended. " Oeil verd, 
a grey eye." Cotgrave, " browes bent." See note to 1. 4435, " ^ealwe traces ; " 
fair tresses. So Chaucer, Knighte's Tale, 191 : 

" Hire yclwe Jieer was browded in a tresse" 
" y-trent ; " perhaps plaited or curled. 

p. 182, 1. 5882. " Ech her ; " each (every) part of them, i. e. of her tresses. 

p. 182, 1. 5883. "tretys ; " slender and long. Cotgrave has : " Traictif, nez traictif. 
A pretty long nose, a nose of a graceful length. Traictis, isse, whence 
Traictisses mains; long and slender hands." "iantail," " Gentil. comely, 
sightly, pretty, neat, well-fashioned, goodly, faire," Cotgrave. " pure fetys ; " 
perfectly well-proportioned, elegant. "Faictis, isse, neat, feat, comely, handsome, 
proper, well-made, well-featured, well set together," Cotgrave. 



230 



GL OSSAR Y. 



Pr. (or pt.") s. = present (or past) tense, 3 pers. sing. 
Pr. (or pt.)pl. = present (or past) tense, 3pers.pl. 
References starred are to the " original draught" 



A, 47/1282, adj. one. 

A, 101/3180, adj. all. 

A, 134/4307, prep. on. 

A, passim, pron. he. 

AAN, 24/594, adv. on. 

ABATAYLD, 134/4310, pp. embattled, 

fortified. 

ABETTE, 180/5816, vb. aid, assist. 
ABLEST, 169/5474, 2 pr. as fut. s. shalt 

suffer for, shalt pay for. 
ABIGGET, 41/1063, vb. pay, suffer for it. 
ABODE, 67/1985, pt.pl. delivered, told. 
ABOW3, 107/3390. ABOJEDE, 69/2070, 

pt. s. leant, stooped. ABOSE, 95/ 

2972, pp. 

ABO^T, 19/488, pp. bought, paid for. 
AB03TE, 98/3072, pt. pi. paid, made a 

return for. See ABYE. 
ABUDE, 63/1833, vb. deliver, tell. ABUST, 

63/1844, 2pr. s. A.S. abeodan. 
ABITLD, 3/74, pp. built, constructed. 
A-BYE, 4/107, vb. pay for, suffer for. 
Ac, 2/49, conj. but. 

ACCEDED, 130/4158, pt. pi. became re- 
conciled. "To Acorde; vbi to make 

frende." Cath. Anglicum. 
ACOTJPEDE, 56/1594, pt. pi. struck, en- 

countred. 

ACQUITS, 30/713, vb. repay, requite. 
A-FERE, 13/387, vb. frighten, terrify. 

AFFEREST, 30/722, 2 pr. s. 



AFFERREDE, 173/5565,'^tf. pi. distanced. 
AFFERROM, 58/1674, adv. from afar, far 
off. 

AFFIED, 32/756, pt. s. relied, trusted. 
Fr. affier. 

AFFORN, 41/1080, prep, before. 

AFFROIHSTT, 59/1689, adv. face to face, 
in line. 

AFFULLED, 105/3335, pp. killed, feUed. 

AFONGE, 46/1237, vb. receive, meet with. 

AFRI^TE, 5/138, pp. frightened, afraid. 

AFTERWART, 6/63, adv. after this, after- 
wards. 

A-GAN, 76/2305, pt. gone, past. 

AGASTE, 107/3410, pp. frightened. 

AGRISE, 106/3370, AGRYSE, 54/1541, vb. 
be frightened. A.S. agrisan. 

A-KELE, 139/4492, vb. be cooled. "To 
Kele ; frigidare, et cetera ; vbi to make 
calde." Cath. Anglicum. 

AKER, 89/2770, sb. acre. 

ALACCHE, 99/3098, vb. catch. 

ALDRE, 180/5802, adj. of all. Hure aldre 
syyte, the sight of them all. 

ALED, 175/5653, pp. put down, pre- 
vented. A.S. alecgan. 

ALI^T, 55/1548, pt. pi. alighted, dis- 
mounted. 

ALI^TE, 46/1261, vb. light. 

ALLE AND SOME, 54/1513, one and all, 
all. 



GLOSSARY. 



231 



ALLER-FERST. 180/5793, adv. first of all. 
ALMYS, 64/1897, sb. alms, deed of 

charity. 
AL-ONE, 7/50, adj. alone, singly, by 

himself. 

ALOUTE, 128/4089, vb. bow, give place. 
*ALKE, 13/381, adj. of all. ALRE MOST, 

77/2342, most of all. See also ALLER, 

and ALDRE. 
ALS, 18/474, cow/, as. Als so harde = 

as hard. 
ALYES, 127/4078, sb. pi. associates, 

friends. 
AMAIEDE, 50/1377, pp. afraid, dis- 

mayed. 

AMBLERE, 11/344, sb. amble, trot. 
AMENDES, 54/1525, sb. reparation, 

amends. See Note 
AMENDIE, 65/1917, vb. make satisfac- 

tion. 



, 21/532, sb. amiral, emir. 
AMONGE, 7/209, adv. at times; ofte 

amonge, constantly. 

AMORWE, 78/2369, adv. in the morning. 
AMOUNTANCE, 174/5601, sb. amount, 

length. 
AMOUNTY, 93/2919, vb. mean, amount 

to. 

ANAN, 4/106, adv. at once, soon. 
ANBETTYMENT, 78/2364, sb. abetting, 

helping. 
ANBTJSCHYMEN}, 34/812, sb. ambush, 

ambuscade. 
AND, 7/200, conj. if. 
ANDRESSEDE, 130/4155, pt. s. set, placed 

himself. 

ANDTJRIE>, 102/3217, vb. endure, resist. 
ANENTES, 182/5877, prep, concerning. 
ANGER, 102/3208, sb. trouble, misfor- 

tune. 

ANGRYDE, 89/2766, pt. pi. harassed. j 
ANGWISCHOUSE, 82/2500, adj. full of 

anguish, greatly grieved. 
ANGWYS, 41/1080, sb. anguish, pain, 
ANHE^E, 46/1240, adv. in haste, speedily. 
ANLAS, 175/5638, sb. a kind of knife or 
^ dagger, usually worn at the girdle. 
ANONEWARD, 26/622, prep, upon, along. 

See also AuNDWARD. 



ANTEYNEDEM, 27/665, pt. s. exerted 

himself. ANPEYNY, 94/2947, imper. 
ANUYE, 106/3352, sb. annoyance, grief. 
ANTJYLT, 48/1308, sb. anvil. A.S. anfilt. 
A-NYED, 12/364, pp. harassed, troubled. 
APALD, 9/271, adj. pleased, satisfied. 
APERCEUEDE, 31/739, pt. s. perceived. 

Fr. apercevoir. 
APERTELY, 106/3359, adv. plainly, 

openly. 
APLI^T, 27/644. APLY^T, 50/1393, 'adv. 

indeed, certainly. 
APPON, 21/546. OPPON, 22 1 554, prep. 

upon, on, over. 

AQUEYNT, 104/3288, pp, extinguished. 
ARANK, 142/4588, adv. in a line. 
ARAS, 2/46, pt. s. arose. 
ARAtnsrooTJN, 34/824, adv. at full 



ARA^TE, 25/606, pt. pi. aimed, struck. 

A.S. r<can. 
ARAWE, 143/4605, adv. in. a row, in a 

line. 

ARAY, 7/212, sb. condition, state. 
ARBELASTE, 101/3174, sb. cross-bows. 
ARECHE, 35/854, vb. reach, touch. 
AREDE, 20/508, vb. guess, tell, judge. 
ARERE, 93/2896, vb. rear, raise, erect. 

ARERD, 7/210, pt. s. 
A-RESTE, 132/4242, vb. stop, halt. 
ARETTE, 160/5174, vb. accuse, impute. 

' ' To Aritte ; ascribere, imputare." Oath. 

Anglicum. 
ARETTE, 56/1597, pt. s. struck. See 

ARAU^T. 

ARSOUN, 107/3385, sb. saddle bow. 
ARST, 28/675, adv. at first, before. 
ASARMES, 94/2933, inter j. to arms. Fr. 

aux armes. 

A-SAYE, 51/1425, vb. try, endeavour. 
ASCAPE, 146/4713, vb. escape. 
ASCRIEDE, 30/720, pt. s. called to. 
ASLA^E, 3/84, pp. slain. 
ASOTID, 67/2007, adj. mad, besotted. 

" Assote, sotted, besotted," Cotgrave. 
A-SPYE, 68/2032, vb. enquire. 
ASPYE, 154/4966, sb. spy. 
ASSEEGE, 106/3348, sb. siege, attack. 



232 



GLOSSARY. 



A-STATJNCIIE, 44/1179, vb. imp. restrain, 
moderate. 

ASTERUE, 97/3058, vl. perish, die. A.S. 
asteorfan. 

ASTO^E, 95/2971, pt. ascended, mounted. 
A.S. astiyan. 

A-STREYEY, 117/3729, adv. A-STREYE}>, 
172/5532, astray, wild. 

A-STYNTE, 63/1842, vb. stop, cease. 

ASTY3E, 157/5056, pt. climbed, scaled. 
See ASTO^E. 

ATEND, 104/3280, pt. set alight. 

ATENEP, 4/114, pt. annoyed, vexed. 

ATEYNTE, 113/3612, pt. exhausted. The 
corresponding French word in this 
passage is estanciez. ' ' JEstainct, ex- 
tinguished .... spent, lost, utterly 
perished," Cotgrave. See also TEYNT. 

ATTACHE, 140/4517, vl. 1 pr. s. arrest. 

ATTES, 36/881, at his. 

ATTEYNT, 11/333, pp. vanquished. See 
ATEYNTE. 

A-TWYNNE, 20/522, adv. apart. 

AUNDWARD, 59/1694, adv. upon, on top 
of. See also ANONEWARD. 

AUNTRE, 3/89. AUNTTJRE, 53/1479, sb. 
danger, risk. 

ATJALYNG, 39/984, sb. descent, slope. 

AUANTAILE, 26/624, sb. See AUENTAILLE. 

*ATJATJNCE, 17/448, vl. promote. 

AUAUNTED, 2/42, pt. s. praised, puffed. 

AUAUNTWARDE, 153/4919, si. van, 
front. 

ATJELDE, 4/101, sb. yield. 

AUENTAILLE, 8/238. The moveable 
front of the helmet covering the face, 
through which the wearer respired : 
used also for the whole of the front of 
the helmet. 

AUENTURE, 39/1003, sb. danger, risk. 

ATJONGE, 93/2904, vl. receive, take. 

Auow, 62/1818, sb. vow. 

AVOWEDED, 67 / 1983, pp. acknowledged, 
avowed it. 

ATJYNDE, 32/757, 1 pr. s. find out, dis- 
cover. 

ATJYSE, 7/195, vl. consider, reflect: he 
wil him letre auyse, he will think 
better of it, be more careful. 



AWE, 179/5779, sb. worship, respect. 

O.Icel. agi. 
AWOK, 43/1135, recovered, come to his 

senses. 

AWREKE, 49/1362, vl. avenge. 
AYCHS, 162/5248, sb. ash-tree. 
AYE, 15/408, sb. awe; stonde}} cw/e= stand 

in awe of. See Note. See AWE. 
AYJ?ER, 145/4659, pron. each, either ; 

hur aytyer, each of them. 
AXETH, 43/1124, pr. s. enquires, asks. 
AJE, 27/647. AJEN, 4/100. A}Y, 30/ 

724, adv. again, against. 

BAD, 123/3947, pt. s. begged, asked; 

bad a bone, made a prayer. 
BAILE, 45/1211, sb. confinement, prison. 
BAKOUNS, 87/2696, sb. pi. pigs, hogs. 
BALAUNSYNG, 103/3243, sb. throwing of 

darts, &c. 

BALE, 36/903, sb. captivity. 
BAME, 20/511, si. balm. Fr. laume; 

Lat. balsamum. 

BANE, 3/86, sb. ruin, destruction. 
BANNE, 168/5424, vl. summon together. 
BAR, 17/448, pt. s. bore, carried. 
BAR OF, 23/572, pt. s. warded off. 
BARERS, 145/4668. BARRERS, 145/4688. 

BARRES, 145/4679, sb. pi. barriers, 

rampart. "A Barras. Antemurale, 

vallum." Cath. Anglicum. 
BARNAGE, 106/3364, sb. nobles, barons. 
BARNEE, 50/1373, sb. children, men. 
BARNYE, 100/3160. BARONYE, 2/48, si. 

barons. 
BA-SCLAWE) 6/179, pt. for be a-sclawe, 

be slain. 

BATAIL, 169/5453, si. battalions, divi- 
sions. 

BATEDEDE, 32/749, pt. s. abated. 
BAYLYE, 135/4333, si. orders, command. 
BE-BLED, 50/1380, pt. covered with blood. 
BEDE, 59/1709, pt. bidden, ordered. 
BEER, 3/64, pt. s. bore, carried away. 
BEHETE, 50/1402, pt. s. promised. 
BELAY, 5/134, pt. s. besieged, beset. 
BELEUE, 106/3345, vl. to leave off, desist 

from. A.S. lilatfan. 



GLOSSARY. 



233 



BE-LETJE, 154/4974, 1 pr. pi. remain, 

are left. 
BE-LEUED, 120/3849, pt. neglected, left 

undone. 
BELEYN, 34/805, pp. beset, surrounded. 

See also BELAY. 

BELYFJ?, 51/1437, pr. s. believes. 
BEMENE, 116/3724, vb. lament, bemoan. 

A.S. bim&nan. 

BE-NOME, 175/5642, pp. taken, deprived. 
*BEO, 22/548, pp. been. 
BEODE, 62/1825, pt. pi. delivered, told. 

A.S. beodan. 

BERD, 23/571, sb. beard, chin. 
BERE, 45/1201, sb. cry, lamentation. 
" Who makis sich a bere." 

Townley Myst. 109. 

BERST, 99/3109, pr. 2 s. bearest, be- 
havest. 

BESPEKEN, 110/3509, pr. pi. consult, 
talk over. " 36 habbej? a-mong 311 
Uspeke J>at ilome." Martyrdom of 
Thomas Beket, ed. Black, 919. 

BESTADE, 90/2800, pt. seized, overcome. 

BE-STERTE, 146/4716, pp. beset (?). 

BE-SWYKE, 130/4164, vb. deceive. A.S. 
biswican. 

BET, 34/830, adv. better, faster. 

BETAKE, 33/763, sb. hand over to, give 
up. 

BETA^TE, 76/2316, pt. s. commended 
him to. 

BE-TO^E, 141/4539, pp. strongly clad. 

BE-TRAPPEDE, 117/3731, pt. pi. sur- 
rounded, beset. 

BETRENDE, 125/4006, vb. surround, en- 
circle. 

BETREUJ^EDE, 70/2105, pt. s. betrothed, 
pledged himself to. 

BE- VAPID, 97/3037, pp. thoroughly 
beaten. See Note. 

BEYNE, 27/661, pron. both. See Note. 

BIL, 86/2654, ab. front. Bolt and Ml, 
back and front. 

BILEUE, 34/829, sb. belief, faith. 

BI-TID, 28/679, pt. s. befell, happened. 

BITOK, 157/5075, pt. s. gave, committed. 
See also BETAKE and BYTOK. 

BLAN, 57/1626, pt. s. stopped, halted. 



BLAS, 86/2648, sh sound, blast. 

BLEE, 49/1360, sb. countenance, colour. 

A.S. bleo. 
BLENCHE, 122/3914, sb. turn aside. A.S. 

blencan. 
BLEREST, 20/507, 2 pr. s. blindest, to 

blear one's eye, to deceive him. See 

Note. 
BLESSED, 8/256, pt. s. blessed, signed 

with the cross. 
BLEYNTE, 35/838, pt. s. turned, inclined. 

See BLENCHE. 
*BLIF, 91/2837. BLYP, 39/1002. BLYUE, 

70/2087, adv. at once, quickly. 
BOBATJNCE, 13/383, ab. boasting. 
BOK, 86/2654, sb. back. 
BON, 25/617, ab. bone. A.S. ban. 
BONE, 84/2583, ab. prayer. 
BOR, 21/545, ab. boar. 
BORGEYS, 16/444, ab. burgess, citizen. 
BORWGH, 61/1767, ab. town. 
BOSSCHE, 93/2887, ab. bush, wood. 
EOT, 24/589, pt. s. bit, cut. 
BOT IF, 10/318, unless, except. 
BOTE, 14/401, sb. message. 
BOUN, 124/3986, adj. bound. 
BOURE, 49/1336, sb. chamber. 
603, 61/1761, pt. s. stooped, bent. 
BO^E-DRA^TE, 97/3040, ab. bow-shot. 
BO^E-SCHOT, 3/90, ab. bow-shot. 
B03TEST, 43/1153, 2 pt. s. didst redeem, 

buy. 

BRAID, 70/2099, pt. s. started up, 
BRAIDE, 99/3122, ab. rush, sally. See 

also BRAYDE. 
BRAKE, 103/3263, ab. bo$es of brake, 

cross-bows. See Note. 
*BRAND, 23/580, ab. sword. See BROND. 
BRAYDE, 28/684, sb. charge, rush, mo- 
ment, of time; 68/2008, sudden fate. 
BRED, 4/103, ab. bread. 
BREDE, 59/1688, ab. breadth. 
BREGGURDEL, 80/2448, ab. middle, waist; 

lit. the waist-band; " Brygyrdyll. 

Lumbar e, renale" Prompt. Parv. 
BREN, 154/4962, vb. impr. burn. 
BRENNYNG, 47/1263, adj. burning. BREN- 

NYNGEST, 74/2236. 



234 



GLOSSARY. 



BRENT, 12/371, pp. burnt. 

BRESTE, 30/719, vl. burst out. 

BRIGGEWARD, 59/1700, sb. keeper of the 
bridge ; 112/35, watch on the bridge. 

BROCHYNG, 115/3657, pr. p. spurring. 

BROD, 123/3941, adj. broad, wide. 

BROKE, 110/3484, vb. enjoy, possess. 
A.S. brukan. 

BROND, 29/684, sb. sword. 

BRONDE, 74/2236, sb. brand.', 

BRTJSSCHET, 34/800, sb. thicket, under- 
wood. " Brusc. Butchers-broome, 
Pettigree, knee-holme, knee-hulver 
(a shrub)." Cotgrave. 

BRUST-BON, 57/1623, sb. breast-bone. 

BRUSTES, 41/1072, sb. pi. breast, chest. 

BRYMLY, 21/545, adv. fiercely. 

BRYNYE, 85/2614, 96/3024, sb. cuirass. 
See Note. 

BRYTASQES, 105/3315, sb. pi. battle- 
ments. " Eretesque, a port, or portall 
of defence, in the rampire, or wall of 
a towne." Cotgrave. 

BUCHYMENT, 34/798, sb. ambush. 

BuDEj?, 46/1235, pr. s. offers. 

BULDE, 78/2377, vb. build, erect. 

BURDE, 70/2095, sb. maiden. 

BUSKY, 170/5500, vb. get ready, pre- 
pare. 

BUTE, 122/3895, pt. pi. beat. 

BuJ?E, 4/100, pr. pL are. 

BYDYNG, 126/4026, sb. delay, remaining 
here. 

BY-GO, 68/2013. BYGONE, 77/2342, pp. 
ruined, deceived. 

BY-GOJST, 108/3429, pp. overrun, covered. 

BY-.GYNT, 24/602, pr. s. begins. 

BY-LAFTE, 56/1595, pt. pi. remained, 
were left. 

BY-LEYN, 139/4483, pt. besieged, beset. 

BYLOKE, 71/2127, vb. look after, take 
care of. 

BY-NYME, 179/5773, vb. take away, 
deprive. 

BY-NYJ^E, 56/1607, prep, below, under. 

BY-STOLE, 121/3878, pt. stolen, escaped. 

BYTOK, 178/5748, pt. s. commended, 
wished himself with. BYTOKE, 108/ 
3413, entrusted, gave in charge. 



OACCHE, 161/5185, vb. take up, recover. 

CALT, 59/1699, pr. s. call. 

CAMMUS, 138/4437, adj. flat. " Resimus. 
That hath a carnoyse nose crooked 
upwarde." Cooper, Thesaurus, 1584. 
See Note. 

CAN, 110/3511, pr. 1 s. know. 

CARF, 32/743, pt. s. cut. 

CARPUL, 42/1115, adj. full of care, 
troubled. 

CAS, 28/679, si. chance. 

CAST, 49/1368, si. meaning, intention. 

CAST, 59/1710, pp. determined, settled. 

CATEL, 178/5745, si. property, goods. 

CA^TE, 95/2982, pt. pi. caught, cap- 
tured. 

CERKE, 80/2449, si. shift, chemise. A.S. 
serce, syrce. 

CHAFFAR, 139/4467, sb. merchandise, 
goods. 

CHALANGIE, 98/3062, vb. claim, seize. 
"To Chalenge ; vendicare." Cath. 
Anglicum. 

CHAMBERERE, 46/1238, si. maid, at- 
tendant. 

CHASTE, 67/1993, vl. impr. chastise 
punish. 

CHATJCEORE, 175/5631, si. hose of mail. 

CHECKE, 25/615, si. cheek. 

CHEKBON, 175/5650, si. jawbone cheek- 
bone. 

CHEL, 101/3194, si. throat. A.S. ceole; 
O.Dutch, Me. 

CHERE, 11/346, si. face; hence eyes. 

*CHILLE, 14/389, for ich wille = I will. 

CHILUELARIE, 2/46, si. knights. 

CHYKE, 25/615, si. cheek. 

CHYKE, 135/4331, si. chick, bird. 

CHYMENAY, 74/2232, si. fire-place. See 
Note. 

CHYNE, 7/212, vl. gape, open. A.S. 
cenan. 

CLEPEDE, 7/216. CLIPEDE, 5/142, pt. s. 
called. A.S. cleopian. 

CLEW, 165/5339, pt. s. tore, clawed. 

CLOS, 156/5023, si. enclosure. 

CLOTJE, 6/179, pt. cut down. 

CLOUT, 37/906, si. piece of cloth. 



GLOSSARl. 



235 



CLOUTE, 171/5507, vb. strike, knock 

about. 
CLOWE, 17/463, vb. ?cut away, ward 

off. 
CLYNGE, 82/2524, vb. pine away. A.S. 

cUngan. 
CLYPEDE, 32/752, pt. s. called. A.S. 

deopian. 

CLYTJE, 65/1901, vb. cling. 
COLBLAK, 34/807, adj. coal-black. 
COLOUR, 179/5761, sb. excuse, argument. 
CONSAIL, 90/2784, sb. concealment. 
CONSAILER, 69/2052, sb. councillor. 
CONSELYNGGE, 61/1790, pr. p. in council, 

consulting. 

COPLES, 48/1328, sb. pi. beams, joists. 
CORAIOUS, 15/414, adj. courageous, 

brave. 
CORNEL, 175/5627, sb. circlet of gold 

round a helmet. 
CORS, 18/473, sb. course ; cors of werre 

= a warlike charge. 
CORS, 10/303, aft. course. 
CORTEYST, 48/1298, adj. most courteous. 
CORTOYSE, 67/1974, adj. gentle. 
COSNEDE, 58/1683, pt. s. cost. 
COST, 55/1552, sb. country, region. 

Compare " they prayed him that he 

would depart out of their coasts" 

Matt. viii. 34. 
COSTREL, 29/510, sb. a small wooden 

bottle. "A Costrelle ; oneferum, et 

cetera ; ubi a flakett." Oath. Anglicum. 
COTE-ARMURE, 22/552, sb. an upper 

garment worn over the armour, and 

generally ornamented with armorial 

bearings. 

COUKDYE, 166/5375, vb. conduct, guide. 
COUPES, 76/2297, sb. pi. cups. 
COUTHE, 79/2403, pt. s. knew, under- 
stood. 

COUYNE, 46/1227, sb. design, conspiracy. 
COWART, 24/593, sb. cowardly fellow. 
COYE, 76/2286, adj. quiet, still. " Coy. 

Quiet, still, husht." Cotgrave. 
COYGNAGE, 170/5481, sb. coinage. 
COYPHE, 36/898, sb. skull-cap. 
CRACCHEDE, 178/5753, pt. s. smashed, 

broke. 



CRAFT, 163/5253, sb, apparatus, baggage. 

CRAKE, 85/2604, vb. crack, break. 

CREAUNCE, 12/358, sb. renown, reputa- 
tion. 

CREAUNT, 21/533, adj. recreant. 

CREP, 173/5557, pt. pi. passed. 

CRISTENTE, 12/364, sb. Christendom. 

CROLLID, 49/1354, adj. curled, curly. 
"With lokkes crulle as they were 
leyd-in presse." Chaucer, C. T. Pro- 
logue 81. Dutch Krolle, a curl. 

CROYCEDE, 152/4913, pt. s. crossed, 
blessed, made the sign of the cross. 

CROY^, 13/376, sb. cross. 

CURE, 55/1548, sb. charge, business. 

CUSSEDE, 70/2112, pt. pi. KUSSEDEN, 

71/2032. GUST, 157/5081, pt. s. kissed. 

DADEST, 153/4944, 2 pt. s. didst, hast 
done. 

DALE, 64/1890, sb. ? 

DAME, 74/2225, sb. draughts. See Note. 

DAWES, 144/4631, sb. pi. days. 

DAYE, 33/777, 1 pr. s. die. DAYE}>, 
178/5738, pr. s. DAIEDE, 94/2928. 
DAYDE, 84/2581, pt. s. 

DEABLET, 142/4569, sb. ? devil. 

DEBAT, 106/3348, sb. fighting, quarrel- 
ling. " Debate; contentio, &c." Cath. 
Anglicum. 

DEDE, 24/595, sb. death. 

DEDEYNGNEDE, 11/349,^. s. disdained. 

DEEL, 118/3776, sb. lamentation. O.Fr. 
doel. See DUL. 

DEEL, 28/669. ^ DEL, 2/44, sb. share, 
part. A.S. dcBl. 

DEERE, 79/2395, vb. hurt, affect. A.S. 
derian. 

DEKE, 155/5010, sb. ditch, moat. 

DELEDE, 1 50/4849, pt. s. divided, shared. 

DELFOLLY, 8/232, adv. mournfully. 

DEMEMBRED, 158/5092, pt. dismem- 
bered, torn limb from limb. 

DEMEYNE, 13/382, adj. simple, lowly. 

DENTE, 25/617, sb. blow, stroke. 

DENTEE, 83/2545, sb. pleasing smell. 

DEPAHDIEUX, 98/3061, exclam. by God. 

DEPAHTEDE, 175/5645, pt. pi. separated. 



236 



GLOSSARY. 



DERE, 157/5070, sb. harm, hurt. 
DERE, 63/1852, adj. dear, precious, 

19/488, adv. 
DEREYNE, 9/265, vl. challenge, claim. 

" Desrener. Todereine; to Justine or 

make good." Cotgrave. 
DERRE, 17/451, 2pr. s. dare. 
DEUYS, 66/1969, sb. plan, suggestion. 
DIFFYE, 4/106, 1 pr. s. defy, challenge. 
DISCOLOURID, 41/1079, pp. without 

colour. 

DISCOUMFIT, 89/2773, sb. defeat. 
DISPITOTJSLY, 67/1985, adv. insolently. 
DISPUTE, 17/457, sb. contempt. 
DISPOILLED, 182/5879, pt. s. DISPOILY, 

177/5714, vl). undress, strip. 
DiSTAUNCE, 65/1913, sb. contention, 

dispute. See Qesta JRomanorum, Glos- 
sary. 

DISTRYED, 12/365, pp. destroyed. 
D^TE, 4/119, vb. prepare, dress, 7/214, 

pt. s. A.S. dihtan. 
Do, 7/217, vb. imp. cause, see. 
DOGGEDLICH, 47/1289, adv. doughtily,* 

bravely. See DO^TILICH. 
DOL, 76/2288, sb. part. A.S. dcel. See 

also DEEL and DEL. 
DOLOTJR, 72/2175, sb. pain, suffering. 

Lat. dolorem. 

DONDE, 28/681, vb. be done. 
DOSSERS, 49/1340, sb. pi. curtains, 

hangings. See Prompt. Parv., s. v. 

Docere. 

DOTOUSE, 59/1699, adj. dangerous. 
DOUCE, 47/1269, adj. sweet, dear. 
DOITTE, 127/4057, vb. fear, be afraid of. 
DOUTE, 64/1899, sb. danger. 
D03TILICH, 15/420, adv. doughtily, 

bravely. 
DOTTY, 17/458, adj. brave, valiant. 

DO^TYERE, 21/531, comp. DO^TYESTE, 

52/1448, Super. A.S. dylitig. 
D03TYNISSE, 101/3197, sb. bravery, 

daring. 

DRAPREYE, 138/4457, sb. cloth. 
DRAST, 121/3887, pt. s. durst, dared. 
, 107/3392, sb. lift. 
, 29/703, sb. stroke. 



DRA3T BRIGE, 66/1952, sb. draw-bridge. 
DRA^, 6/192, pr. s. draweth. 
DRECCHE, 67/1997, vb. DRECCHEN, 56/ 

1602, delay. A.S. dreccan. 
DRECCHYNGE, 15/377, si. delay. 
DRENCH, 50/1386, si. draught, drink. 
DRIE, 82/2524, vl. die of thirst. 
DR^TE, 2/49, si. Lord, God. A.S. 

dry Men. 

DROGY, 59/1691, vl. draw, drag. 
DROPEDE, 42/1103, pt. s. grieved. 
DR03, 16/446, 1 pt. s. drew, betook. 
DRURYMODE, 42/1103, adv. drearily, 

sadly. 

DRITWERYE, 79/2421, si. sweetheart, 
lover. 

DUDEN, 3163, pt. s. did, caused ; duden 
hem sle, caused them to be slain. 

DUELLE, 27/648, si. delay, hesitation. 

DUL, 119/3791, si. DULES, 119/3785, 
pi. lamentation. See DEEL. 

DULFUL, 45/1201, adj. doleful, grievous. 

DUP, 123/3941, adj. DUPE, 46/1257, 



DUPNISSE, 76/2312, si. depth. 

DURE, 21/535, vl. last against, stand 
against. 

DURE, 128/4091, adj. dear, precious, 
59/1715, adv. 

DURNELY, 136/4373, adv. secretly, close- 
ly. A.S. derne, dyrne. 

DURYE, 134/4311, vl. live. 

DUSSCHED, 98/3068, pt. pi. dashed, 
knocked. DUST, 35/854, pt. s. O.Icel. 
dusta. 

DWEL, 86/2646, si. delay. 

DYNGEN, 4/104, vl. dash, pound. 

DYUYS, 58/1663, si. plan, counsel. See 
also DEUYS. 

DYUYSID, 58/1672, pp. proposed. 

EEM, 8/261, si. uncle. 
EER, 3/65, adv. before, already. 
EFT, 34/811, adv. again. 
EFT-SONES, 156/5039, adv. again. 
EGED, 141/4541, adj. edged. 
EGRELICH, 19/496, adv. closely, eagerly. 
ELDE, 110/3497, si. age, years. Origin- 



GLOSSARY. 



237 



ally age simply, but afterwards con- 
fined to old age. 
EMBROUDED, 22/553, pp. embroidered, 

worked over. 

ENBATAILD, 58/1684, pp. embattled. 
ENCENZ, 83/2545, sb. incense. 
ENCHACEDE, 93/2906, pt. pi. drove, 

hurried. Fr. enchasser. 
ENCHANTED, 130/4187, pp. persuaded, 

overcome. 

ENCHES, 104/3302, sb. pi. inches. 
ENCOMBRE, 94/2942, si. cause trouble 

to, harass. 
ENDELONGES, 19/498, adv. all along, 

down. 
ENFORCE, 33/793, vb. exert. ENFORCEDE, 

33/782, pt. s. 
ENIVGIE>, 66/1959, imper. pi. judge, 

sentence. 

ENPAYNEDE, 26/633, pt. s. exerted. 
ENPAYREDE, 145/4691, vb. pt. s. became 

weaker, failed. 
ENSERCHE, 42/1093, vb. examine, 

inspect. 
ENSOYNGNE, 91/2827, sb. excusing, 

prevarication. 
ENTAILLE, 31/730, &b. ENTAYLLE, 

31/745, workmanship, fashion, 
ENTAMY, 116/3699, vb. break, cut 

through. 
ENTEMPRE, 6/164, vb. imp. restrain, 

moderate. 
ENTENDIAJ?, 111/3517, pr. pi. attend, 

direct their attention. 
ENTERLAS, 28/679. (?) 
ENTEYNTE, 84/2590,^. affected, weak- 
ened. 

ENTREMETRIE, 22/557, vb. interfere. 
ENVY, 4/114, sb. insolence. 
ERBER, 61/1773, sb. garden, arbour. 
ERE, 155/5004, adv. ever. 
ERLICH, 2/46, adv. early. A.S. earlice. 
ESCHEKKERE, 74/2224, sb. chess. 
EUERECHE, 5/140, pron. each, every 

one. 

EYMEDE, 31/735, pt. s. aimed, endeav- 
oured. 
E3ENE, 37/907, sb. pi. eyes. 



FACHOUN, 74/2244, sb. sword. See Note. 

FACOUN, 41/1074, sb. falcon, hawk. 

FALE, 34/798, adj. many, numerous. 

FALE, 63/1845, sb. fellow, companion. 

FALSAR3, 38/966, sb. pi. hand-bills. See 
Note. 

FALTJREDE, 116/3707, sb. company. 

FANDE, 87/2683, vb. try. 

FANT, 22/548, sb. FANSTON, 42/1083, 
font'. 

FARE, 34/809, vb. to go, ride. FARETH, 
74/2221, imper, A.S. far an. 

FASOUN, 41/1075, sb. fashion, appear- 
ance. 

FATJTEREL, 162/5235, sb. villain. 

FATJ^T, 86/2657, pt. s. FA^T, 21/532, 
fought. 

FAWE, 43/1150, adj. happy, satisfied. 
FA3E, 10/308, adv. A.S. faegen. 

FAYN, 66/1951, adj. pleased, happy. 

FEE, 10/305, sb. reward; 179/5773, 
property, money paid by vassals : in 
fee, 54/1527, as a vassal. 

FEER, 12/329, adj. FERE, 15/414, proud, 
fierce. 

FEL, 64/1891, sb. skin. A.S.fel. Lat. 
pellem. 

FELAWE, 5/150, sb. companion, associ- 
ate. O.Icel. felagi. 

FELDE, 35, 841, pt. s. moved, bent. 

FELLE, 16/428, adj. daring, fierce. 

FERD, 34/832. FERDE, 3/85, sb. com- 
pany, followers. A.S. ferd, fyrd. 
See also FERED, FEREDE, and FURDE. 

FERDE, 113/3598, pt. s. fared, A.S. 
faran. 

]?EREN, 8/258, sb. pi. companions. A.S. 
gefera. 

FERETE, 75/2254. FERTEE, 134/4307, si. 
strength, valour. " Fierete. Fierce- 
nesse, boldness, stoutnesse, mettle," 
&c. Cotgrave. 

FERLICH, 35/842, adv. fiercely. 

FERLY, 30/716, adj. wonderful, fearful. 

FERMYE, 71/2113, vb. confirm, 
strerigthen. 

FERRED, 114/3625, pp. distanced, far 
from. 



238 



GLOSSARY. 




FETTE, 46/1260, vb. fetch, bring. 

FETYS, 182/5883, adj. neat, well-propor- 
tioned. 

FEJ?ME, 76/2312, si. fathoms. 

FEYE, 80/2430, adj. accursed, cowardly. 
A. S.fdege, which means : (1) doomed, 
(2) dead, (3) accursed, (4) cowardly. 
See Grein, I. 274. 

FEYNTYSE, 127/4073, sb. cowardice. 

FIER, '15/409, adj. See FEER. 

FLEAND, 88/2740, pr. p. flying. The 
northern form of the present participle : 
cf. 1. 2736 above. 

FLECHS, 139/4493. FLEHS, 138/4440, 
sb. flesh. 

FLEN, 55/1574, vb. FLEO, 14/400, vb. 
flee. FLEOYNG, 88/2736, pr. p. fly. 
A.S./ecw. 

FLET, 134/4311, pr. s. flows, runs. 

FLETTE, 35/853, sb. ground, the flat. 

FLE^, 31/731, pt. s. flew. 

FLITTE, 156/5028, vb. stir, move. 

FLOUR, 101/3184, sb. palm, prize. 

FLOWEN, 35/855, pt. pi. FLO}EN, 
57/1620, fled. 

FLYTE, 137/4420, vl. fight, quarrel. 

FOL, 44/1170, adv. full, very. 

FOL, 22/563, adj. foolish. Fr. fol. 

FOLGHEDE, 61/1761, pt. s. followed. 

FOLLOHT, 41/1047, baptism. FOLL03T, 
14/397, sb. A.S. fulwiht. See Eeliq. 
Antiq. II. 243, and La^amon, 36. 

FOL^YEA}?, 39/1001, pr. pi. follow, 
pursue. 

FON, 6/184, sb. pi. foes, enemies. 

FOND, 150/4849, pt. s. found. 

FOND, 11/341, vb. venture, try. 

FONGE, 178/5739, vb. receive. 

FOR, 174/5589, adj. fore, front. 

FORCHURE, 22/551, sb. " Fourcheure, 
f. A forkinesse, or forkednesse ; a 
forke-like division, or cleaving; also 
that part of the body from whence the 
thighes doe part ; (I thinke wee call 
it the Twist.)" Cotgrave. 

FORCHYS, 92/2881, si. pi. FOTJRCHYS, 
95/2970, gallows. " Fourche, a Forke, 
Pitch-forke, or Prong ; also, a gibbet, 
or paire of gallowes." Cotgrave. 



FORCLEUE, 21/543, vl. cut through, 

cleave. 
FOR-COMYN, 25/617, pp. cut to pieces, 

cut through. 
FORDRAWE, 62/1796, vl. subj. tear in 

pieces. 

FORFARE, 12/318, vl. perish, be ruined. 
FoR-GNA^E, 43/1149, vl. devour. 
FOR-GO, 10/319, vl. lose. FORGONE, 

84/2584, pp. 

FOR-LETE, 47/1274, vl. lose, forego. 
FORSAKE, 18/483, vl. fly from, avoid. 
FORT, 71/2146, for to, to. 
FoR-bYNK, 10/319, 2 pi. pr. repent, 

regret. 

FORW, 116/3720, si. furrow. 
FOR-WERIE>, 90/2809, pr. pi. become 

worn out, exhausted. 
FOR}, 174/5593, sb. lit. furrow ; ground. 
FOR-JYFT, 178/5736, sb. forgiveness. 
FOR3YT, 89/2774, pt. s. forgot. 
FofrER, 26/641, sb. a heavy weight. 
FOYGNEDE, 175/5640, pt. s. thrust at. 

O.Fr. foindre, foiyner, to feign, make 

a feint. 

FOJT, 43/1127, pp. fought. 
FRAYNE, 40/1035, si. ash. " Fresne, 

an ash tree/' Cotgrave. Lat. frax- 

inus. 
FRAYNE, 45/1216, vl. ask, question. 

A.S. frignan, pt. t. frcegn. 
FRECHS, 86 '2664, adj. fresh, new. A.S. 

fersc. 

FREE, 17/466, adj. noble. 
FREKE, 4/113, sb. man. A.S. freca. 
FROME, 42/1104, sb. beginning; atte 

frome = at first. 
FRY, 108/3441, si. noble maiden. A.S. 

freo t fre. 

FTJL, 74/2237, pt. s. fell. 
FULD, 107/3390, pt. s. folded, clasped. 
FULDE, 117/3734, pt. s. felled, knocked 

down. 
FULLAU^T, 178/5743, sb. baptism. See 

FOLLOHT. 
FULLY, 177/5697, vl. baptise. FULLED, 

42/1084, pp. 
Fun, 25/605, sb. FYR, fire, sparks. 



GLOSSARY. 



239 



FURD, 57/1625, ab. ford. 

FURDE, 4/95, sb. company, host. See 
FERED, FEREDE and FERDE. 

FURDE, 4/113, pt. s. conducted, behaved. 

FUSTE, 65/1901, ab. fist. A.S. fast. 

FuURE, 4/101, num. four. 

FUYSOUN, 138/4457, ab. plenty, quantity. 
Lat. fusionem from fundere, to pour 
out. 

FYEDE, 168/5443, pt. s. showed con- 
tempt. 

FYN, 60/1731, ab. payment. 

FYSAGE, 41/1079, sb. visage, face. 

GADELYNG, 46/1234, sb. vagabond, ras- 
cal. A.S. gcedeling. 
GALE, 64/1889, ab. voice. 
GALWETRE, 133/4269, ab. gallows. 
GALWYS, 93/2896, ab. gallows, gibbet. 
GAN, GUN, passim. Used as auxiliaries 

of tense; thus gan to glyde = did glide. 
GAN, 37/910, pt. s. GUN, 34/824. 

GUNNE, 37/938, pt. pi, began. 
GARNYMENT;, 50/1395, sb. pi. dresses, 

clothes. 

GAS, 67/1975, 71/2145, pr. s. goes, walks. 
GAI, 180/5825, pt. s. begat. 
GATE, 62/1801, sb. way, road. O.Icel. 

gata. 

GEANT, 59/1700, ab. giant. 
GENT, 27/646, adj. noble. 
GENYLLERE, 175/5631, sb. armour for 

the knees. 
GERDE, 38/947, pt. pi. GERTE, 57/1618, 

pt. s. pierced, cut, struck. A.S. 

gyrdan. 
GERSE, 116/3693, ab. cut, wound, gash. 

"A garse; scara uel acaria." Cath. 

Anglicum. 

GERTE, 24/601, pt. pi. made, caused. 
GERY^OUN, 177/5693, ab. treasure. 
GLAYUES, 88/2728, ab. pi. GLEUES, 

145/4690. GLEYUES, 38/966. GLYUES, 

104/3275, glaives : weapons made of a 

cutting blade at the end of a pike or 

staff. 
GLEDE, 74/2230, sb. a live coal, red-hot, 

but not blazing. 
GLENTE, 12/356, pi. s. glanced. 



GLOD, 24/590, pt. s. glided, glanced. 

G-LOTOU2TS, 120/3841, sb. pi. villains. 
" G-louton. A knave, rascall, filthie 
fellow," Cotgrave. 

GOBET, 25/614, sb. part, piece. 

GOFFANOUN, 33/774, 86. flag, pennon. 

GOME, 14/402, sb. 131/4203, sb. pi. man, 
creature. 

GOME, 60/1741, sb. care, heed. 

GON, 22/555, vb. go, move. 

GONDE, 64/1890. (?) 

GONELS, 135/4345, a6. pi. long gowns. 
" Gonnelle. A whole Petticote ; the 
bodies & skirts being joined to- 
gether," Cotgrave. " Oonel. Habil- 

lement d'homme et de femme, 

casaque on longue cotte qu'on mettoit 
sur 1'armure, et qui descendoit sur 
les mollets. Les goneles etoient en 
soie on en drap, et etoient blason- 
nees. Geoffrey, fils de Fouiques-le- 
Bon, Grand Senechal de France, eut 
le surnom de grise-gonelle, parce qu'il 
portoit ordinairement sa cassaque de 
couleur grise," Eoquefort. 

GOST, 126/4038, vb. 2 pr. s. goest ; goest 
to grounde, wilt be ruined. 

GOST, 21/539, sb. spirit. 

GRADDE, 35/858, pt. pi. shouted, cried. 
A.S. grcedan. 

GRAIDE, 90/2804, pr. as fut. a. shall 
crow. 

GRAME, 44/1182, ab. rage. 

GRAME, 29/691, vb. be vexed. 

GRAS, 71/2035, ab. grace, goodness. 

GRAY)>E, 13/385, vb. imp. GREY^E, 
52/1472, get ready, prepare, put on. 
O.Icel. greiZa. 

GREDE, 102/3225, vb. shout, cry. A.S. 
grcedan. 

GRESSE, 60/1750, ab. grease, fat. 

GRETE, 106/3347, ab. cry. 

GRETTE, 55/1567, pt. s. saluted, cried to. 

GRILLE, 73/2195, vb. suffer, be pained. 

' Nu ich mai singe hwar ich wulle, 

Ne dar me neuer eft mon agrulle." 
Owl and Nightingale, ed. Stratmann, 1110. 

GROPEDE, 50/1388, pt. s. felt, touched. 
GROT, 134/4313, ab. bit, part. 
GRUTE, 93/2908, adj. great, heavy. 



240 



GLOSSARY. 



GRYMLY, 21/539, adj. grim. 

GUYS, 87/2695, si. pi. pigs. O.Icel. 

gress. " Gris : porcelhis." Oath. An- 

glicum. 

GRYSLICH, 7/201, adj. fearful, dreadful. 
GURD, 128/4117, pt. s. GTJRT, 74/2248, 

struck, smote. See GERDE. 
GURDELSTEDE, 59/1707, si. waist, belt. 
GYE>, 153/4921, pr. s. guides, leads. 
GYNNE, 135/4351, &l* plan, stratagem, 

device, machinery. 
GYNT, 84/2589, pr. s. begins. 
GYRFACOTJNS, 60/1738, si. pi. large 

falcons. 

GYSARMES, 36/895, sfr. pi. battle-axes. 
GYSE, 54/1540, sb. manner, way. 
GYUES, 47/1272, sb. pi. gyres, fetters. 



HAB, 156/5042, 2 pr. pi. have. 

HABERKE, 8/236. HAUBERKES, 26/632, 
sb. coat of mail. 

HABERIONS, 28/675, sb. pi. breastplates, 
generally of mail or close steel. 

HACHE, 59/1701, sb. battle-axe. 

HAKENAY, 37/908, sb. hack horse. 

HALBERKE, HAUBERKES, 26/632, sb. pi. 
coats of mail. 

HALF, 17/449, pt. s. helped, assisted. 

HALS, 8/249, sb. neck. 

HALT, 56/1602, impers. pr. for haldeth, 
benefits, is of advantage. 

HALTJENDOL, 103/3253, si. half, part. 

HAMWARD, 126/4030, adv. homewards. 

HAN, 46/1237, i)l. have, receive. 

HANNE, 33/795, adv. hence. 

HANT, 51/1406, sb. hand. 

HAPID, 57/1635, pp. happened, befell. 

HARD, 15/423, adj. hardy, brave, daring. 

HARD, 122/3901, sb. hard work, diffi- 
culty. 

HARLOT, 46/1234, sb. rascal, low fellow. 

HARNEYS, 60/1748, sb. baggage, accou- 
trements. ' ' Harriots. Armor, har- 
nesse : also a team, cart or carriage," 
Cotgrave. 

HARNEYSCHEAJJ, 94/2929, vb. imper. arm, 
equip. 



HAUNDE, 86/2658, &. pi hands. 
HAUNSEL, 59/1708, si. beginning : lit. 

the first money received. 
HEBBE, 46/1248, vb. heave. A.S. hebban. 
HEE, 10/303, pr. they. 
HEEL, 175/5651, adj. sound. 
HEF, 11/340, pt. s. raised, lifted. 
HEFD, 164/5302, si. head. A.S. heafod. 
HEF>E, 33/791, si. handle, haft. 
HELE, 43/1125, vb. imper. hide, conceal, 

cover. A.S. helan, Mian. HELEDE, 

115/3655,|?*. s. 
HELF, 4/99, si. HELUE, 5/159, behalf, 

part. 

" O godes liaJfe." -Ormulum, 624. 

A.S. healf. 

HELF, 138/4441, si. (?) 
HEN, 147/4741, adv. HENNE, 104/3285. 

HENNES, 30/713, hence, from hence. 
HENDE, 113/3616, adv. near. 
HENDE, 33/784, adj. gentle, kind. 
HENTE, 59/1722, pt. s. seized. 
HEO, passim, pr. she. 
HER, 49/1354, si. hair. 
HERBORGHEDE, 163/5251, pt.pl. lodged, 

encamped. 

HERBURGHES, 176/5689, sb. pi. resting- 
place, camp. 
HERM, 17/461, si. HERME, 84/2568, 

injury, hurt. 

HERMYE, 47/1295, vb. injure, damage. 
HERT, 115/3661, si. hart, deer. 
HESTE, 42/1094, si. command, order. 
HET, 41/1067, pt. s. ordered; 151/4865, 

pt. s. named. A.S. hatan. 
HETE, 89/2762, sb. occasion, time. 
HEJ?EMEN, 41/1053, si. pi. heathens. 
HE^ENIS, 73/2187, si. HEJ>ENISSE, 

4/121, heathendom, heathen countries. 
HETJED, 14/405, sb. head. A.S. heafod. 
HEUEDE, 96/3004, pt. s. heaved, lifted, 

raised. 

HEYL, 30/712, adj. whole, sound. 
75/2283, adj. principal, high. 

147/4731, pt. s. hurried, 
hastened, hied. 
HEYj, 25/622, adv. high, above. 



GLOSSARY. 



241 



HILUES, 144/4655, sb. handles, hafts. 
HIR EY}?ER, 24/601, each of them. 
HI^T, 44/1166, pt. s. was called, was 

named. A.S. hatan. 
HI^T, 47/1262, pt. s. ordered, bade. 
Hi}T, 90/2782, sb. promised happiness. 
HOD, 165/5339, sb. HODE, 35/843, hood. 
HOL, 20/519, adj. HOOL, 20/522, whole, 

sound. 

HOLD, 40/1026, sb. prison, captivity. 
HOLDE, 84/2592, adj. faithful. A.S. 

hold. 

HOND, 54/1523, sb. hound, dog. 
HOPE, 10/326, 1 pr. s. expect, believe. 
HORE, 178/5725, sb, adultery (?). 
HORE, 5/154, adj. white-haired, old. 
HORESONE, 68/2016, sb. bastard. 
HOST, 95/2982, sb. haste. 
HOSYN, 66/1941, sb. pi. hose : breeches 

or stockings, or both. 
HOTEJ?, 65/1925, pr. s. bids, orders. 

HOTEN, 152/4901, pp. 
HOVE, 103/3269, vb. remain, stay. 

HOTJEDE, 140/4515, pt. S. HOUYNGE, 

122/3904, pr. p. 
HOUTE, 102/3225, vb. shout, cry. 

" Howtyn or cryyn. Boo" Prompt. 

Parv. 

HOWES, 155/4993, sb. pi. hooks. 
HOJE, 141/4539, sb. hurt, harm. See 

Note. 

HUD, 50/1400, pp. hid, hidden. 
HITGENYS, 2/51, sb. size. 
HULD, 6/178, pt. s. held, kept. 
HULLE, 119/3819, sb. hill. 
HUMELICH, 69/2050, adv. gently, 

quietly. 

HURD, 2/47, pt. s. heard. 
HURE, 68/2035, vb. hear. 
HURE, 7/215, pron. her, it. 
HURE, 10/303, poss. pr. their. 
HWYCH, 20/511, pron. which. 
HYE, 42/1106, vb. hasten, hurry. 
HYLDE, 57/1639, vb. skin ; let hem hylde, 

cause them to be skinned. 
HYLP, 102/3208, sb. help, assistance. 
HYLUE, 138/4434, sb. haft, handle. 

FERUMBRAS. 



HYMEN, passim, these, they, them. 
HYNE, 178/5730, sb. pi. servants. 
HYRE>, 119/3794, pr.pl. hear. 
HYWE, 24/604, pt. pi. hewed, slashed. 
HYWE, 145/4665, sb. complexion. A.S. 

heow, hiw. 
HY}T, 182/5873, 2 pt. s. didst promise. 

I-BOTENED, 6/166, pp. buttoned, 

fastened. 

I-BROCHED, 107/3389, #p. pierced, trans- 
fixed. 
IN-BUCHED, 92/2879, pp. placed in 

ambush. 
I-DIJTE, 55/1577, pp. prepared, armed. 

A.S. dihtan. 
IHERID, 42/1100, pp. praised. A.S. 

herian. 

I-HOTE, 42/1087, pp. named. A.S. hatan. 
ILECHE, 77/2336, adj. like. 
ILKE, 26/637, adj. same, very. 
ILYUE, 62/1804, vb. believe, credit. 
I-PAID, 60/1747, pp. satisfied, paid. 
I-PIJT, 83/2543, pp. placed, fixed. 
I-SAME, 70/2112, adv. together. 
*!-SCHENT, 12/371, pp. destroyed. 
I-SWONKE, 5/152, laboured, exerted. 

A.S. swincan. 
IAKKE, 116/3689, sb. a defensive upper 

garment quilted with stout leather: 

a jerkin. 
IAMBEAUS, 174/5615, sb. pi. leg-armour 

which covered both the front and the 

rear, while greaves only protected the 

shins. 
IANTAIL, 21/527, adj. noble, courteous. 

Fr. gentil. 

IET, 58/1681, sb. contrivance, device. 
IEW-DE-DAME, 74/2225, sb. draughts. 
IOLIF, 8/251, adj. 56/1582, handsome, 

active. 
IOLYTE, 75/2259, sb. mirth. " loliet'. 

lollity, jollinesse : jocundnesse, mirth, 

&c.," Cotgrave. 
IOUPOUN, 116/3689, sb. a short kind of 

surcoat introduced in the time of 

Edward III : often of silk or velvet, 

and was worn over the armour in the 

same way as the Cote-armour. 



242 



GLOSSARY. 



IORNAY, 34/827, sb. combat. 
IORNE, 126/4029, sb. journey, way. 
IORNEE, 100/3155, 134/4307, day's work, 

day's inarch. 
IOUSTE, 4/105, vb. joust, engage, 

contend. 
IUGGYMENT, 178/5739, sb. judgment, 

sentence. 
IUPOUN, 31/745, sb. jacket. 

KEEM, 8/260, vb. pt. s. came. KEMEN, 
99/3130, pt. pi. 

KENDE, 48/1298, sb. race. 

KENNED, 134/4314, pr. &. knows. 

KEP, 125/4016, vb. 1 pr. s. care, wish. 

KEPEDE, 106/3377, pt. s. troubled for. 

KERNELS, 102/3234, sb. pi battlements. 
" Creneaux, Carneaux ; the battle- 
ments of a wall. Creneler. To im- 
battle," Cotgrave. 

KERSE, 168/5442, sb. rush. See Note. 

KET, 115/3667, adv. KETE, 143/4596, 
quickly, fast, fiercely. See Note. 

KETJERID, 78/2370, pp. covered, hid. 

KNAK, 143/4599, sb. knock, blow. 

*KNAL, 17/463, sb. (Pknak,) knock, blow. 
Compare the preceding word. 

KNEN, 179/5775, sb. pi. knees. 

KNO)?, 6/174, .pr. s. knoweth. 

EJJD, 50/1401, pp. known, celebrated, 
discovered. A.S. cy%an, ci&ian. 

KULDE, 86/2660, pt. s. killed. 

KTJNNE, 14/389, sb. kin, race, family. 

KUSTE, 68/2030, pt. s. kissed, embraced. 

KuJ?E, 4/104, vb. KYJJE, 55/1581, show, 
make known. See KUD. 

KYNNES, 4/128, sb. kind, manner. None 
kynnes, of no kind. 

LACYE, 164/5308, vb. lace up. 

LAK, 56/1589, sb. delay, hesitation; 170/ 

5487, defect. 
LANCYNGE, 88/2733, sb. shower of lances 

or darts. 

LASSE, 6/187, adv. less. 
LATOUN, 86/2647, sb. a mixed metal 

resembling brass. 



LATJ^TE, 76/2315, pt. s. LAWTE, 39/995, 

caught. 

LAWE, 3/85, sb. faith, creed. 
LAWE, 13/386, vb. laugh. LAWYNG, 

60/1757, pr. p. 

LAY, 14/397, sb. religion, faith. 
LAY, 56/1602, sb. song, story. 
LAYKY, 106/3357, vb. amuse themselves, 

play. 

" jif him list for to laike, J?enne loke we mowen." 
P. Plowman, B. Prol. 172. 

LECHES, 42/1092, sb. pi. physicians. 

LEEM, 63/1861, sb. light. 

LEES, 15/407, sb, lie. 

LEF, 19/495, adj. willing, desirous. 

LEF, 21/541, sb. leaf. 

LEF, 148/4763, vb. imper. leave, retire 

from, give up. 

LEFTE, 172/5535, pt. s. was left, re- 
mained. 
LEGGE, 54/1534, vb. lay, set; 136/4394. 

stake. 

LEKEDEM, 1 18/3769, pt.pl. pleased them. 
LEKYNGE, 98/3090, ab. pleasure. Hure 

lekynge, pleasing to her. 
LEL, 61/1770, adj. faithful, true. 
LENDE, 179/5772, vb. landed, settled. 
LERE, 77/2354, vb. learn, hear. 
LET, 93/2896, pt. s. ordered, caused. 

A.S. Icetan. 

LET, 3/93, vb. hinder, stop. A.S. lettan. 
LETJE, 85/2633, vb. remain, be left. 
LEUERE, 5/145, adv. rather, sooner. 
LETJES, 48/1327, sb. pi folding- doors. 
LETJET, 61/1781, 1 pr. s. leave it, give 

it up. 

LEYE, 26/629, vb. lie, be deceived. 
LIBBE, 179/5779, vb. live, pass (one's 

life). 
LIFLODE, 81/2493, sb. provisions, means 

of subsistence. 
LIFT, 121/3863, sb. sky, air. 
LIGGE, 48/1311, vb. lie, remain. 
LIPPEN, 5/141, sb. pi lips. 
Li)?, 74/2248, sb. nerves, sinews. A.S. 

m. 

Li 3 T, 71/2145, pt. s. alighted. 
LijTE, 20/521, sb. light. 



GLOSSARY. 



243 



LODLUKER, 145/4665, adj. more loath- 

some, hideous. 
LOES, 9/273. Los, 4/123, si. praise, 

fame. 
LOME, 9/286, adv. often, frequently. 

LORDLYISTGES, 54/1518, sb. pi. LOR- 

LYNGES, 97/3049, sirs. 
LORE, 76/2298, pt. pi. lost. 
LOSENGERS, 131/4196, sb. pi. deceivers, 

liars. "Losengier. A flatterer, cogger, 

foister, pickthanke, prater, cousener, 

guller, beguiler, deceiver." Cotgrave. 
LoJ?, 19/4195, adj. unwilling, loth. 
LOUELICH, 68/2030. LOUELY, 8/244, 

adv. with love, lovingly. 
Lous, 16/439, sb. louse, flea. 
LOUTE, 3/67, vb. bow, bend. 
Low, 12/356, pt. s. Low3, 20/524, 

laughed, 

LUP, 8/243, vb. pt. s. leaped. 
LUSE, 139/4469, vb. lose money. 
LTJST, 17/453, vb. imper. listen, hearken. 

LUSTE, 64/1900. 
LUTHER, 59/1708, adj. evil, bad. A.S. 

ly%er. 
LUUERE, 128/4093, adv. rather, more 

willingly. 
LYAUNCE, 51/1409, sb. family, descent; 

128/4098, party, alliance. 
LYBBE, 131/4213, vb. Ipr. s. live. 
LYE, 74/2242, sb. flame. A.S. leg, lyg. 

"Fostren forth a flaumbe and a feyre leye" 

P. Plowman, B. XVII. 207. 

LYERE, 60/1757, sb. liar. 

LYKE, 57/1631, vb. please. 

LYME, 158/5092, si. limb. 

LYN, 111/3541, vl. lie, beset. 

LYN, 3/89, vl. to stop, remain. A.S. 

linnan. 
LYNEDE, 49/1362, pt. s. leaned. LYN- 

YNGE, 106/3358, pr. p. 
LYTE, 139/4474, adj. little, small; 55 j 

1578, adv. 
LYTHER, 54/1535, adj. dangerous, fierce, 

A.S. 



LY}>, 158/5092, si. limb. See LiJ>. 
LYUAND, 22/549, adj. living, alive. 
LYUEDE, 3/85, pt. pL believed. 



LYUES, 81/2483, adv. alive. 
LYURE, 42/1095, si. Hver. 

MA, 91/2828, imp. pron. men, they. 

Fr. on. See ME. 

MAKE, 51/1422, si. mate, consort. 
MALES, 131/4201, si. pi. bags. 
MAMETES, 83/2541, si. pi. idols. See 

Note to I. 2534. 

MANAGE, 16/432, si. threats, menaces. 
MANYON, 35/835, many a one, many. 
MARBRE, 177/5701, si. marble- vessel. 
MARTYR, 2/55, vb. martyr, slay. 
MASALYNE, 48/1327, si. some kind of 

metal: probably brass. Halliwell 

quotes from MS. Cantab. Ff. II. 38, 

leaf 122 : 

"iiij. c. cuppys of golde fyne, 
And as many of maslyn." 

MASTRYE, 65/1904, si. MAYSTRYE, 

2/57, power, mastery 
MAT, 84/2590. MATE, 82/2506, adj. 

faint, almost dead. ' ' Mat. Deaded, 

mated, amatcd, quelled, subdued, 

overcome." Cotgrave. 

I " Meliors was al mat: sehe ne mist no furj?er." 
William of Palerne, ed. Skeat, 2441.. 

MAUFESOURS, 114/3633, si. pi. villains, 

malefactors. 

MAUGRE, 23/567, prep, in spite of. 
MAUGREE, 10/315, &b. misfortune. 
MAUMERYE, 83/2534, 153/4938, si. 

shrine or temple of idols. See Note. 
MAWE, 59/1691, vl. may, are able. See 

MOWE. 

MAY, 94/2927, si. maid. A.S. mceg. 
MAYE, 3,9/978, vl. to be troubled. 

" S'Esmayer. To be sad, pensive, 

carefull ; to take thought." Cotgrave. 

Caxton reads " lose his wits." 
MAYGNY, 61/1791, si. MAYNEE, 107/ 

3405, meyne. Attendants, retinue. 

O.Fr. maisniee = mansionatam, from 

mansionem, as household, from house. 
MAYL, 144/4653, si. mallet, hammer. 
MAYLLE, 26/624, si. ring or link of his 

mail-armour. See note to I. 876. 
MAYSTRES, 49/1349, si. governess. 
ME, 3/88, impers. pron. men, people; 

equivalent to the French on. See MA. 



244 



GLOSSARY. 



MEDE, 167/5409, sb. meadow, field. 

MELKIS, 182/5879, sb. of milk. 

MELLE, 178/5749, vb. have anything to 
do, meddle with. 

MELLEDE, 104/3290, pt. s. mixed, min- 
gled. 

MENDE, 84/2584, sb. consciousness, mind. 

MENE, 173/5568, vb. lament, complain. 

MERUAYLLEJ?, 22/556, imp. pr. it sur- 
prises, astonishes me, I am astonished. 

MESSAGER, 52/1466, sb. MESSAGERE, 
53/1483, messenger. 

MEST, 73/2217, adj. greatest, principal. 

METE, 2/47, sb. a meal. 

METE-LES, 45/1195, adj. without food. 

*METENYE, 12/352, vb. maintain. 

MEYNE, 22/556, adj. low, poor. 

MEYTEYNE, 12/3&2, vb. maintain. 

MICHE, 34/811, adv. much. 

MIDDEL, 73/2199, sb. waist. 

HIDE, 92/2866, prep. with. A.S. mid. 

MIXT, 18/474, 2 pt. s. mightest, canst. 

MOD, 5/144, sb. temper, feeling, dis- 
position. 

MOLDE, 153/4940, sb. the suture of the 
skull. 

MOLDE, 12/361, sb. earth. 

MON, 45/1212, sb. MONE, 45/1196, 
lament, lamentation. 

MONEKYS, 3/60, sb. pi. monks. 

MORED, 91/2834, pp. fixed, rooted. 

"And i-mored so uaste also J>at hi ne mijte 
awei be nome." Legends of the Holy Rood, 
E. E. T. S., ed. Morris, p. 28, 1. 126. 

MOREL, 116/3713, sb. a name properly 
applied to a dark-coloured horse. 
" Morel as Moreau. Moreau cheval; 
a blacke horse." Cotgrave. 

MORNYNG, 77/2338, sb. mourning, la- 
mentation. 

MORWE, 42/1114, 8b. MORWENYNG, 

2/46, morning, morrow. 
MORWETYDE, 93/2895, sb. morning-time, 

morning. 

MOST, 5/144, aux. vb. might. 
MOT, 10/318, aux. vb. may. 
MURG^E, 68/2034, sb. MuR3>E, 2/48, 

mirth. 
MYNE, 155/4993, vb. undermine. 



MYNTE, 173/5587, vb. aim. 

MYSBEDE, 85/2619, vb. give disgraceful 

orders to, speak shamefully. 
MYSBRAYDE, 40/1037, sb. abuse. 
MYS-BYJ^O^TE, 180/5825, pp. mistaken, 

acting wrongly. 
MYSTER, 87/2684, sb. trade, profession, 

art. 
MYSWENT, 66/1963, pp. mistaken, gone 

wrong. 

NAD, 5/141, pi. s. for ne had, had not. 

NAKE, 88/2744, adj. uncovered, bare. 

NAM, 80/2434, for ne am, am not. 

NAM, 31/746,2*. s. hit, reached; 8/257, 
took. A.S. niman. 

NAMLICH, 62/1823, adv. especially. 

NAYM, 13/374. Nain. Compare CAYM 
= Cain. 

NA$T, 61/1779, adv. not, nought. 

NAUEL-STEDE, 20/509, sb. navel, mid- 
dle. 

NEDES, 60/1741, adv. necessarily. 

NEITE, 5/148, sb. night, evening. 

NEL, 23/568, for ne will, will not. 

NEMPNED, 101/3196, pp. named. 

NEODE, 120/3853, sb. affair, business. 

NERE, 10/326, pt. s. for ne were, were 
not. 

NERE, 41/1069, adv. never. 

NESSCHE, 110/3499, adj. NEYCHS, 161/ 
5187, soft; at nessche & hard, en- 
tirely, on every point. A.S. hnesce. 

NEY}, 23/575, adv. nigh, nearly. 

NE^ED, 6/179, pt. s. approached. 

HEDE, 53/1494, drew near. A.S. nea- 
hwian. 

NE^ENE, 88/2720, num. nine. 

NE^ENTENE, 87/2699, num. nineteen. 

NE^Y, 154/4953, pr. pi. approach, como 
near. See NE^ED. 

NISTE, 28/681, pt. s. for ne wiste, did not 
know. 

NOLDE, 4/127, pt. s. for ne wolde, would 
not. 

NOME, 43/1133, pp. betaken, taken. A.S. 
niman. 

NONE, 56/1587, sb. noon. 



GLOSSARY. 



245 



NONES, 48/1324, for the nones = for the 

time (for than dnes). 
NOT, 122/3902, pr. s. for ne wot, does not 

know. 

NO^ELES, 23/573, cow/, nevertheless, yet. 
NO^EB, 5/147, conj. NOTICES,, neither, 

nor. 
NOWAB, 2/51, adv. nowhere. A.S. 

ndhwer. 

NUBBEE, 55/1571, sb. Nubia. 
NULLETH, 94/2932, 1 pr. pi. for ne wull- 

eth, will not. 

NUYE, 2/49, vb. be vexed or grieved. 
NYCY, 181/5843, adj. foolish, silly. Lat. 

nescius. 
NYCYTE, 75/2255, si. folly. Fr. " ni- 

cete: simplicitie, or simpleness." Cot- 
grave. 
NYSTE, 89/2756, pt. pi. for ne wiste, did 

not know, were at a loss. 
NY^EMEST, 103/3257, adj. lowest. 
NY3T, 155/5017, pt. pi. knew not. 

0, 18/470, adj. one. 

OF-SE}, 117/3739, pt. 8. saw at a dis- 
tance. 

OF-TAKE, 39/984, pp. OF-TOKEN, 39/ 
987, pt. pi. overtook. 

OK, 141/4561. OKE, 141/4554, sb. oak. 

ONDE, 74/2242, sb. breath. 

ONES, 156/5040, adv. ONYS, 15/418, 
once, before. 

ONE}>E, 88/2739. ONNE|?E, 36/883. Ou- 
NEf>E, 85/2631, adv. with difficulty, 
with reluctance. A.S. Onea$ from eacS, 
easy. 

ONLADE, 155/4989, adj. unloaded, empty. 

ONMAWE, 86/2658. OUNMAWE, 89/2766, 
adj. fierce, furious. 

OPEN-HEB, 66/1943, adj. bare-headed. 

On, 154/4970, adv. before, ere. 

OBN, 122/3893, pt. s. ran. A.S. rinnan, 
irnan, eornan. 
"The children ournen at the bares." 

MS. Cott. Cleop. 1). ix, leaf 156, back. 

OTEN, 152/4901, sb.pl. oats, corn. 
*OUN, 20/511. ? 

OUNABAID, 34/821, adj. unprepared, un- 
armed. 



OUNDO, 48/1310, vb. imper. undo, re- 
lease. 

OUNGEBTE, 66/1943, adj. ungirded. 

OUNHELID, 24/586, adj. uncovered. A.S. 
helan, to cover. 

OUNHENDE, 66/1965, adj. uncourteous. 

OUNKENDE, 48/1301, adj. unkind. 

OUNLEKES, 47/1264, pr. s. unlocks. 
OUNLOK, 46/1254, pt. s. 

OUNBIDE, 32/747, adj. OUNBYDE, 116/ 
3691, fearful. 

, 40/1031, sb. outrage. 

, 5/157, adv. unfairly, wrongly. 

OUN)>ANK, 98/3061, ill thanks. The 
same as maugre, or malgre = male- 
gratum. 

OUNWBASTE, 93/2905, adj. OUNWBESTE, 
147/4740, wicked, base. 

OTINWBYE, 63/1849. vb. unfold, disclose, 
tell. A.S. unwrihan. 

OUT-TAKE, 7/200, prep, except, save. 

OUTTBAGE, 58/1669, sb. foolish action. 

OU|?EB, 3/84, conj. or, ou\>er . . . . ou\>er 
= either ... or. 

OUEBAX, 50/1 389, adv. everywhere, alto- 
gether. 

OUERCASTE, 63/1831, vb. be troubled. 

OWAB, 33/767, adv. anywhere. A.S. 
dhwcer. 

OWE, 157/5068, adj. own, true. 

OJENE, 20/513, adj. own. 

0}T, 54/1535, sb. ought, anything. 

O^TE, 98/3071, pt. s. owned, possessed. 

PACE, 111/3523, vb. pass, cross. 

PAID, 83/2533, pp. pleased. 

PAN, 161/5188, sb. piece, portion. "Pan. 
A pane, piece, or pannell of a wall, 
also a Spanne." Cotgrave. "Panne 
of a howse ; Panna." Oath. Ang- 
licum. 

PAN, 145/4685, sb. skull. 

PABAGE, 58/1668, sb. parentage, kindred. 

PARD, 111/3517, sb. part, direction. 

PABFAY, 17/457, in faith, faith. Fr. 
par foi. 

PABFOBNY, 67/1994, vb. perform, carry 
out. 



246 



GLOSSARY. 



PAS, 95/2969, si. course. 

PAST, 89/2763, sb. paste. On past, in a 
pie. 

PASTE, 45/1195, pt. pi. went away, de- 
parted. 

PATJTENER, 35/859, sb. villain, rascal. 
See Note. 

PAUYLOHNS, 3/74, sb. pi. tents. 

PAYE, 135/4355, sb. pleasure, satisfac- 
tion. At my paye = to please or 
satisfy me. 

PAYNYE, 4/122, sb. PAYENYE, 33/761, 
heathendom, pagan countries. 

PAYS, 130/4152, sb. peace, reconciliation. 

PAYTREL, 115/3665, sb. breastplate; the 
strap that crosses the breast of a horse. 

PENOUN, 55/1555, sb. flag, banner. 

PERCY, 143/4613, vb. pierce, wound. 

PERE, 15/413, sb. equal, match. Lat. 
par. 

PERE, 177/5722, sb. pear. 

PEROUN, 137/4429, sb. column, pier. 
' ' Perron. A square base of stone, or 
metall, some five or six feet high, 
whereon, in old time, knights errant 
placed some discourse, challenge, or 
proofe, of an adventure." Cotgrave. 

PERREE, 48/1327, sb. jewels, precious 
stones. " Pierrerie. Jewels or pre- 
cious stones." Cotgrave. 

PERS, 141/4548, vb. pierce, cut through. 

PERS, 58/1682, sb. pi. piers. 

PERSATJNT, 154/4980, sb. Persians. 

PERSCHED, 38/941, pt. s. pierced, ran 
through. 

PEYNYMES, 33/762, sb. pi. pagans, 
paynim. 

PI^T, 69/2069, pp. fixed, placed. 

PLAT, 48/1330, pp. plated. 

PLATE, 36/876, sb. plate-armour. See 
Note. 

PLEYNEDE, 32/750, pt. s. complained. 

PLY^TE, 47/1281, vb. plight, pledge. A.S. 
plihtan. 

PLY3TE, 97/3029, pt. s. snatched, plucked. 

POLASTRE, 48/1327, sb. ? 

POLTE, 157/5077, pt. s. put, placed. 

PoRPOS, 22/560, sb. intention, purpose. 

POSTE, 100/3158, sb. power, might. 



POT, 73/2213, pt. s. POTTE, 39/1003, 
put, placed. 

POYLE, 12/365, sb. Apulia. 

PRAUNCEDE, 165/5341, pt. s. stamped 
about. 

PRAY, 181/5857, sb. prayer, entreaty. 

PREF, 43/1150, sb. proof, witness. 

PRES, 171/5520, sb. charge, struggle. 

PREST, 103/3240, adj. ready. O.Fr. 
prest. Fr. pret. Lat. prcesto. 

PREYNTE, 46/1238, pt. s. winked. 
"Prince eages, nictus vel ictus oculi." 
Lye, A.S. Diet. 

PROCURY, 180/5826, vb. cause, endeav- 
our. 

PROFRYEM, 5/139, vb. offer himself, 
volunteer. 

PROTJTELICH, 4/118, adv. proudly, haugh- 
tily. 

PROW, 12/357, sb. good, advantage. 
O.Fr. prou. 

PRUDE, 16/432, sb. pride, haughtiness. 

PRUWESSE, 40/1014, sb. prowess, daring. 

PRYKIE, 34/824, vb. ride. 

PRYME, 62/1800, sb. six o'clock, a.m. 

PRYS, 6/173, sb. value, account, estima- 
tion. 

PRYSOTJNS, 39/1000, sb. pi. prisoners, 
captives. 

PRYUEE, 179/5773, adj. friendly. 

PULT, 24/594, pt. s. put, placed. PULTE, 
33/774, pushed. 

PUPLE, 130/4169, sb. people, men. 

PURCHAS, 85/2603, sb. acquisition. 

PURPOS, 66/1956, sb. opinion, proposal. 

PYCH, 135/4330, sb. pitch. 

PYKES, 144/4647, sb. pi. spikes. 

PYKOYS, 155/4993, sb. pickaxes. See 
Note. 

PYNE, 41/1048, sb. PYNS, 41/1055, sb. 
pi. grief, pain. 

PYNGE, 80/2430, vb. tingle, stir; 46/ 
1248, push. 

PYSE, 181/5847, sb. pea. Lat. pisum. 

QUARELS, 105/3312, sb. pi. bolts from 
cross-bows. "Quarre.au. A Quarrell, 
or boult for a crossebowe, or an arrow 



GLOSSARY. 



247 



with a four-square head." Cot- 
grave. 

QUARREE, 145/4676, adj. square-headed. 

QUA^TE, 25/607, pt. s. shook, quaked. 

QUED, 16/429, ab. wretch. O.Fris. 
qvad. 

QUEDE, 54/1535, sb. ill, harm. 

QTJELLE, 16/431, vb. HU. A.S. cwellan. 

QTJENTE, 115/3659, adj. strange, curious, 
quaint. See QUEYNTE. 

QTJEREL, 28/668, sb. quarrel, engage- 
ment. 

QUERT, 30/712, adj. safe, whole. 

QUERTE, 10/325, adj. safe. In querte == 
in safety. "Querte; Incolumis." 
Cath. Angl. 

QTJEYNTE, 58/1684, adj. QTJYNTE, 58/ 
1681, 103/3257, curious. " Coint. 
Quaint, compt, neat, fine, spruce," &c. 
Cotgrave. 

QUYCLYCH, 60/1742, adv. quickly, soon. 

QUYKE, 118/3764, adj. alive, living. 

QUYTE, 62/1819, vb. requite, repay. 

BAD, 67/1990, pp. advised, told. 
BATED, 76/2295, pp. laid out, served. 
BAKE, 72/2177, pt. s. hurried. A.S. 

recan. 
BAPLY, 13/384, adv. quickly. Of. Lat. 

rapere, to snatch, to seize hurriedly. 
BATHE, 121/3874, adv. early. BA>ERE, 

16/426, comp. 
BAI^T, 26/641, pp. BA^T, 38/965, pt. pi. 

reached, struck. See ARAU^TE. 
BAY, 13/385, imper. s. array, prepare. 
BAYNE, 60/1755, sb. rein, bridle. 
BEGET, 40/1021, si. retirement. 
BECREENT, 12/318, adj. recreant. 
BECULEDE, 142/4585, pt. pi. drove back, 

made to recoil. 
BECTTLLE, 38/971, vb. recoil, draw back, 

retreat. 

BECIJLYNGE, 89/2771, sb. retreat, re- 
tiring. 
BED, 59/1716, 67/1986, sb. advice. 

BEDE, 169/5456. 

BEDE, 7/218, vb. assist, maintain. 
BEFET, 60/1736, pp. fattened, fat. " Ee- 



faict. Plumpe, fattened, high-fed." 
Cotgrave. 

BEGARD, 47/1297, sb. looks, appearance. 
"Regard. A look, view, sight, aspect." 
Cotgrave. 

BEGNEE, 78/2386, sb. kingdom. 

BEKE, 46/1249, vb. run, hurry. A.S. 
recan. 

BEKE, 167/5403, pt. pi hastened. 

BEKE, 3/61, adj. rich. A.S. rice. 

BELIEDE, 38/963, pt. pi. rallied, re- 
covered. 

BELYGYOTTS, 3/62, adj. members of any 
religious order. 

BEMTTYE, 3/77, vb. remove, stir. 

BENDE, 74/2242, pt. s. ran. 

BENDOUN,. 166/5357, sb. haste, speed. 
See ARAIWDOUN. 

BENEYED, 145/4673, pp. foresworn, false. 

BENTE, 22/561, ab. property. 

BEPE, 113/3583, adv. speedily, quickly. 
See also BAPLY. 

BEPREUE, 14/404, sb. shame, disgrace. 

BEQTJILLED, 57/1621, pt. pi. drove to- 
gether. See Note. 

BESCOWE, 40/1012. BESCUWE, 39/1008, 
vb. BESCUWY, 39/1003, rescue. 

BESOUN, 126/4047, ab. advice, opinion. 

BESTARE, 51/1439, vb. restore, give up. 

BEUE, 14/405, vb. deprive, bereave. 

BEWARDIEK 109/3463, pr, 2 pi. deter- 
mine, agree. BEWARDED, 10/312. 
BE WARDET, 1 1 3 1 1 , pp. 

BEWE, 97/3026, ab. row. 

BEWJ>E, 33/784, ab. pity. 

BEYNOTJRS, 62/1798, ab. pi. thieves, 
robbers. 

BIBATJX, 140/4517, sb. pi. villains, 
rascals. 

BIDEL, 83/2537, ab. curtain, screen. 
' ' JRideau. A curtain, or cloth-skreeii." 
Cotgrave. 

BIG, 137/4397. BIGGE, 48/1309, ab. 
back. A.S. hrycg. 

BIGGES, 55/1565, sb. pL ridges, mounds. 

BITTE, 156/5030, pt. pi. cut, tore. 

BI^DT, 38/956, pr. s. rides. 

B^TES, 135/4343, adv. directly, straight. 



248 



GLOSSARY. 



EOBBY, 62/1799, vb. rob, plunder. 

EOUT, 34/813, sb. BOUTE, 34/825, com- 
pany, followers. 

EOUTE, 49/1343, vb. roar. O.Icel. 
rauta. 

Bo WE, 48/1300, vb. ? per haps rest, be 
still. See The Tale of Beryn, ed. 
Furnivall, 1, 284. 

Bo WE, 66/1954, adv. rough, thick. A.S. 
ruh, ruw. 

BO;T, 176/5669, pt. a. cared, recked. 
A.S. recan. 

BYDE, 48/1300, vb. ride. 

BYOT, 138/4459, sb. assembly, gather- 
ing. O.Fr. riote. 

BYSE, 42/1114, pt. pi. arose, rose. 

BYSSCHE, 4/124, sb. rush. A.S. risce. 

SAD, 12/353, adv. strongly. 

SADE, 103/3235, adj. heavy; 105/3340, 

sharp, severe. " Sad, or hard. Soli- 

dus." Prompt. Parv. 
SAF, 128/4109, prep, except, save. 
&AESTFAILE, 77/2350, sb. certainly, be- 
yond a doubt. Fr. sans faille. 
SAKRED, 51/1405, pp. taken a solemn 

oath. 
SARPLERS, 136/4371, ti.pl. bags. "Sar- 

pillere. A Sarpliar ; a peece of canvas, 

cloth, or other stuffe to wrap or packe 

up wares in." Ootgrave. 
SATJETE, 107/3410, sb. safety. 
SAWE, 57/1635, sb. tale, account. 
SAY, 7/213, sb. serge or woollen cloth. 

" Saye clothe, serge." Palsgrave. 
SAY, 34/811. SAYE, 117/3729, pt. pi. 

SAYW, 46/1245, pt. s. saw, discovered. 
SAYE, 42/1093, vb. try, examine. 
SAYNE, 63/1836, vb. say, tell. 
SAYSE>, 96/3009, pr. s. seizes. 
SCABERKE, 33/771, ab. scabbard. 
SCAJJYE, 32/759, vb. harass, injure. 
SCHAD, 31/743, pt. s. spilt. 
SCHAK, 86/2663, sb. shock, charge. 
SCHAKE, 37/928, vb. hurry, ride. 
SCHAKET, 73/2205, vb. shake it. 
SCHALY, 104/3282. vb. peel off, fall off 

(in scales). 



SCHAPE, 146/4713, pp. purposed, pro- 
posed. A.S. sceapian. 

SCHAV, 25/615, pt. s. cut, shaved off. 

SCHEF, 50/1369, pt. s. pushed, shoved. 

SCHELTOU, 51/1436, shalt thou. 

SCHENE, 138/4463, adj. bright, shining. 

SCHENNES, 72/2175, sb. ruin, destruc- 
tion. A.S. 



SCHENT, 17/459, pp. disgraced, defeated. 

A.S. scendan. 
SCHENTFULE, 67/1973, adj. shameful, 

disgraceful. 
SCHEP, 21/541, pt. s. shaped, created. 

See SCHAPE. 
SCHERTH, 35/837, pr. s. cuts, shaves. 

A.S. sceran. 
SCHILDE, 31/727. SCHTJLDE, 26/631, pt. 

pi. resounded. O.H.Ger. scellan. 

" \>ide schillinde stefne." 
Seinte Marharete, ed. Cockayne, 19. 

SCHILLE, 96/3020, adv. shrilly, loudly. 
A.S. scyll. See Note. 

SCHIPPE, 21/542, 2 pr. s. prepare, make 
ready. See SCHAPE. 

SCHON, 66/1941, sb. pi. shoes. 

SCHOND, 66/1947, sb. ruin, disgrace. 
A.S. second. 

SCHOURE, 25/581, sb. blow. 

SCHREWE, 62/1828, sb. villain, cursed 
fellow. 

SCHRIDE, 8/234, vb. array, dress. 
SCHRIDDE, 35/868, pt. s. A.S. scrydan. 

SCHYKDE, 20/523, vb. ruin, destroy. 
A.S. scendan. 

SCKYRME, 74/2227, vb. fence. 

SCOLLE, 12/353, sb. skull, head. 

SCOUTE, 75/2284, sb. wretch. 

SEDE, 6/190, pt. s. said, cried. 

SEET, 45/1200, pt. s. sat. 

SEGE, 72/2183, sb. position, place; 78/ 
2358, siege, attack. 

SEKEDE, 7/209, pt. s. sighed. 

SELCOUj?, 177/5708, adj. strange, un- 
usual. 

SELTJE, 67/1997, adj. same. 

SEMBBLY, 35/834, adj. fair, handsome. 

SEMBLANT, 37/923, sb. face, counten- 
ance. 

SEMBLEE, 79/2423, sb. assemblage. 



GLOSSARY. 



249 



SENGLE, 41/1071, adj. simple, hence, 

unclothed, naked; 66/1942, adv. See 

Note. 

SERUAGE, 2/56, sb. subjection. 
SESSOYNGNE, 65/1923, sb. Saxony. 
SEST, 70/2108, pr. t. s. seest. 
SEST, 40/1017, pt. pi. ceased, stopped. 
SET, 64/1872, 1 pr. s. reckon, think of 

consequence. 
SEJ, 31/736, pt. s. SE3E, 19/504, saw. 

A.S. seon. 

SE3, 24/589, pt. s. ? 
SHET, 124/3962, pt. s. shot, plunged. 

Sset occurs in Robert of Gloucester. 
SHREWEDERE, 138/4431, adj. more vil- 
lainous-looking. 

SHREWIDNESSE, 98/3084, sb. villany. 
SHROUT, 106/3358, sb. cover, shelter. 

A.S. scrut. 

SIBBE, 109/3447, adj. related. 
SIGGE, 3/87, vb. say, tell. 
SIKERLTJKERE, 35/867, adv. SYKER- 

LUKER, 37/909, more securely, more 

safely. 

Si>, 44/1163, adv. afterwards, after. 
SI>ES, 41/1080, sb. pi. times. 
Si}TE, 40/1023, pt. s. sighed. 
SKEER, 181/5835, adj. free, safe from. 
SKRY^TE, 56/1609, pt. pi. shrieked, cried 

out. 
SKUNTEDE, 121/3888, pt. s. foamed. See 

Note. 

SKYLES, 110/3499, sb. pi. reasons, rea- 
soning. 

SLAKE, 84/2595, vb. fail, run short. 
SLATJNDRE, 4/132, sb. mockery. 
SLATJ3T, 103/3236, sb. SLAJT, 171/5519, 

slaughter. 
SLEE, 2/55, vb. slay. SLEE}?, 66/1966, 

imper. A.S. sleon. See also SLONE 

and SLOW. 

SLEGGE, 48/1308, sb. sledge-hammer. 
SLENT, SLENTE, 28/674, pt. s. aimed, 

struck. See STRATMANN, s. v. Slengen. 
SLE3, 52/1446, adj. SLE3E, 46/1239, 

wise, sensible. O.Icel. slcegr. 
SLO, 135/4338, sb. sloe. See Note. 
SLONE, 16/427, vb. SLAY, 66/1958, pp. 

A.S. sleon. 



SLOW, 3/59, pt. s. SL03, 3/62, slew. 

A.S. sleon. 
SMERE, 13/386, adv. ? gently. 

" He smere 16h." La^amon, ed. Madden, 11081. 

SMYLLE>, 83/2546, pr. s. smells. 

SNEL, 75/2273, adv. quickly, at once. 
A.S. snell, snel. 

So, 3/81, adv. as ; so ... so = as ... as. 

SOCOTJRE, 45/1192, sb. help, assistance. 

SOIOTJRNED, 150/4841, pt. s. halted, re- 
mained. 

SOMERS, 87/2692, sb. pi. pack-horses, 
horses of burden. " Sommier. A 
sumpter-horse . ' ' Cotgrave . 

SOND, 14/401. SONDE, 165/5331, sb. 



SONDE, 23/573, sb. sand, ground. 

SOOT, SOT, 30/719, sb. sweat, A.S. 
swat. 

SOR, 19/503, sb. wound. ' Surre ; cica- 
trix." Oath. Anglicum. 

SOTJNDERLICHE, 67/1990, adv. separ- 
ately. 

SOTJNEDE, 41/1080, pt. S. SOWENEDE, 

131/4221, swooned, fainted. 

SOWENYNG, 43/1134, Sb. SO^ENYNG, 

84/2585, swooning, faint. 
S03TE, 3/71, vb. pt. t. sought, came to. 
SPELIE, 13/342, vb. spare. " Spele and 

spare." P. Plowman, 0. XIV. 77. 
SPELLE, 16/429, sb. speech, harangue. 
SPERDE, 47/1263, pt. s. closed, barred. 

A.S. sparrian. 

SPERHAUK, 87/2680, sb. sparrow-hawk. 
SPILLE, 153/4947, vb. be lost, ruined, 

killed. SPILD, 23/569, pp. 
SPILLYNG, 168/5425, sb. waste, outpour- 
ing. 

SPLJTE, 103/3248, pt. s. ? directed, bade. 
SPORES, 55/1564, sb. pi. spurs. 
SPREYNTE, 104/3291, pt. s. sprinkled. 

A.S. sprengan. 
SPRINGOLD, 105/3310, sb. a machine of 

war for casting stone arrows, &c. See 

Note. 
SPRYNGGYNG, 112/3562, sb. dawning, 

opening. 
STAGES, 103/3255, sb. pi. platforms, 

stories. Fr. estage. 



250 



GLOSSARY. 



STAP, 11/345, ab. step. 

STAPE, 180/5793, vb. step. 

STENT, 58/1653, pr. s. stands. 

STERK, 103/3241, adj. sharp, stiff. A.S. 

stearc. 
STERREDE, 132/4233, adj. with a star on 

his forehead. 

STEUENE, 99/3111, ab. voice. 
STEJE, 78/2388, vb. climb. 
STEJE, 178/5731, pt. s. ascended. A.S. 

stigan. 
STILLE, 10/322, adv. quietly, in a low 

tone. 
STILP, 141/4553, ab. stump, post. O.Icel. 

atolpi. 

"But iii foote high on stulpes must ther be." 
Palladius on Husbondrie, ed. Lodge, 39/1054. 

STOKKES, 44/1186, ab. pi. stocks. 
STORK, 71/2118, adj. stiff, sharp. See 

STERK. 

STOUNDE, 20/518, si. moment. 
STOURE, 29/696, ab. battle, contest. 
STOJEN, 156/5027, pp. climbed. See 

STE^E. 
STRAIT, 67/1976, adv. STRA^TE, 73/ 

2204, directly, straight. 
STRE, 74/2229, ab. straw. 
STREK, 8/244, vb. pt. s. stroked. 
STREKES, 47/1265, pr. s. hurries, goes 

rapidly. 

STRUYEDE, 3/64, pt. s. destroyed. 
STURIE, 36/876, vb. exert, busy himself. 
STYL, 105/3313, ab. STYLE, 138/4433, 

steel. 
STYNTE, 3/77, ^ St stopped, halted. 

A.S. astyntan. 
STY>, 29/696, adj. STY^E, 85/2614, fierce, 

strong, sturdy; 26/631, adv. A.S. 

sti$. 

SULK, 138/4463, ab. silk. 
SIINDERLY, 94/2937, adv. separately, 

individually. 

SURLOKERE, 20/520, adv. more safely. 
Su]jJ?E, 27/647, adv. after, afterwards, 

since. 
SWARF, 31/743, pt. s. swerved, glanced, 

passed. A.S. sweorfan. 
SWART, 93/2908, adj. black. A.S. 

sweart. 



SWATTE, 178/5753, pt. s. sweated. 

SWER, 3/82, pt. s. swore. 

SWETE, 120/3855, vb. sweat, be ex- 
hausted! 

SWOLWE, 132/4232, ab. swallow. 

SWOM, 124/3958, pt. s. swam. 

SWYKEL, 142/4589, adj. traitorous, de- 
ceitful. A.S. swicol. 

SWYNKE, 20/517, vb. work, labour. 

SWYRE, 31/735, ab. neck. A.S. awtra. 

SWY^ER, 34/816, adv. more quickly. 

SYCIIE, 65/1935, vb. seek, follow. 

SYE, 58/1679, pr. s. seest. 

SYKERLY, 3/62, adv. certainly, as- 
suredly. 

SYKERY, 47/1281, vb. assure, pledge. 
See also SAKRED. 

SYKYNGE, 77/2345, pr. p. sighing. 

SYMEJ?, 59/1700, pr. s. seems. 

SYSST, 180/5809, 2 pr. s. seest. 

SY3YNG, 40/1040, ab. sighing. 

TABIDE, 19/500, for to abide, to wait for. 
TABLERE, 74/2225, ab. backgammon. 
TABOURS, 122/3895, ab. pi drums. 
TAKET, 73/2204, vb. take it, seize it. 
TAL, 12/363, for to al ; in tal = into all 
TALE, 34/799, sb. count, reckoning by 

tale, in number. 
TANGE, 48/1308, ab. tongs. 
TARSE, 138/4463, ab. a kind of silk. See 

Note. 
TAST, 59/1700, vb. TASTE, 42/1094, try, 

examine, touch. 
TAUJTE, 50/1391, pt. s. TA^TE, 56/1603, 

showed, proved. 
TEEN, 39/991, ab. TENE, 35/846, rage, 

vexation. 
TELEST, 55/1578, pr. s. countest, reck- 

onest. TELLER, 4/117, TELT, 6/173, 

pr. s. 
TEYNTE, 82/2506, pp. pained, affected. 

A.S. teonian, tynan. 
THE, 5/144, vb. thrive ; so most he \>e, so 

might he prosper. 

TIIILKE, 12/364, pron. that one, he. 
THO, 5/141, adv. then. 
THRO, 124/3968, adj. swift, threatening. 



GLOSSARY. 



251 



THROWS, 167/5413, b. moment, short 

time. 

TIDE, 11/350, sb. time. A.S. tid. 
TILLE, 3/59, vb. reach, come to. TILDE, 

145/4678, pt. s. A.S. [ge]tiOan. 
TIJT, 40/1015, pt. pi. turned, directed 

their course. Ti^TE, 31/729, pp. in- 
tended, meant. 
TOCHED, 7/219, pt. s. appertained to, 

belonged to. 
TOCHON, 96/3000, pt. s. broke in pieces. 

A.S. to-cman. " pe roche tochon." 

An Eng. Miscell., ed. Morris, p. 92. 
TO-CLATRID, 36/897, pp. broken to 

pieces. 
TO-FALLE, 155/5011, pp. knocked to 

pieces. 
TO-FLENTE, 153/4940, pt. s. flew in 

ieces. 

TO-GADRES, 28/672, adv. together. 
TO-HEWE, 28/676, pp. cut to pieces. 
TOK, 4/114, pt. s. counted, considered. 
TOL, 141/4541, sb. tool, weapon. 
TOLD, 145/4659, pp. reckoned, measured. 
To-Ni}T, 5/153, adv. this night just past, 

last night. 
TO-RENTE, 28/675, pt. pi. tore, cut to 

pieces. 

TORKE, 85/2605, sb. Turk. 
TO-TAAR, 141/4533, pt. s. tore to 

nieces. 

TOUR, 42/1104, for to our. 
Tou^T, 151/4857, adj. strong. See TOJT. 
TO-WOND, 84/2568, pt. s. went, tumbled. 
T03T, 124/3969, adv. strongly, fiercely. 

" pe kimt so tort." Sir Gawayne, 

1869. 

TOJT, 59/1716. ? 

TOJTE, 136/4390, adv. tightly, full. 
TRACES, 182/5881, sb. pi. tresses, hair. 
TRATE, 50/1370, sb. old wretch. See 

Note. 
TRAYSEMENT, 147/4754, sb. treason, 

treachery. 
TRE, 56/1595, sb. TREO, 123/3939, wood, 

shaft. TREN, 102/3230, pi. 
TRECHOUR, 102/3210, sb. traitor. 
CRENCHAUNT, 21/537, adj. cutting, sharp. 



TREPEDE, 8/241, vb. pt. s. stepped on. 

TRETYS, 182/5883, adj. slender. See 
Note. 

TREU, 133/4393, sb. toll. ." Treu. The 
toll or custom paied unto Lords, for 
salt, and other commodities, or mer- 
chandise, carried along by their do- 
minions ; and generally, any toll, tax, 
or imposition." Cotgrave. See TROW. 

TRIST, 6/191, 1 pr. s. trust, rely on. 

TRISTOUR, 78/2373, sb. grief, sadness. 

TROME, 78/2372, sb. assembly, gather- 
ing, heap. A.S. truma. 

TROSSY, 130/4189, vb. TROSSYE, 58/ 
1663, imper. s. TRUSSYE, 130/4193, 
vb. pack, tie. " Trousser. To tucke, 
packe, bind or girt in." Cotgrave. 
TROSSEDE, 13/4201, pt. pi. 

TROW, 44/1186, sb. wood. 

TROW, 60/1732, sb. toll, fine. See TREU. 

TRUPLE, 109/3459, sb. nonsense, folly. 

TRUPT, 64/1872, inter j. pooh! See 

Note. 

TRUSSYAM, 126/4029, vb. get themselves 
ready, pack up. See TROSSY. 

TRUWAGE, 60/1731, sb. toll. " Truage, 
A toll, custom, tax, imposition." Cot- 
grave. 

TURDE, 87/2691, pt. pi. turned, from 
French tour; turn being from tourner. 
L. Lat. tornare. 

TWELMONTH, 91/2832, sb. twelve-months 
a year. 

TWELVE, 91/2843, num. adj. twelfth. 

TWEYRE, 10/311, num. of two. 

TWYE, 175/5645, num. two. 

TWY^TE, 56/1596, pt. pi. drew hastily. 
A.S. twiccaii. 

TYNT, 56/1596, pp. lost, destroved. 
O.Icel. tyna. 

TY>, 62/1817, impers. pr. as fut. it will 
betide, happen to. 

PAR, 2/51, adv. where. 

PAR}, 76/2288, prep, through. 

PE, 181/5841, vb. PEO, 103/3251, thrive, 
prosper. A.S. \>eon. 

PEARMES, 38/949, sb. pi. bowels. A.S. 
]pearm. 

PEDE, 73/2207, sb. country. A.S. \>eod. 



252 



GLOSSARY. 



PENCHESOUN, 130/4168, sb. for \>e en- 
chesoun, the reason. 

pENGYNS, 155/4985, for pe engyns. 

PENNE, 34/803, adv. thence. 

PERSTE, 9/291, vb. pt. s. dared, ven- 
tured. 

" I ne \>erste do such a fol dede." 

Seinte Margarete, ed. Cockayne, 304. 

PEYNT, 167/5395, ? does it seem to. 

pEY^, 18/483, cow/, though, although. 

PILKE, 23/578, pron. that, such. PYLKE, 
48/1301, pi. 

POLIE, 47/1275, vb. suffer, endure. A.S. 
\)olian. 

PONDER, 26/631, sb. thunder. 

POR, 21/544, adv. there. 

PORW, 35/843. PORWH, 34/829. pOR}, 
prep, through, by. 

poJjRE, 113/3592, for \>e o\>re, the rest, 
the others. 

PRASTE, 113/3606, vb. push on; 36/871, 
pt. s. pressed, pushed. 

PREF, 68/2017, sb. fortune, luck, thriv- 
ing. 

PRETE, 43/1152, vb. threaten. 

PRIDDE, 49/1355, num. adj. third. 

PROW, 28/679, sb. time, moment. 

pus, 27/660, pron. these. 

pYWYNG, 158/5094, pr. p. ? threatening. 

UAKE, 72/2148. ? awake. 

VCHONE, 102/3207, pr. each one, all. 

VNDERFONGE, 7/208, vb. undertake. 

VNDERNOHE, 7/205, pp. abused; 100/ 
3148, pp. undertaken; 161/5213, per- 
ceived. 

VNDER^YTE, 81/2469, pt.pl. understood. 
A.S.undergitan. 

VNRIDE, 29/705, adj. violent, fierce. 
See OUNRIDE. 

VNWRASTE, 46/1256, adj. vile, wretched, 
worthless. See UNWRAST in Glossary 
to Havelock, ed. Skeat. 

VSATJNCE, 73/2217, sb. custom, habit. 

VSATJNT, 104/3296, adj. accustomed. 

YAAT, 177/5696, sb. vat, vessel. 
YACCHE, 82/2517, vb. fetch, procure. 



VAILLE, 36/877, vb. avail, be of service 
to. 

VASSALAGE, 58/1671, sb. noble deed, 
becoming a knight. 

VASTE, 20/509, adv. fast by, close by; 
83/2565, soundly, fast. 

VATJASOTJR, 16/430, sb. vassal, an un- 
knighted person, common soldier. 

VERAMENT, 16/435, adv. truly, assur- 
edly. 

VERDE, 102/3228, impers. pt. it fared, 
was. 

VET, 72/2183, sb. pi. feet. 

VETRES, 48/1313, sb. pi. fetters, chains. 

VEWE, 38/953, adj. few. 

VIAGE, 34/804, sb. journey. 

VILENTYNE, 112/3555, sb. birds (wild), 
fowl. A corruption of Volatile, the 
usual M. E. name for birds in general, 
Lat. volatilia, neuter plural, used as a 
collective noun singular, much as we 
say poultry, foiul. It here = French 
volatisses, which itself is another cor- 
ruption from the same source. 

VOLDE, 97/3028, vb. fold, clasp. 

VORES, 55/1565, sb. pi. furrows, vallies. 
A.S. furh. 

VOULE, 137/4427, adj. foul, hideous. 

VOYDEDE, 144/4627, pp. cleared, emp- 
tied. See Y-VEWDID. 

VYLAYNICHE, 165/5345, adv. insolently. 
VILENLY, 62/1825, outrageously, 
shamefully. 

VYLONYE, 75/2254, sb. harm, disgrace- 
ful treatment. 

VYNDE, 20/522, vb. find. 

VYUE, 43/1147, num. adj. five. 

WACCHE, 161/5185, sb. guard, garrison. 
WAGE, 14/389, 2 pt. s. WAST, 15/421, 

pt. s. was. 

WALES, 80/2428, sb. whale's. See Note. 
WALWE, 84/2585, vb. WALWEDE, 77/ 

2328, pt. s. roll about, wallow, flounder. 

A.S. wealwian. 
WAN, 2/47, adv. when 
WAN, 20/513, 1 pt. s. won, gained. 
WANNYS, 47/1267, adv. whence. 
WANYE, 57/1645, vb. vanish, disappear. 



GLOSSARY. 



253 



WAR, 144/4635, adj. aware, told. 

WAR, 50/1381, conj. whether. 

WAR, 56/1592, vb. imper. beware. 

WAR-FOR, 10/505, conj. wherefore, for 
which. 

WARYSOTTN-, 42/1099, sb. reward. 

WAS, 60/1726, pron. whose. 

WATHER, 18/486, conj. whether. 

WA3ES, 49/1343, sb. pi. waves. 

WEDEDE, 68/2007, pt. s. wedded. 

WEDES, 60/1751, sb. pi. clothes, dresses. 

WEL-A-FYN, 89/2752, adv. to good pur- 
pose, well. 

WELDE, 116/3716, sb. power, possession. 

WEM, 178/5725, sb. stain. A.S. wamm. 

WENDEST, 13/387; *WENIST, 13/387, 
2 pr. s. thinkest, imaginest. 

WEORE, 5/157, pt. pi. WORE, 5/156, 
were. 

WEP, 153/4928, pt. s. wept. 

WEPNE, 6/171, sb. a weapon, arms. 

WERE, 35/845, vb. defend, protect. A.S. 
werian. 

WERCHE, 54/1545, vb. work, act. 

WERRE, 17/450, sb. war. 

WES, 45/1194,^. s. was. 

WHERE, 92/2872, sb. doubt. 

WHILE, 84/2580, adv. once. 

WHYTE, 49/1367, vb. know, learn. A. S. 
witan. 

WIKKE, 36/889, adj. fierce, violent 
(men). 

WILLES, 7/221, adv. of one's own free 
will, willingly. 

WILY, 71/2138, will I. 

WISSE, 4/120, adj. certain. See Note. 

WIT, 84/2584, sb. senses. 

WITH-HALST, 174/5620, v. 2 pr. s. with- 
holdest. 

WiTTES, 57/1649, sb. pi. thoughts, 
opinions. 

WIXE, 53/1485, adj. strong, fit for fight- 
ing. O.Icel. vigr, battle. 

WIJTE, 17/456, adj. active, strong. 

WIJTLICHE, 167/5384, adv. bravely, 
courageously. 

Wo, 7/209, adj. grieved, vexed. 



WOD, 24/591, pt. s. went, passed. A.S. 
eode. 

WOD, 31/728, adj. mad, furious. 

WOLD, 105/3324, sb. power, posses- 
sion. 

WON, 48/1311, sb. dwelling, place. 

WON, 112/3560, sb. plenty. "Woone, 
or grete plente copia" &c. Prompt. 
Parv. See P. Plowman, C. xxiii. 170. 

WOND, 36/892, pt. s. went, turned. 

WONDE, 19/501 , sb. wound. 

WONDOWE, 49/1361, sb. window. 

WONE, 68/2017, sb. habit, practice. 

WONED, 78/2390, pp. accustomed. 

WORLDY, 161/5202, adj. earthly, on 
earth. 

WORSCHIP, 39/981, sb. honour, fame. 

WORST, 34/805, 2 pr. as fut. s. wilt be. 

WoRj?, 19/488, pr. as fut. s. will be. 

WOST, 70/2108, pr. 2 s. knowest. 

WOSTOU, 65/1905, wouldest thou. 

WOT, 26/638, 1 pr. s. know. 

WRAKE, 62/1815, sb. mischief, destruc- 
tion. 

WRECHE, 130/4181, sb. vengeance. 

WRYTE, 61/1782, pp. written. 

WRY^T, 61/1774, sb. writing, letter. 

WYCHE, 38/955, pron. which, whom. 

WYCKE, 146/4721, adj. hard, painful. 

WYKES, 112/3549, sb. pi. weeks. A.S. 
wice. 

WYKKE, 36/882, adv. fiercely, mightily. 

WYLDE, 160/5179, vb. wield. 

WYMEN, 86/2672, sb. pi. women. 

WYS, 118/3763, adv. to wys, for certain, 
of a certainty. See WISSE. 

WYT, 124/3956, adj. white. 

WYT, 159/5127, imper. s. blame, find 
fault, charge. 

WYTE, 163/5276, vb. know, find out. 
A.S. witan. 

WYTHERWYNS, 28/672, sb. pi. antagon- 
ists, enemies. A.S. wiSerwinna. 

WYTJY, 70/2096, vb. wive, marry. 

WY^T, 15/415, adj. active, strong. 

WY3T, 11/342, sb. man, person. 

WY^TE, 177/5710, adv. brave, valiant. 



254 



GLOSSARY. 



Y-BATRID, 36/896, pp. inlaid. 

Y-BORE, 16/444, pp. born. 

Y-BULD, 48/1331, pp. built. 

Yen, 161/5191, pr. I. 

Y-CORE, 33/766, pp. chosen. " Icham 

coren king." Guy of Warwike, p. 

428. 
Y-FERE, 11/345, adv. together. 

Y-FOLLED, 181/5829, pp. Y-FULLED, 

181/5835, baptised. See Y-VOLLID. 
Y-FRACLED, 115/3659, adj. spotted, 

freckled. 

Y-FIJLD, 3/74, pp. filled. 
Y-GULD, 48/1330, pp. gilt. 
Y-HARKEYSED, 115/3665, pp. adorned, 

ornamented. 

Y-HTTDDE, 135/4346, pp. hidden, con- 
cealed. 

YKE, 130/4166, adv. also. A.S. eac. 
Y-KENED, 177/5724, pp. conceived. A.S. 

cennan. 
Y-LEPE, 144/4626, pp. thrown over, 

made to leap over the bridge. 
Y-LET, 130/4135, pp. stopped, pre- 
vented. 

Y-LIF, 77/2343, vb. imper. believe, trust. 
Y-LONG, 133/4291, adv. along of, in 

consequence of. 
Y-LOJE, 20/511. ? 
Y-LYUEST, 128/4097, 2 pr. s. believest, 

trustest. 

Y-MACED, 105/3326, pp. amassed, col- 
lected. 

*Y-MET, 11/335, pp. dreamt. 
Y-METE, 70/2092, pp. measured. 
YMONE, 4/99, adv. together. A.S. 

gemong. 
Y-MTJWED, 60/1738,#p. moulted, changed 

their plumage. 

Y-MYNT, 23/576, pp. meant, intended. 
YNPE, 92/2866, sb. end. 
YNEWE, 26/626, adv. anew, afresh. 
Y-NOME, 42/1105, pp. taken, captured. 

A.S. niman. 
YNOW, 40/1043, adv. enough. A.S. 

genoh. 

Y-PEYNT, 29/701, pp. painted, orna- 
mented : wyth gold y-peynt = gilt. 



Y-PILT, 10/316, pp. fixed, settled. 

Y-PONDRED, 48/1327, pp. strewed. 

Y-PY}T, 48/1305, pp. placed, fixed. 

Y-RAD, 127/4083, pp. counselled, ad- 
vised. A.S. r&dan. 

Y-RAD, 179/5789, pp. read, repeated. 

Y-RAFT, 65/1934, pp. stolen, taken. 

YRE, 31/742, sb. iron. 

YRE, 114/3643, sb. rage, anger. 

Y-SAME, 44/1188, adv. together. 

Y-SETE, 2/48, pp. set, inclined. 

Y-SHRID, 66/1940, pp. clothed, dressed. 
A.S. scry dan. 

Y-SLENTE, 105/3313, pp. flung, slung. 

Y-SOWE, 77/2328, pp. exhausted, faint- 
ing. A.S. siuogan(?) 

Y-SPERDE, 113/3596, pp. bolted, barred. 

YSSE, 4/125, pr. s. is, exists. 

Y-STABLYD, 117/3753, pp. stabled, put 
in the stable. 

Y-STOKEN, 161/5190, pp. stopped, 
blocked. 

Y-STRAWED, 15/421, pp. strewn, co- 
vered. 

Y-TRENT, 182/5881, pp. plaited, curled. 

YTJEL, 7/212, adj. ill, evil, bad. YULE, 
15/417, adv. 

Y-TTASTE, 91/2822, pp. fasted. 

Y-VERE, 47/1269, adv. together. 

Y-VEWDID, 99/3131, pp. cleared, emp- 
tied. See Note. 

Y-YOLDE, 180/5796, pp. closed, shut. 

Y-VOLLID, 22/548, pp. baptised. A.S. 
fulwian. 

Y-WARESCHID, 32/758, pp. healed, 

cured. 

Y-WORJ?, 93/2908, pt. s. was, became. 
Y-WORJJE, 148/4761, pr. as fut. s. 
will be. 

Y-WRE^ED, 126/4045, pp. angered, en- 
raged. 
Y-WYS, 5/139, adv. certainly, in truth. 

A.S. gewiss. 

Y-^ETE, 2/49, pp. eaten, finished his 
meal. 

}AF, 46/1243, pt. s. gave. A.S. gi-fan. 
}ARE, 130/4193, adj. ready, prepared. 



GLOSSARY. 



255 



3EARE, 161/5186, eager; 97/3059, 
adv. 
3EALWE, 182/5881, adj. yellow, fair. 

^EATE, 59/172, ab. 3ETE, 71/2141, pas- 
sage, entrance. 

3EDE, 74/2240, pt. s. 3EODE, 118/3770, 
pt. pi. 3UTE, 31/729, went, moved. 
A.S. code. 

3ELDE, 21/533, vb. yield, surrender. 
3ULDE, 38/953, pt. pi. 

3ERNE, 19/505, adv. JURNE, 81/2478, 
hastily, speedily, eagerly. 



3EUE, 17/462, 1 pr. s. as fut. shall give. 

A.S. (jifan. 

3YUE, 4/191, 1 pr. s. give, yield. 
3IFJ7, 52/1450, pr. s. assures, tells. 
3ILPE, 29/694, vb. boast, speak loudly of. 

A.S. gelpan, yylpan. 
30LDE, 115/3684, pp. paid back, requited. 
30ND, 166/5367, adj. yonder. 
301, 116/3690, pt. s. went, cut. A.S. 

code, ivit. 
3UTE, 32/750, adv. yet. 



COREECTION. 
In Glossary, for GRILLE, 73/2195, read AGBILLE, and transfer to A 



RICHARD CLAY & SONS, LIMITED, 

BREAD STREET HILL, B.C., AND 

BUNGAY, LJFFOLK.